2019年12月06日 15:54:01|来源:国际在线|编辑:光明中文
[Nextpage视频演讲]President Obama signs into law measures that hold government accountable for responsible use of taxpayer dollars and cut down on waste, fraud and abuseDownload mp4 (110MB) | mp3 (10MB) [Nextpage文本]THE PRESIDENT: Good morning, everybody. Thank you, thank you. Everybody please have a seat. Welcome to the White House. I am pleased that you could all join us today as I sign this bill -- the Improper Payments Elimination and Recovery Act –- which, translated into English, means cutting down on waste, fraud and abuse, and ensuring that our government serves as a responsible steward for the tax dollars of the American people. This is a responsibility we’ve been working to fulfill from the very beginning of this administration. Back when I first started campaigning for office, I said I wanted to change the way Washington works so that it works for the American people. I meant making government more open and more transparent and more responsive to the needs of the people. I meant getting rid of the waste and inefficiencies that squander the people’s hard-earned money. And I meant finally revamping the systems that undermine our efficiency and threaten our security and fail to serve the interests of the American people. Now, there are outstanding public servants doing essential work throughout our government. But too often, their best efforts are thwarted by outdated technologies and outmoded ways of doing business. That needs to change. We have to challenge a status quo that accepts billions of dollars in waste as the cost of doing business and enables obsolete or under-performing programs to survive year after year, simply because that’s the way things have always been done. This isn’t just about lines on a spsheet or numbers in a budget, because when we fail to spend people’s tax dollars wisely, that’s money that we’re not investing in better schools for our kids, or tax relief for families, or innovation to create new industries and new jobs. When government doesn’t work like it should, it has a real effect on people’s lives -– on small business owners who need loans, on young people who want to go to college, on the men and women who’ve served this country and are trying to get the benefits that they’ve earned. And when we continue to spend as if deficits don’t matter, that means our kids and our grandkids may wind up saddled with debts that they’ll never be able to repay. And the reality is that right now, in these difficult economic times, families across this country are cutting every frill and stretching every dollar as far as they can -– and they should expect no less from their government. If folks can book a flight or buy a pair of shoes online with the click of a button, there’s no reason they should have to fill out duplicative forms or endure endless red tape and delays when they deal with their government. So that’s why one of the first things we did when we arrived in Washington was to undertake an Accountable Government Initiative –- an effort that spans every agency, department and office in our government. We named our first ever Chief Performance Officer, Jeffrey Zients, and we’re bringing to bear every tool at our disposal –- a combination of 21st century technology and old-fashioned common sense –- to ensure that our government operates as efficiently as possible and provides the highest quality of service to its customers, the American people. We began by combining -- by going through the budget line by line and proposing billion worth of cuts each year by targeting programs that are wasteful, duplicative or, in some cases, just plain ridiculous, like the million we’re spending for a radio navigation system for ships. Since we now have this thing called GPS, we don’t need it. Or the million that was spent on consultants to create seals and logos for the Department of Homeland Security. Their logos and seals are fine. (Laughter.) Or the billions of dollars slated to be spent on a fancy new presidential helicopter fleet that I didn’t want and didn’t need because Marine One is also fine. We’ve drafted a budget for next year that freezes all discretionary government spending outside of national security for three years, a budget, by the way, that would reduce this spending -- non-defense discretionary spending -- to its lowest level as a share of the economy in 50 years. This isn’t talked about a lot so I’m going to repeat it. Our budget would take non-security defense -- or non-defense spending to its lowest level since JFK -- lowest level as a percentage of the economy since JFK. We’ve gone after wasteful government contracting with a vengeance, working to put an end to unnecessary no-bid contracts and dramatically reinforcing the way government contracts are awarded. And we’re now on track to reach our goal of saving billion by the end of the next fiscal year. We’re working to sell or lease out thousands of federal buildings which we no longer need and aren’t using, saving another billion. We froze salaries for senior White House staff -- hence the glum faces. (Laughter.) And we’ve asked Congress for additional authority so that working together, we can move quickly to cut wasteful spending proposals before the money goes out the door. We’ve streamlined those college loan forms, eliminating nearly two dozen unnecessary questions. We’re creating a single electronic medical record for our men and women in uniform that will follow them from the day they enlist until the day that they are laid to rest. We’re revamping our Social Security and citizenship processes so that folks can book appointments and check the status of their applications online. We’ve created mobile apps that provide everything from disaster assistance to product safety information to the latest wait times for security lines at your local airport. And we’ve begun an unprecedented effort to put an end to a problem known as improper payments, which is the purpose of the bill that I’m signing into law today. Now, these are payments sent by the government to the wrong person, or for the wrong reasons, or in the wrong amount. Payments to a defense contractor that’s been disbarred for shoddy work but somehow managed to get through the system. Payments to companies that haven’t paid their taxes, or to folks who are incarcerated –- or who are dead. Sometimes these payments are the result of innocent mistakes or reflect valid claims that were paid at the wrong time. But sometimes, they result from abuses by scam artists and crooked companies. And all told, they added up to 0 billion. I want everybody to understand -- just get some perspective on that. That is more than the budgets of the Department of Education and the Small Business Administration combined. And that’s unacceptable. That’s why, earlier this year, I directed our federal agencies to launch rigorous audits conducted by auditors who are paid based on how many abuses or errors they uncover -– the more they find, the more money they make. So they are highly incentivized. We’re also creating a “Do Not Pay” list –- a consolidated database of every individual and company that’s ineligible for federal payments. Before checks are mailed, agencies will be required to check this list to make sure that the payment is to the right person, in the right amount, for the right reason. With these new tools, the challenge I’m making to my team today is to reduce improper payments by billion between now and 2012. This goal is fully achievable due in no small part to some of the great work of the members of Congress standing with me today, particularly Senator Tom Carper and Representative Patrick Murphy, who sponsored the bill I’m about to sign and worked with all the other members of Congress who are here today to get it passed. And I think, by the way, it’s worth noting that this bill passed unanimously in both the House and the Senate -– a powerful reminder of what we can accomplish when we put partisanship aside and do what’s best for the people we serve. So this bill will dramatically expand and intensify our efforts to end improper payments. And going forward, every agency in our government will be required to conduct annual assessments to determine which of their programs are at risk of making improper payments. Agencies will be required to audit more of their programs and recapture more taxpayer dollars. And we now have rigorous enforcement mechanisms to hold agencies accountable for how much money they save. So, in large part, thanks to the great work of the people in this room, I think we’re headed in the right direction. And today, I’m pleased to announce that I will be charging Jack Lew, my choice for director of Office of Management and Budget -- once Peter Orszag, the current OMB director, departs -- with building on the good work that Peter began. I’m entrusting Jack with carrying forward our Accountable Government Initiative in the months ahead. I will be asking him and Jeff to give me regular updates on our progress in cutting waste and making our government more efficient and effective. And as the only OMB director in history to preside over a budget surplus for three consecutive years, Jack Lew knows a thing or two about making government work. I’m confident he’s up to the challenge of building the kind of government that the American people expect and deserve -– one that spends their money wisely, serves their interests well, and is fully worthy of their trust and respect. So I want to again thank these outstanding members of Congress who are here today who have been on the case in both chambers for quite some time. I want to thank all the people who worked on this bill in this room for your outstanding efforts. Thank you. God bless you. God bless America. And let me sign this bill. (Applause.) (The bill is signed.) (Applause.) END 11:39 A.M. EDT[Nextpage相关报道] 【相关中文报道】美国总统奥巴马22日签署《不当付消除与回收法案》,法案旨在消除不当联邦出,减少浪费、欺诈和滥用现象。综合媒体7月22日报道,美国总统奥巴马(Barack Obama)22日签署《不当付消除与回收法案》(Improper Payments Elimination and Recovery Act),该法案要求联邦机构定期评估容易产生不当付的政府计划,消除浪费现象,这是奥巴马兑现其紧缩财政承诺的又一次行动。年,美国政府误发了1,100亿美元救济金,其中一部分流向了刑人员和死者。奥巴马称,其不能容忍这样的浪费,并设定目标致力于在未来几年减少500亿美元不当联邦付。奥巴马称,这项法案意味着减少浪费、欺诈和滥用,并确保政府扮演好美国人民的税款管家角色。面对批评者对联邦出失控和赤字不断膨胀的指责,奥巴马在其讲话中列举了若干政府削减开的措施,包括冻结白宫高级官员工资和非国防机构预算。奥巴马此前曾承诺将非安全性可配出冻结三年。他表示,该承诺将使非国防可配出的比重降至肯尼迪总统(John F. Kennedy)执政时期以来的最低水平。奥巴马称,“如果我们继续大手花钱,仿佛赤字不是问题,那么我们的子孙后代最终可能要被迫承担他们永远无法还清的债务。”他还谈到,“现实是,在当前的经济困难时期,每个家庭都在节省开,尽可能使每一块钱发挥最大价值,他们期望政府的努力不会比他们少。” (本段文字来源:财讯网)201007/109646President Bush Meets with President Arroyo of the Philippines PRESIDENT BUSH: Madam President, it is a pleasure to welcome you back to the Oval Office. We have just had a very constructive dialogue. First, I want to tell you how proud I am to be the President of a nation that -- in which there's a lot of Philippine-Americans. They love America and they love their heritage. And I reminded the President that I am reminded of the great talent of the -- of our Philippine-Americans when I eat dinner at the White House. (Laughter.) PRESIDENT ARROYO: Yes. PRESIDENT BUSH: And the chef is a great person and a really good cook, by the way, Madam President. We talked about our friendship, our bilateral relations, and we spent some time on foreign policy. First, I expressed our deep condolences to those who suffered as a result of the typhoon. And I know there's some families that are hurting. Some are wondering whether or not their loved ones will, you know, reappear. We, the American people care about the human suffering that's taking place, and we send our prayers. Secondly, I informed the President -- Secretary Gates informed the President, through me, that the ed States will move the USS Ronald Reagan, a large aircraft carrier, to help with the assistance, along with other U.S. Navy assets. We're happy to do it. We want to help our friends in a time of need. We talked about, you know, food, and I assured the President we'll continue to help. We helped with rice in the past. And, you know, I'm proud of my country. We give a lot of food aid, and this is a time where America needs to step up, and we will, Madam President. We talked about our mutual desire to advance how important it is to move forward the bilateral and multilateral trade agendas. I'm a -- I believe trade is beneficial to both our countries. I'm hopeful we can get a Doha Round done, and we strategized together about how we can move the process. I congratulated the President on her strong stand on counterterrorism -- more than strong stand -- effective stand on counterterrorism, as well as laying out a vision for peace. The President has been very strong in having a carrots-and-sticks approach -- "sticks," of course, say we're not going to allow for people to terrorize our citizens; the "carrot" approach is that there's peace available. We talked about Burma, the area, the region. The President has been a very strong leader when it comes to the freedom agenda and human dignity. And so, all in all, we had a very constructive talk. I'm proud you're here. PRESIDENT ARROYO: Thank you. PRESIDENT BUSH: Thanks for coming. PRESIDENT ARROYO: Thank you, thank you. Mr. President, with your permission, I'd like to address our countrymen in my own native language. (Speaks in Tagalog. Translation provided by the State Department.) Fellow countrymen, America is a strong ally in supporting our efforts to strengthen our economy and reinforce our democracy. The Philippines and the ed States have a strong relationship, and we are here today to discuss important bilateral issues with President Bush, members of his administration, and congressional leaders. As President Bush mentioned, we will focus our discussions, now more than ever, on food shortages, defense cooperation, and economic aid. Together with our friends, such as America, let us join forces and move our country forward towards the company of first world developed nations over the next 20 years. Long live the Philippines, and long live the friendship between the Philippines and the ed States. PRESIDENT BUSH: I couldn't have said it better myself. (Laughter.) PRESIDENT ARROYO: Thank you. PRESIDENT BUSH: Thank you, all. 200806/42865In our whole system,national and State,在我们的整个体系中,无论是国家的还是州立的,we have shunned all the defects which unceasingly preyed on the vitals and destroyed the ancient Republics.我们已避免了所有那些不停地危及利害,颠覆古代共和国的缺陷。In them there were distinct orders,a nobility and a people,它们中有明显的不同制度:或是一个贵族和一个民众,or the people governed in one assembly.或是由一个议会来管理民众。Thus,in the one instance there was a perpetual conflict between the orders in society for the ascendency,这样,在一个情况下社会的各阶级之间存在着无休止的冲突,in which the victory of either terminated in the overthrow of the government and the ruin of the state;其中任何一方的胜利都会造成推翻政府和国家覆亡;in the other,in which the people governed in a body,而在另一个情况下,人民由一个政体来统治,and whose dominions seldom exceeded the dimensions of a county in one of our States,而且其领土极少超过我们某个州的一个县的大小,a tumultuous and disorderly movement permitted only a transitory existence.喧闹而混乱的运动只允许一个短暂的生存。In this great nation there is but one order,that of the people,whose power,在我们这一伟大的国家只有一个制度,人民的制度;by a peculiarly happy improvement of the representative principle,is transferred from them,通过一个对代表制度非常完善的改进,按自由,开明,高效的政府的需要。without impairing in the slightest degree their sovereignty,to bodies of their own creation,他们的权利完全地被转移到他们自己所创立的多个政体,and to persons elected by themselves,in the full extent necessary for all the purposes of free,enlightened and efficient government.和他们选出的人员中,而没有丝毫损害他们的主权。The whole system is elective,the complete sovereignty being in the people,整个体制以选举为基础,主权彻底属于人民,and every officer in every department deriving his authority from and being responsible to them for his conduct.而且每个部门的每个官员的权力都来自于他们,并要对他们负责其行为举止。Our career has correspond with this great outline.我们的事业和这一宏伟的大纲相一致。Perfection in our organization could not have been expected in the outset either in the National or State Governments or in tracing the line between their respective powers.不能期望一开始在国家或州立的政府中,或是在它们各自权力之间的界线追溯中就完善我们的组织。But no serious conflict has arisen,nor any contest but such as are managed by argument and by a fair appeal to the good sense of the people,但是,我们没有严重的冲突,也没有任何纷争;而且这些可通过辨论处理,也通过公正地求助于民众的理智来解决。and many of the defects which experience had clearly demonstrated in both Governments have been remedied,并且我们也医治了许多以往经历中以上两种政府所显示出的缺点。By steadily pursuing this course in this spirit there is every reason to believe that our system will soon attain the highest degree of perfection of which human institutions are capable,通过坚定地以此精神实行此路线,我们完全有理由相信,我们的体制将很快达到人类机构所可能达到的最高程度的完善,and that the movement in all its branches will exhibit such a degree of order and harmony as to command the admiration and respect of the civilized world.并且,其所有分部的发展将展示一定程度的条理和谐调,以致引来文明世界的羡慕和尊敬。Entering with these views the office which I have just solemnly sworn to execute with fidelity and to the utmost of my ability,带着这些想法,即将进入我刚庄严宣誓要以忠心并尽我所能来履行的职责,I derive great satisfaction from a knowledge that I shall be assisted in the several Departments by the very enlightened and upright citizens from whom I have received so much aid in the preceding term.我因确信我将在多个部门中得到一组非常开明和正直的公民的辅助而感到非常满意。我的前任已给了我很多帮助。With full confidence in the continuance of that candor and generous indulgence from my fellow citizens at large which I have heretofore experienced,完全相信我至今为止所受到的同胞们普遍的坦诚和慷慨宽容会延续下去,and with a firm reliance on the protection of Almighty God.并坚定地依靠全能上帝的保护,I shall forthwith commence the duties of the high trust to which you have called me.现在我就将开始你们召唤我上任的被赋予如此高度信任的职务。01/436176

[AUTHENTICITY CERTIFIED: Text version below transcribed directly from audio. (2)]*Madam President and* Members of the General Assembly:When Secretary General Hammarskjold’s invitation to address this General Assembly reached me in Bermuda, I was just beginning a series of conferences with the Prime Ministers and Foreign Ministers of Great Britain and of France. Our subject was some of the problems that beset our world.During the remainder of the Bermuda Conference, I had constantly in mind that ahead of me lay a great honor. That honor is mine today, as I stand here, privileged to address the General Assembly of the ed Nations.At the same time that I appreciate the distinction of addressing you, I have a sense of exhilaration as I look upon this Assembly. Never before in history has so much hope for so many people been gathered together in a single organization. Your deliberations and decisions during these somber years have aly realized part of those hopes.But the great tests and the great accomplishments still lie ahead. And in the confident expectation of those accomplishments, I would use the office which, for the time being, I hold, to assure you that the Government of the ed States will remain steadfast in its support of this body. This we shall do in the conviction that you will provide a great share of the wisdom, of the courage, and the faith which can bring to this world lasting peace for all nations, and happiness and well-being for all men. Clearly, it would not be fitting for me to take this occasion to present to you a unilateral American report on Bermuda. Nevertheless, I assure you that in our deliberations on that lovely island we sought to invoke those same great concepts of universal peace and human dignity which are so cleanly etched in your Charter. Neither would it be a measure of this great opportunity merely to recite, however hopefully, pious platitudes.I therefore decided that this occasion warranted my saying to you some of the things that have been on the minds and hearts of my legislative and executive associates, and on mine, for a great many months -- thoughts I had originally planned to say primarily to the American people.I know that the American people share my deep belief that if a danger exists in the world, it is a danger shared by all; and equally, that if hope exists in the mind of one nation, that hope should be shared by all.Finally, if there is to be advanced any proposal designed to ease even by the smallest measure the tensions of today’s world, what more appropriate audience could there be than the members of the General Assembly of the ed Nations. I feel impelled to speak today in a language that in a sense is new, one which I, who have spent so much of my life in the military profession, would have preferred never to use. That new language is the language of atomic warfare.The atomic age has moved forward at such a pace that every citizen of the world should have some comprehension, at least in comparative terms, of the extent of this development, of the utmost significance to everyone of us. Clearly, if the peoples of the world are to conduct an intelligent search for peace, they must be armed with the significant facts of today’s existence.My recital of atomic danger and power is necessarily stated in ed States terms, for these are the only incontrovertible facts that I know. I need hardly point out to this Assembly, however, that this subject is global, not merely national in character.On July 16, 1945, the ed States set off the world’s first atomic explosion.Since that date in 1945, the ed States of America has conducted forty-two test explosions. Atomic bombs today are more than twenty-five times as powerful as the weapons with which the atomic age dawned, while hydrogen weapons are in the ranges of millions of tons of TNT equivalent.Today, the ed States stockpile of atomic weapons, which, of course, increases daily, exceeds by many times the total [explosive] equivalent of the total of all bombs and all shells that came from every plane and every gun in every theatre of war in all the years of World War II.A single air group, whether afloat or land based, can now deliver to any reachable target a destructive cargo exceeding in power all the bombs that fell on Britain in all of World War II. In size and variety, the development of atomic weapons has been no less remarkable. The development has been such that atomic weapons have virtually achieved conventional status within our armed services.In the ed States, the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, and the Marine Corps are all capable of putting this weapon to military use. But the d secret and the fearful engines of atomic might are not ours alone.In the first place, the secret is possessed by our friends and allies, Great Britain and Canada, whose scientific genius made a tremendous contribution to our original discoveries and the designs of atomic bombs.The secret is also known by the Soviet Union.The Soviet Union has informed us that, over recent years, it has devoted extensive resources to atomic weapons. During this period the Soviet Union has exploded a series of atomic advices -- devices, including at least one involving thermo-nuclear reactions. If at one time the es States possessed what might have been called a monopoly of atomic power, that monopoly ceased to exist several years ago.Therefore, although our earlier start has permitted us to accumulate what is today a great quantitative advantage, the atomic realities of today comprehend two facts of even greater significance.First, the knowledge now possessed by several nations will eventually be shared by others, possibly all others.Second, even a vast superiority in numbers of weapons, and a consequent capability of devastating retaliation, is no preventive, of itself, against the fearful material damage and toll of human lives that would be inflicted by surprise aggression. The free world, at least dimly aware of these facts, has naturally embarked on a large program of warning and defense systems. That program will be accelerated and expanded. But let no one think that the expenditure of vast sums for weapons and systems of defense can guarantee absolute safety for the cities and citizens of any nation. The awful arithmetic of the atomic bomb does not permit of any such easy solution. Even against the most powerful defense, an aggressor in possession of the effective minimum number of atomic bombs for a surprise attack could probably place a sufficient number of his bombs on the chosen targets to cause hideous damage.Should such an atomic attack be launched against the ed States, our reactions would be swift and resolute. But for me to say that the defense capabilities of the ed States are such that they could inflict terrible losses upon an aggressor, for me to say that the retaliation capabilities of the es States are so great that such an aggressor’s land would be laid waste, all this, while fact, is not the true expression of the purpose and the hope of the ed States.To pause there would be to confirm the hopeless finality of a belief that two atomic colossi are doomed malevolently to eye each other indefinitely across a trembling world. To stop there would be to accept hope -- helplessly the probability of civilization destroyed, the annihilation of the irreplaceable heritage of mankind handed down to use generation from generation, and the condemnation of mankind to begin all over again the age-old struggle upward from savagery toward decency, and right, and justice. Surely no sane member of the human race could discover victory in such desolation.Could anyone wish his name to be coupled by history with such human degradation and destruction? Occasional pages of history do record the faces of the “great destroyers,” but the whole book of history reveals mankind’s never-ending quest for peace and mankind’s God-given capacity to build.It is with the book of history, and not with isolated pages, that the ed States will ever wish to be identified. My country wants to be constructive, not destructive. It wants agreements, not wars, among nations. It wants itself to live in freedom and in the confidence that the people of every other nation enjoy equally the right of choosing their own way of life.So my country’s purpose is to help us move out of the dark chamber of horrors into the light, to find a way by which the minds of men, the hopes of men, the souls of men everywhere, can move forward toward peace and happiness and well-being.In this quest, I know that we must not lack patience. I know that in a world divided, such as ours today, salvation cannot be attained by one dramatic act. I know that many steps will have to be taken over many months before the world can look at itself one day and truly realize that a new climate of mutually peaceful confidence is abroad in the world. But I know, above all else, that we must start to take these steps now.The ed States and its allies, Great Britain and France, have, over the past months, tried to take some of these steps. Let no one say that we shun the conference table. On the record has long stood the request of the ed States, Great Britain, and France to negotiate with the Soviet Union the problems of a divided Germany. On that record has long stood the request of the same three nations to negotiate an Austrian peace treaty. On the same record still stands the request of the ed Nations to negotiate the problems of Korea.Most recently we have received from the Soviet Union what is in effect an expression of willingness to hold a four-Power meeting. Along with our allies, Great Britain and France, we were pleased to see that his note did not contain the unacceptable pre-conditions previously put forward. As you aly know from our joint Bermuda communiqué, the ed States, Great Britain, and France have agreed promptly to meet with the Soviet Union.The Government of the ed States approaches this conference with hopeful sincerity. We will bend every effort of our minds to the single purpose of emerging from that conference with tangible results towards peace, the only true way of lessening international tension. We never have, we never will, propose or suggest that the Soviet Union surrender what is rightfully theirs. We will never say that the people of Russia are an enemy with whom we have no desire ever to deal or mingle in friendly and fruitful relationship.On the contrary, we hope that this coming conference may initiate a relationship with the Soviet Union which will eventually bring about a free intermingling of the peoples of the East and of the West -- the one sure, human way of developing the understanding required for confident and peaceful relations.Instead of the discontent which is now settling upon Eastern Germany, occupied Austria, and the countries of Eastern Europe, we seek a harmonious family of free European nations, with none a threat to the other, and least of all a threat to the peoples of the Russia. Beyond the turmoil and strife and misery of Asia, we seek peaceful opportunity for these peoples to develop their natural resources and to elevate their lives.These are not idle words or shallow visions. Behind them lies a story of nations lately come to independence, not as a result of war, but through free grant or peaceful negotiation. There is a record aly written of assistance gladly given by nations of the West to needy peoples and to those suffering the temporary effects of famine, drought, and natural disaster. These are deeds of peace. They speak more loudly than promises or protestations of peaceful intent.But I do not wish to rest either upon the reiteration of past proposals or the restatement of past deeds. The gravity of the time is such that every new avenue of peace, no matter how dimly discernible, should be explored. There is at least one new avenue of peace which has not yet been well explored -- an avenue now laid out by the General Assembly of the es Nations.In its resolution of November 18th, 1953 this General Assembly suggested -- and I e -- “that the Disarmament Commission study the desirability of establishing a sub-committee consisting of representatives of the Powers principally involved, which should seek in private an acceptable solution and report such a solution to the General Assembly and to the Security Council not later than September 1, of 1954.”The ed States, heeding the suggestion of the General Assembly of the ed Nations, is instantly prepared to meet privately with such other countries as may be “principally involved,” to seek “an acceptable solution” to the atomic armaments race which overshadows not only the peace, but the very life of the world. We shall carry into these private or diplomatic talks a new conception.The ed States would seek more than the mere reduction or elimination of atomic materials for military purposes. It is not enough to take this weapon out of the hands of the soldiers. It must be put into the hands of those who will know how to strip its military casing and adapt it to the arts of peace.The ed States knows that if the fearful trend of atomic military build-up can be reversed, this greatest of destructive forces can be developed into a great boon, for the benefit of all mankind. The ed States knows that peaceful power from atomic energy is no dream of the future. That capability, aly proved, is here, now, today. Who can doubt, if the entire body of the world’s scientists and engineers had adequate amounts of fissionable material with which to test and develop their ideas, that this capability would rapidly be transformed into universal, efficient, and economic usage?To hasten the day when fear of the atom will begin to disappear from the minds of people and the governments of the East and West, there are certain steps that can be taken now. I therefore make the following proposals:The governments principally involved, to the extent permitted by elementary prudence, to begin now and continue to make joint contributions from their stockpiles of normal uranium and fissionable materials to an international atomic energy agency. We would expect that such an agency would be set up under the aegis of the ed Nations. The ratios of contributions, the procedures, and other details would properly be within the scope of the “private conversations” I have referred to earlier.The ed States is prepared to undertake these explorations in good faith. Any partner of the ed States acting in the same good faith will find the ed States a not unreasonable or ungenerous associate.Undoubtedly, initial and early contributions to this plan would be small in quantity. However, the proposal has the great virtue that it can be undertaken without the irritations and mutual suspicions incident to any attempt to set up a completely acceptable system of world-wide inspection and control.The atomic energy agency could be made responsible for the impounding, storage, and protection of the contributed fissionable and other materials. The ingenuity of our scientists will provide special, safe conditions under which such a bank of fissionable material can be made essentially immune to surprise seizure.The more important responsibility of this atomic energy agency would be to devise methods whereby this fissionable material would be allocated to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind. Experts would be mobilized to apply atomic energy to the needs of agriculture, medicine, and other peaceful activities. A special purpose would be to provide abundant electrical energy in the power-starved areas of the world. Thus the contributing Powers would be dedicating some of their strength to serve the needs rather than the fears of mankind.The ed States would be more than willing -- it would be proud to take up with others “principally involved” the development of plans whereby such peaceful use of atomic energy would be expedited.Of those “principally involved” the Soviet Union must, of course, be one. I would be prepared to submit to the Congress of the ed States, and with every expectation of approval, any such plan that would, first, encourage world-wide investigation into the most effective peacetime uses of fissionable material, and with the certainty that they [the investigators] had all the material needed for the conduct of all experiments that were appropriate; second, begin to diminish the potential destructive power of the world’s atomic stockpiles; third, allow all peoples of all nations to see that, in this enlightened age, the great Powers of the earth, both of the East and of the West, are interested in human aspirations first rather than in building up the armaments of war; fourth, open up a new channel for peaceful discussion and initiate at least a new approach to the many difficult problems that must be solved in both private and public conversations, if the world is to shake off the inertia imposed by fear and is to make positive progress toward peace.Against the dark background of the atomic bomb, the ed States does not wish merely to present strength, but also the desire and the hope for peace.The coming months will be fraught with fateful decisions. In this Assembly, in the capitals and military headquarters of the world, in the hearts of men everywhere, be they governed or governors, may they be the decisions which will lead this world out of fear and into peace.To the making of these fateful decisions, the ed States pledges before you, and therefore before the world, its determination to help solve the fearful atomic dilemma -- to devote its entire heart and mind to find the way by which the miraculous inventiveness of man shall not be dedicated to his death, but consecrated to his life.I again thank the delegates for the great honor they have done me in inviting me to appear before them and in listening me -- to me so courteously.Thank you. 200606/7686


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