2019年12月09日 02:11:35|来源:国际在线|编辑:赶集问答
The terrorist attacks on France were a shock. The ensuing wave of mostly uninformed foreign opining about France was not. Even more than other countries, France has a distorted international image.对法国的恐怖袭击令人震惊。随之而来的一波外国人对法国不着边际的却并非如此。相对于其他国家,法国的国际形象更为扭曲。Perversely, that’s because foreigners tend to feel they know France. After all, it’s the world’s most visited country. It used to foist its “civilisationon other people. It still takes up disproportionate global mindshare. It rejects many international shibboleths on how to run a country. Many foreigners speak a bit of French. So the temptation is to feel that they understand France, and disagree with it. Hence the phenomenon that the French call le French bashing (something at which they themselves excel). I live in Paris and collect misunderstandings about France. Here are a few:变态的是,造成这种状况的原因是外国人往往觉得自己了解法国。毕竟,法国是世界上游客到访最多的国家。它过去常把自己“文明”强加到其他民族。它在全球意识中仍占有重要一席。它拒绝很多国际上通行的治国套路。许多外国人能说一点儿法语。所以,他们忍不住觉得自己了解法国,但不与其苟同。于是就出现了法国人所称的“敲打法国”现象(其实法国人自己也擅长此道)。住在巴黎的我,收集了一些有关法国的误解。以下列出其中一些:“France is sliding back into anti-Semitism.”Many French Jews are rightly scared. This month’s murder of four people in the kosher supermarket was only the latest anti-Semitic attack here. But it’s the anti-Semitism of a small jihadi cluster, a tiny minority within French Muslims. Meanwhile mainstream anti-Semitism looks weaker than ever: 89 per cent of French people polled by Pew Research last year expressed positive attitudes towards Jews. France today is neither Vichy nor Eurabia.“法国正在倒退至反犹太主义。”许多法国犹太人有理由害怕。本月发生在巴黎一家犹太超市的4人被杀事件只是最新一起反犹太袭击。但这是一小撮圣战分子的反犹太主义,他们在法国的穆斯林中只占极少数。与此同时,主流反犹太主义看起来空前虚弱:在皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Centre)去年调查的法国人中,89%表达了对犹太人的积极态度。今天的法国既不是维希政Vichy),也并非“欧拉伯Eurabia)。“France is a museum, stuck in the past.To the contrary, just before the terrorists attacked, France was having a very creative moment. Fed up with economic stagnation, the French were borrowing ideas from abroad.“法国是一个物馆,被钉在过去。”与此相反,在恐怖分子发动袭击前,法国正处在一个很有创造力的时期。受够了经济停滞的法国人,正在从国外借鉴经验。People across France have become “open to the world argues French economist Robin Rivaton. The Pisani-Ferry report, commissioned by the government to set national targets for 2025, obsessively benchmarks France against other countries, notes Helen Drake of Loughborough University. The report’s aspirations for instance, for France to have 10 “world-class multidisciplinary universitiesreflect the national belief that France should always be number one and cutting-edge.法国经济学家罗宾#8226;里瓦Robin Rivaton)认为,法国人已经开始“对世界开放”。拉夫堡大学(Loughborough University)的海#8226;德雷Helen Drake)指出,法国政府为了设025年国家目标而委托制定的皮萨费里(Pisani-Ferry)报告,念念不忘地将法国与其他国家进行基准对比。报告列出的各项抱负——例如,法国要拥0所“世界级的综合大学”——反映了一种国民信仰,即法国应该永远是第一,永远站在最前沿。International thinking is changing France: les start-ups in the tech sector venerate Silicon Valley; restaurant chefs have brought home ideas from stints in the Anglosphere; and, as French schools wonder how to emulate Finland, there’s a national debate about dumping France’s brutal grading system. Or French novelist Patrick Modiano’s speech accepting the 2014 Nobel Prize for literature: it’s a eulogy to foreign role models from Osip Mandelstam to Alfred Hitchcock.国际上的思维正在改变法国:法国高科技初创企业膜拜硅谷;餐厅厨师从英语文化Anglosphere)的工作经验带回了创意;而且,在法国学校研究如何模仿芬兰时,该国开展了一场关于取消残酷评分制度的辩论。或者,读一下法国小说家帕特里克#8226;莫迪亚诺(Patrick Modiano)接受2014年诺贝尔文学奖时的演讲稿:那是一篇对外国榜样——从奥斯#8226;曼德尔斯塔姆(Osip Mandelstam)到阿尔弗雷德#8226;希区柯克(Alfred Hitchcock)——的颂词。Is France a museum? Economist Jean Tirole just won a Nobel too, Thomas Piketty is changing the global economic debate and on January 11 million marched for freedom of expression.法国是一个物馆吗?经济学家#8226;梯若Jean Tirole)刚刚也获得了诺贝尔奖;托马斯#8226;皮凯Thomas Piketty)正在改变全球经济辩论1日,数百万人为捍卫言论自由而游行。“The French reject change because they want to hang on to their privileges.It’s true that whenever any government timidly proposes a reform, some group shouts it down: farmers, notaries, pilots, trade unions, etc. But these are small privileged interest groups. Only 8 per cent of French workers belong to a union fewer than in the US. Ever more French people are unprivileged outsiders on temporary contracts. Most of them want change.“法国人拒绝改变,因为他们想保住自己的特权。”没错,每当政府(无论由谁主政)胆怯地提议一项改革,总会有一些群体强烈抗议:农民、公员、飞行员以及工会等等。但这些都是小范围的享受特殊待遇的利益集团。只%的法国工人加入了工会——比例小于美囀?越来越多的法国人签订临时合同,成为享受不到特权的局外人。他们中大多数人希望改变。来 /201504/367506There were troubling portents in the way Democrats humbled President Barack Obama last Friday. It is not only that he made a rare visit to Capitol Hill to appeal for Democratic support on his global trade agen#173;da. Nor that he warned them that a vote against it would be the same as one against him. These were bad enough. Worse is that it was Nancy Pelosi the Democratic leader, and linchpin of every legislative victory since Mr Obama took office, including healthcare who put the knife in his back. When your closest ally betrays you, it is time to reach for your Shakespeare.上周五,民主党羞辱巴拉克#8226;奥巴Barack Obama)总统的方式有一些令人不安的征兆。不只是他罕有地造访国会山,希望赢得民主党对其全球贸易议程的持。也不是他警告称,反对该议程就是反对他。这些已经足够糟糕了。更糟糕的是,民主党领导人南#8226;佩洛Nancy Pelosi)在奥巴马背后捅了一刀。自奥巴马上任以来,佩洛西是奥巴马所有立法胜利(包括医疗改革)的关键人物。当你最亲密的盟友背叛你时,你就该求助莎士比Shakespeare)了。Mr Obama may have to beg, flatter and cajole his way out of this one. The only way to retrieve his trade agenda let alone his credibility will be to reverse last week’s defeat. It has been done before. The best example is Congress’s rejection of the 0bn Wall Street bailout package (the troubled asset relief programme, Tarp) in September 2008. It was reversed 72 hours later. But George W Bush, the then president, could point to a stock market in free fall. The Dow fell almost 1,000 points after the first vote, enough to terrify lawmakers into the Yes camp on the second. Mr Obama has no such prompts. The Dow Jones index dropped 140 points last Friday, which was no more than an average bad day.要杀出困境,奥巴马或许不得不设法乞求、奉承和哄骗。挽回其贸易议程(更别提他的信誉了)的唯一途径是逆转上周的败绩。以前出现过这种事情。最好的例子是,2008月美国国会否决了7000亿美元的华尔街纾困方案——问题资产救助计Tarp)2小时后该决定被逆转。但时任总统乔治·W·布什(George W Bush)可以指向一落千丈的美国股市。在首次投票后,道琼斯指Dow)下挫000点,吓得立法者在第二轮投票时加入持阵营。奥巴马没有得到这种辅助。上周五,道琼斯指数下跌140点,只是一个普通的糟糕交易日。Mr Obama badly needs to come up with something in the next few days. The price of failure for him and the US is too high. The costs would be threefold. First, rejection of the trade promotion authority (TPA), or fast-track negotiating powers, would leave the US without a global economic strategy in a rapidly changing world. It would kill prospects of wrapping up the Pacific trade deal on which Mr Obama has been working for three years. The 12-member group covers almost 40 per cent of the world economy. It would also halt progress in the parallel transatlantic talks, which cover close to half the global economy.奥巴马迫切需要在未来几天拿出一些应对方案。对于他(以及美国)而言,失败的代价太高。这表现在三方面。首先,否决“贸易促进权”法案(TPA,又称快速道(fast-track)谈判授权)将令美国在这个快速变化的世界丧失一项全球经济战略。这将断送缔结奥巴马已努年的太平洋贸易协定的可能性。《跨太平洋伙伴关系》(Trans-Pacific Partnership,简称TPP2个成员国占全球经济的0%。这也将让平行的跨大西洋谈判进展受阻,这些成员国占全球经济近一半。Next, it would rob the US “pivot to Asiaof its most important element. Mr Obama’s biggest argument for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is that it would force China to abide by global rules on trade and investment. China is not included in the group. Perhaps un#173;wisely, Mr Obama has played that China card explicitly and repeatedly. A collapse in the TPP talks would breathe life into China’s rival initiative, to which the US does not belong. Any scepticism that others would take the China-led trade talks seriously was laid to rest last month when America’s regional allies, including Australia and South Korea, spurned the US boycott of the China-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. There is no reason to suppose it would turn out any different on trade. Most countries would far prefer US leadership to China’s. But in America’s ab#173;sence, there is only one alternative.其次,这将剥夺美国“重心转向亚洲”战略中的最重要元素。奥巴马持TPP的最有力理由是,该协定将迫使中国遵守全球贸易与投资规则。中国没有被纳入该协定。或许不明智的是,奥巴马明确、多次地打出这张“中国牌”。TPP谈判的破裂将为中国与之竞争的倡议(美国不在其中)注入生机。对于其他国家将严肃对待由中国主导的贸易谈判的怀疑,已在上月消除,美国在亚洲的盟友(包括澳大利亚和韩国)没有理睬美国对中国主导的亚洲基础设施投资(AIIB)的抵制。没有理由设想在贸易问题上会出现不同的结果。多数国家将更青睐美国的领头,而非中国。但在没有美国的情况下,只有一种选择。Last, the death of TPA at Democratic hands would deprive Mr Obama of credibility on the world stage. His trade team, led by the very able Michael Froman, has assured the US’s Pacific partners that TPA’s enactment was a foregone conclusion. Since Mr Obama al#173;y had the bulk of Republicans on his side, it was only a matter of persuading a sliver of Democrats to back him. The fallout would go far beyond trade. Mr Obama faces a deadline to conclude US-led talks with Iran. This year and over Mr Obama’s protestations the US Senate took the unusual step of passing a bill that would give it 60 days to review the contents of any Iran nuclear deal. There is a clear parallel to fast track. Mr Obama had insisted an Iran deal would not qualify as a treaty and would therefore not require Senate approval. Iran is less likely to risk the necessary concessions if it thinks Congress will torpedo the deal. On what grounds would Iran trust Mr Obama’s assurances?最后,若TPA葬送在民主党手里,奥巴马将丧失其在世界舞台上的信誉。由非常能干的迈克尔#8226;弗罗Michael Froman)领导的奥巴马的贸易团队,已让美国在太平洋地区的合作伙伴相信,TPA仪案的通过是一个免不了的结果。奥巴马已经有大多数共和党人站在他这一边,他本来只要说一小部分民主党人持他就行了。失败的冲击波将远远超越贸易领域。奥巴马面临着与伊朗完成由美国主导的核谈判的最后期限。今年,美国参议院不顾奥巴马的抗议,不寻常地通过了一项法案,使自己获0天时间审议伊朗核协议的内容。这与“快车道”有清晰的类似之处。奥巴马此前坚称,与伊朗达成的协议算不上条约,因此不需要参议院批准。如果伊朗认为美国国会将否决协议,它就不太可能冒险作出必要的让步。有什么理由让伊朗相信奥巴马的保?In an ideal democracy, any of these points ought to be a clincher. But in the real world politicians look to their own survival before thinking of the bigger picture. Mr Obama must thus come up with something more persuasive. One hope is that Republicans will save the day without Mr Obama having to do anything. After all, Republicans believe in free trade and fast-track powers would be inherited by Mr Obama’s successor, who might well be a Republican. Last week’s defeat was an “only on Capitol Hillmoment, in which TPA was passed (by a majority of eight) only to be sunk by defeat of another part of the package. Enactment of that part, which subsidises retraining workers who lose their jobs to trade, was required for the whole bill to pass. Both parties voted heavily against.在理想的民主政体中,上述任何理由都应该是起决定性作用的论据。但在现实世界中,政客们把自己的生存置于全局考虑之前。因此,奥巴马必须拿出更有说力的理由。一个希望是,不需奥巴马采取任何动作,共和党人就将扭转局面。毕竟,共和党人信仰自由贸易,而且快车道权力将被奥巴马的继任者继承,而后者很可能是共和党人。上周的挫败是典型的“国会山式”荒唐剧,TPA部分被通过了(赞成方获得了8票的优势),却因法案的另一部分遭否决而受挫。只有那一部分(补贴对因贸易而失业的工人的再培训)也获得法律效力,整个法案才能通过。两党都有很多议员投票反对这部分。If it squeaks through on the second try, Mr Obama would be saved. But it would require Republicans to hold their noses and vote for something they mistrust (subsidies) to save someone they abhor (Mr Obama). The other hope is that Ms Pelosi and colleagues change their mind on the merits of trade deals. But that seems improbable. So Republicans are left with a dilemma: should they defeat Mr Obama and hobble the US? Or give Mr Obama a victory that would also save America’s credibility? The coming days will be very revealing.如果法案在第二次尝试时勉强通过,奥巴马将会得救。但这需要共和党人捏住鼻子,投票持他们不信任的事情(补贴)以拯救他们讨厌的人(奥巴马)。另一个希望是,佩洛西及其同事从贸易协定的好处着想,改变想法。但那似乎不太可胀?所以,共和党人面临一个两难困境:到底是应该击败奥巴马,让美国受到重创?还是应该让奥巴马获胜,同时也挽救美国的信誉?未来几天将让我们大开眼界。来 /201506/381118

Millions of Brazilians are going to the polls Sunday to vote in the presidential race that is expected to result in a runoff campaign and election later this month.数以百万计的巴西人星期天将在总统选举中投票,预计这个月晚些时候还将进行决选的竞选和投票。Analysts say President Dilma Rousseff, who is seeking a second term, is seen as the top vote getter in Sundays poll, but she is not likely to win the absolute majority needed to avoid a runoff.分析人士表示,争取第二个任期的迪尔玛#12539;罗塞芙,被认为在星期天的投票中会得票最多,但是不可能获得避免决选所需要的绝对多数票。Ms. Rousseff has two main rivals. Marina Silva is a hero of the global conservation movement and is a ruling party defector now with the Brazilian Socialist Party. Social Democrat Aecio Neves is a senator and former state governor.罗塞芙总统有两位主要的对手。玛瑞纳#12539;席尔瓦是全球环保运动的英雄,脱离执政党转投巴西社会主义党。社会民主党的阿埃西#12539;内韦斯是位参议员和前州长。Critics say President Rousseff can count on support from Brazils working class, thanks to generous social welfare programs initiated during the two terms of her hugely popular predecessor and political godfather, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva.批评人士说,罗塞芙总统可以依赖巴西劳工阶层的选票,受益于她的广受欢迎的前任和政治教父席尔瓦总统两个任期内启动的慷慨的社会福利项目。来 /201410/333544

North Koreas leader may travel to Russia to mark the USSRs victory over Nazi Germany on 9 May as mark of closer relations作为关系密切的标志,朝鲜领袖金正恩可能受邀前往俄罗斯参.9苏联战胜纳粹德国纪念日Kim Jong-un will visit Vladimir Putin in Moscow next year to mark the 70th anniversary of the Soviet defeat of Nazi Germany. AP Photograph: AP金正恩将于明年前往莫斯科会见普京,参加苏联战胜纳粹德国70周年纪念日。The Russian president, Vladimir Putin, has invited the North Korean leader, Kim Jong-un, to Moscow next year to mark the 70th anniversary of the Soviet defeat of Nazi Germany in the second world war, the Kremlins spokesman said on Friday.周五,克里姆林宫发言人表示,苏联总统普京已经邀请朝鲜领袖金正恩明年前往莫斯科参加二战苏联战胜纳粹德0周年纪念日。It would be Kims first foreign visit since taking the helm of the reclusive east Asian state in 2011. His personal envoy travelled to Moscow last month as part of efforts by the two Cold War-era allies to improve relations.这可能是金正恩自2011年上位以来第一次出访外国,他的特使上月前往莫斯科,进一步加强朝鲜和俄罗- 作为两个冷战时的盟国之间的关系;Yes, such an invitation was sent,; a Kremlin spokesman, Dmitry Peskov, told the state news agency, Tass. Russia marks the former Soviet Unions 1945 victory every year on 9 May.“是的,我们已经发出了邀请,”克里姆林宫发言人迪米特帕斯科夫向俄罗斯国家新闻社TASS表示。俄罗斯将每日定945苏联胜利日。Moscow needs North Korean cooperation to boost its natural gas exports to South Korea as Gazprom would like to build a gas pipeline through North Korea to reach its southern neighbour.莫斯科需要朝鲜的配合,将其天然气出口至韩囀?俄罗斯天然气公司希望能建一条通过朝鲜的天然气管道直通韩囀?Pyongyang is also seeking support from Russia, a permanent veto-wielding member of the UN security council, against international criticism relating to accusations of human rights abuses and its nuclear programme.针对侵犯人权和核武器试验的指控,平壤试图向俄罗斯 - 联合国安理会一票否决权的永久成员寻求持。A UN committee passed a resolution last month calling for the security council to consider referring North Korea to the international criminal court for alleged crimes against humanity.上个月,联合国委员会通过了一项决议,要求安理会考虑以违反人道罪将朝鲜送上国际法庭。The Russian foreign minister, Sergei Lavrov, has also said North Korea is y to resume the stalled international talks on its nuclear programme.俄罗斯外长,谢尔拉夫罗夫同样说过朝鲜已经准备重启核武器试验的多方谈判。North Korea, South Korea, Japan, China, Russia and the ed States began talks in 2003 to rid the Korean peninsula of nuclear weapons, but they were suspended after Pyongyang tested nuclear devices in 2006 and .朝鲜,韩国,日本,中国,俄罗斯和美国003年开始朝鲜半岛禁核会谈,但在2006年和年平壤测试核装置之后会谈就中止了。来 /201412/349835

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