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2019年10月23日 20:42:39来源:健步频道

There is an old rule that economists follow: In making a forecast, give a number or a date—but not both. It is a rule that executives in the autindustry ignore with surprising frequency. In instances involving Volvand Tesla TSLA -1.82% , twcompanies whose names are seldom spoken in the same breath, the lack of caution in setting future sales targets may cause them more trouble than a mere fender bender.经济学家通常会遵守一条老规矩:做预测时,要么给个数字,要么给个日期,但不能两个都给。但汽车业的高管们却经常忽略这条法则。就以沃尔沃(Volvo)和特斯拉(Tesla)为例,这两家公司的名字很少会被拿出来相提并论,但是他们在设置未来的销售目标时都缺乏谨慎,这或许会给他们带来大麻烦。After years of drift, VolvCars is trying trebuild its product line under its Chinese owners Geely Motors. Nlonger content tbe solely identified as a maker of boxy station wagons, Volvhas set its sights on becoming a full-fledged luxury manufacturer—on the same level as the industry’s top producers.经过多年的浮浮沉沉,沃尔沃被新东家中国吉利汽车(Geely Motors)收购后,正在重新构建产品线。沃尔沃不想再被认为只是一家旅行车制造商,而是着眼于成为一个货真价实的豪华车厂家,与其他顶级豪车品牌平起平坐。Its goals are ambitious, aggressive, and yes, audacious. Leading the effort treach them is CEHakan Samuelsson, whcame tVolvfrom Munich-based truck maker MAN in 2009. In an interview with Automotive News, Samuelsson set unexpectedly steep targets for Volvo’s recovery. Among the highlights:它的目标雄心勃勃,激进,甚至可以说大胆。现任CEO哈肯o萨缪尔森于2009年从慕尼黑卡车制造企业MAN公司跳槽至沃尔沃,在近日接受《汽车新闻》(Automotive News)采访时,萨缪尔森意外地给沃尔沃的复苏设置了非常大胆的目标,其中包括:A return tannual U.S. sales of 100,000 plus by 2016;到2016年,使沃尔沃在美国市场的年销量恢复到10万台以上;Arrival in the “elite pantheon of global luxury brands” in three tfour years;3至4年内,进入“全球豪车品牌的精英梯队”;Achievement of 800,000 in global sales in 2020.到2020年,全球销量达到80万台。Developing a true luxury brand that commands a premium price on the strength of its name can’t be done overnight, as Volvshould know. When he was running Lincoln, Jim Farley, whnow heads Ford Europe, used testimate that 15 t20 years would be required televate Lincoln intthe ranks of luxury players. Mercedes-Benz, BMW, and Audi, the only three authentic members of the group (excluding exotics like Ferrari and smaller makers like Jaguar) have been at it for decades and have earned their pedigrees with achievements in racing as well as in engineering and technology. Even Lexus doesn’t qualify for this elite grouping because of its weak standing outside the U.S and its lack of any racing credentials.开发一款真正能卖出高价的豪车品牌并非一夜之功,沃尔沃应该清楚这个道理。现任福特公司(Ford)欧洲负责人的吉姆o法利在之前运营林肯品牌时曾经预测道,要让林肯跻身豪华品牌之列,可能需要15至20年的时间。不算法拉利(Farrari)等超跑品牌和捷豹(Jaguar)等小型厂商,目前市场上真正算是豪华品牌的只有奔驰(Mercedes-Benz)、宝马(BMW)和奥迪(Audi),他们已经雄据豪车市场几十年了,而且是靠工艺、科技,甚至是赛车领域的全面成就才有了今天的优势。连雷克萨斯(Lexus)都算不上是高端市场的“第一梯队”,因为它在美国以外市场的美誉度较弱,而且它在赛车领域缺乏建树。Getting tthe top tier requires a financial commitment that Volvhasn’t made. Cadillac has invested billions of dollars in new models since 2000 in a bid tregain its luxury standing and still has more tdo; it is now developing a V-8 powered flagship sedan for 2016. Volvo’s flagship is the 2015 XC90 sport utility, which is powered by a far-less imposing inline four-cylinder engine.要想进入“第一梯队”,需要在财政上做出大量投资,而沃尔沃目前还没有进行这样的投资。自从2000年以来,凯迪拉克(Cadillac)已经投资数十亿美元以重振其豪华品牌的地位,目前仍然有很多工作要做。现在,凯迪拉克正在为2016年研发一款V8引擎的旗舰车型。沃尔沃目前的旗舰车型是2015款XC90 SUV,搭载的是魅力小得多的四缸发动机。Volvhasn’t made its quixotic quest any easier with its recent performance. While it claims a long list of safety firsts—three-point seatbelts, rear-facing child seats, air bags—Volvcars have always been positioned as sub- luxury or “entry luxe”, marketed tbody of devoted fans whfavor practicality over prestige and performance. Volvwas neglected during its years of ownership by Ford (1999-2010), as its product cycles stretched out longer and longer and other makers caught up on the safety front. 2007, and sfar this year its sales have reached only 47,823 (vs. 52, 112 for the same period in 2013).同时,沃尔沃最近的表现也不令人看好它的唐吉诃德式目标。虽然沃尔沃标榜它拥有一长串安全创新,比如三点式安全带、向后儿童座椅和各种气囊,但沃尔沃的车型还是经常被定位为“次豪华”或是“入门级豪车”,瞄准的往往是那些更注重实用性而不是声誉和性能的消费者。在老东家福特旗下时(1999至2010年),它的产品周期拉得越来越长,同时其他厂商也在安全性上追赶了上来,沃尔沃逐渐被市场忽视了。今年至今为止,它的销量只有47,823辆(去年同期有52,112辆)。Samuelsson is pinning his hopes on the belief that Volvo’s squeaky-clean reputation, which served it swell in the past, will resonate with a new generation of buyers. “If you look at what is happening in society, our brand promise is in line with developments,” he said in the interview. “People want tshow that they are taking responsibility for safety and taking responsibility for the environment. I think in the future that will more and more be a premium value.”沃尔沃一向以“极其环保”著称,这种声誉曾经让该公司受益良多。这次萨缪尔森也对这种声誉寄予厚望,希望它能引起新一代消费者的共鸣。他在采访中表示:“如果你注意社会目前的发展动向,你就会发现我们的品牌承诺与这种态势是一致的。人们想要展示他们正在对安全和环境负责。我认为在未来,这将为沃尔沃品牌增添一种溢价。”But Samuelsson overlooks changes in the market that will squeeze Volvfrom both the bottom and the top. The German Three have been rolling out more and more new models, many at price points that used tbe considered entry-luxe. Buyers shopping for a European brand can now choose between, say, Mercedes three-pointed star and Volvo’s ring and arrow emblem (a symbol for iron in Sweden but representing male sexuality in the U.S). That’s a tough comparison for Volvo.但是萨缪尔森忽视了市场正在发生的变化,这种变化正在高低两端给沃尔沃造成挤压。首先,“德系三巨头”一直在推出新车型,其中不少车型的价格都是过去所谓“入门级豪车”的价格。打个比方,现在想购买欧系车的消费者可以从奔驰和沃尔沃之间选一款。那么他是会选奔驰的“三角星”,还是沃尔沃的圆环加箭头呢(沃尔沃的LOGO造型在瑞典是铁的象征,但在美国则代表着男性象征)?对于沃尔沃来说,这是一个艰难的比较。At the same time, volume brands like Toyota and Hyundai have been steadily adding upgraded features and entertainment, safety, and performance options that used tonly be available on luxury models. That leaves very little space in the middle for brands like Acura, Infiniti, Lincoln – or Volvo. ” “Volvo’s goals aren’t completely unattainable but even if Volvo’s decisions are perfect, the competitive landscape is extremely challenging tthrive and grow in,” says Jessica Caldwell, senior analyst at Edmunds.com., the car-shopping web site.与此同时,像丰田(Toyota)、现代(Hyundai)等平价品牌也在逐步添加高端功能、设施、安全配置和动力选择。这样一来,留给讴歌(Acura)、英菲尼迪(Infiniti)、林肯(Lincoln)或沃尔沃等中端品牌的空间已经很小了。汽车购买网站Edmunds.com的高级分析师杰西卡o卡德维尔指出:“沃尔沃的目标并不是完全不可能达到,但是即便沃尔沃的决策很完美,在如此激烈的竞争环境下,要想复苏和增长还是极具挑战性的。”Tesla finds itself in a different, if not equally difficult, dilemma. Worries are growing that there is a large novelty element attached tthe appeal of his ,000 battery-powered car that will be difficult treplicate as its sales volumes grow. Consumer Reports added fuel tthe worries when it reported that the company has about 2,300 remaining 2014 Model S cars, including showroom display cars, which the company is selling at a discount.特斯拉则陷入另一个同样棘手的困境中。首先是有人担心随着销量的增长,这款价值8万美元的电动跑车所带来的新奇感将逐渐下降。其次是《消费者报告》(Consumer Reports)称,特斯拉目前还有大约2300台没有售出的2014款Model S(包括展车)正在打折销售。One Seeking Alpha blogger figures that more than half of Tesla buyers are what he describes as essentially opportunistic. The Model S became an unexpected addition ttheir fleet of cars, and if it hadn’t been available, they wouldn’t have bought another luxury sedan of any description. “In subsequent years,” he reasons, “there will be lower numbers of purchasers deliberately modifying their normal purchase behaviors in order tget a Model S.”一位主在金融网站Seeking Alpha上指出,购买特斯拉的人中有一半以上可以被称作“机会型购买者”。购买Model S是人们在名下已经拥有的汽车之外的额外消费,如果没有特斯拉,他们也不会转而购买任何一款豪车。他解释道:“在未来几年,特地调整自己的正常购买行为来买入Model S的人将变少。”For Musk treach his outsize targets, he will have taccomplish three things that he hasn’t tried before.要想实现他的宏大目标,埃隆o马斯克必须要完成三件他以前未曾尝试过的事情。He will have tdevelop a robust distribution system that can offer test drives, provide service, and handle trade-ins. State franchise laws are currently limiting Tesla tthe establishment of showrooms that are capable of displaying cars but dlittle else.他必须建立一个强有力的经销网络,以便提供试驾和售后务、处理二手车交易。各州目前的特许经营法律使得特斯拉只能设立一些展厅,除了展示轿车以外,这些展厅几乎做不了其他什么事情。He will have tscale up his production capacity at a rate that the autindustry has never seen before. Musk wants tdouble output by the end of 2015 and make five times as many cars by 2020.他必须以汽车业前所未有的速度提高产能。马斯克希望特斯拉的产能到2015年末翻一番,到2020年增长5倍。He will have tsuccessfully launch his third all-new product, the more affordable Gen III, and make it profitably for less than half of what the Model S sells for. New models are demanding. He’s aly delayed the introduction of his second car, the Model X, several times, and now it isn’t due until 2015’s third quarter.他必须成功地推出第三款全新产品,也就是价格更加亲民的Gen III,并且要在不到Model S一半的价格上使它盈利。新车型要想成功是很难的,马斯克已经数次推迟了第二款车型Model X的发布,现在它可能要等到2015年第三季度才能正式上市。Musk’s Tesla and Geely’s Volvare twvastly different companies with attached narratives that bear little resemblance teach other. But at this point in time, they find themselves in the same predicament: Living up tdates and numbers that give new meaning tthe term “stretch targets.”马斯克的特斯拉和吉利的沃尔沃是两家非常不同的公司,彼此很少有相像之处。但是这一次,他们陷入了相同的窘境:要在设定的时间里完成预定的销量,实现他们的“远大目标”。 /201411/344396。

  • A home of two babies engaged in an animated conversation in a kitchen has become an Internet phenomenon. The two-minute clip shows twin brothers Sam and Ren McEntee, aged just 17 months and barely able to stand, enjoying a lively exchange in which they laugh, raise their hands emphatically and nod their heads. So far the footage has attracted a staggering 9.4million views on YouTube.   都说婴儿是最可爱的,婴儿的笑容是最纯真无暇的,那么婴儿的对话?交谈呢?我们不仅疑惑到,婴儿也会交谈么?也懂“谈话”么?竟然是肯定的~!据悉,一对才1岁多的的双胞胎男童,两个人都用大人完全听不懂的“奇异对话”相互对谈长达2分多钟,在2分多钟的影片中,这对身上仅包着尿布的双胞胎男婴,双脚穿着不同颜色的袜子,开始了他们的人生中“第一次对话”。就连站立都困难的他们,站在厨房冰箱前对话,时而“煞有其事”地挥手强调、时而互相“点头”做相应的反馈回答,嘴巴嘟嘟囔囔,不停以“哒哒哒”作为自己的语言来和自己的兄弟交流,他们还时而举起右脚示范提腿的动作。影片被父亲放到影片分享网站YouTube上,马上爆红,迄今为止,已经超过940万网友争相浏览。   This is probably because the boys' conversation is so adult in its mannerisms and they appear to genuinely understand what each other is saying. Transfixed viewers even made suggestions as to what the brothers might be talking about - before comments on the were disabled. Professor Karen Thorpe, of the Queensland University of Technology’s School of Psychology and Counselling, told A News: 'Babies are wired for communication from the start and we see here a fine example of how sophisticated and beautiful communication in even young children can be.' The broadcaster also reported that 40 per cent of twins develop what appears to be their own language. However, they are mimicking sounds and mannerisms that they have heard or seen, rather than actually understanding what each other is saying.   一来一往的对话,内容同样都是“哒哒哒”,但口气、声调却各有不同,有问句,也有答句,加上摇头、挥手的动作来加强语意。 更多的网友则热烈讨论这对双胞胎对话的内容究竟是什么。连语言学家都加入讨论,要通过这段影片进一步研究婴幼儿的语言发展。来自昆士兰大学心理技术并提供咨询务的教授 Karen Thorpe告诉记者:“婴儿们虽然不能说大人的话,但是,他们有着他们自己的语言体系,这段视频就是一个非常好的例子。婴儿之间的语言交流是美丽的,也是富有含义的,值得研究。”据悉,有40%的双胞胎有着他们自己才能理解的语言,他们嘟嘟囔囔互相交流的时候,他们不需要实际上弄清楚对方在说一些什么,但是他们的呐呐自语有着他们自己的道理。 /201104/130653。
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