明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年09月21日 05:18:00
NAO, The Humanoid Robot Helps Students Master Handwriting Skills智能机器人指导书写Just a few weeks ago, NAO, the humanoid robot made headlines when it became Mitsubishi Bank#39;s first non-human employee. Now the cute 23-inch tall robot that weighs a mere 5.5 kilograms (12.7 pounds) is in the news again. This time around NAO is helping students develop good handwriting skills.就在几周前,NAO智能机器人成为三菱第一位非人类职员的消息备受热议。现在,这个高23英尺,重量只有5.5kg(12.8磅)的可爱机器人又再一次引起人们的注意。这次的新闻主要是有关NAO帮助学生矫正字体。What#39;s interesting about the NAO CoWriter is that it teaches kids while pretending to learn writing skills from them. The process begins with a student showing NAO alphabet magnets of the word they want it to write. The cute robot carefully studies the Quick Response (QR) codes assigned to each alphabet and then tries to write them on a digital tablet. The assignment is then handed to the ;teacher; who makes the appropriate corrections and returns it to the robot for a redo. NAO CoWriter tries again, using the corrections to improve. The duo continues until the ;teacher; is satisfied with his/her robot student#39;s penmanship. NAO CoWriter有趣的地方是通过模拟让孩子们纠正它的书写的方法来帮助孩子改进。首先,学生会展示给NAO他们想写单词的磁性的字母;随后,它会认真研究每个字母上的二维码,然后试着在平板上写出来。平板上的作业由“老师”批改后,再返还给机器人订正。NAO CoWriter这时会按照“老师”的批改再次拼写改正。这个过程会一直持续,直到“老师”满意机器人学生的书写为止。Researchers believe that this innovative role reversal not only improves the student#39;s handwriting skills but also helps boost his/her confidence. Of course, while NAO appears quite the novice learner to the students who range from six to eight years in age, the activity is carefully orchestrated. 研究者相信这种角色互换不仅能帮助学生改进书写,还能增加他们的信心。虽然,NAO比6-8岁的学生表现稍差一点,但整个演示过程还是比较和谐的。Unveiled on March 3rd at a Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), held in Portland, Oregon, the NAO CoWriter is still in the prototype stage. While the classroom trials to test the long-term effectiveness of its mathematical algorithms were successful, there is still more to be done. In the upcoming summer months, further tests will be conducted to measure the robot#39;s success in the learning process and also to see if it is user-friendly enough to be incorporated into a daily classroom routine. If all goes well, NAO may become an even more frequent sight at schools around the world. Buckle up! School is about to get more exciting!NAO CoWriter在3月3日俄勒冈州波特兰举行的HRI大会上首次亮相,现在处于初始发展阶段。虽然在课堂上测试它算法的长期可行性进展比较顺利,对于在孩子学习过程中的有效性检测和是否能够用在日常教学中这两点,还有待进一步检测。如果一切顺利,NAO将在全球学校中广泛应用。所以,让我们对更加有趣的课堂拭目以待吧。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可,。 /201509/394956




  A lot of “weird stuff” happens while driving, says Stanford University professor Chris Gerdes. His assertion goes to the heart of one of the problems associated with driverless cars. How can we expect a robot to deal with all the eventualities humans encounter on the road — whether unpredictable pedestrians, rogue traffic cones, or even dead plants blowing in the wind?斯坦福大学(Standford University)教授克里斯格迪斯(Chris Gerdes)表示,开车的时候会发生许多“奇奇怪怪的事”。他的说法触及了与无人驾驶汽车有关的一个问题的核心。我们怎么能够期望机器人处理人类在路上会遭遇的所有突发事件——无论是无法预测的行人、胡乱摆放的交通锥,还是随风乱舞的枯死树枝?And what about so-called “algorithms of death”: can robots be trusted to choose the least bad outcome in the event of an unavoidable crash?还有就是所谓的“死亡算法”:面临不可避免的碰撞,我们能信任机器人选择最不坏的结果么?Autonomous cars are not only pushing a century-old industry to the forefront of innovation. They are also forcing us to face crucial questions about how much control we are willing to hand over to machines.自动汽车不仅把一个百年历史的产业推上了创新的前沿。它们还迫使我们面对至关重要的问题:我们愿意把多大的控制权交给机器?Cars that drive themselves may fundamentally reshape the way we view devices — from things that work or fail to a more nuanced picture of machines that can reason but also make mistakes.能够自动驾驶的汽车,也许会从根本上改变我们对设备的看法——从要么工作要么坏掉的东西,变成一种更细腻的情景:能推理也会犯错的机器。“I don’t think we’ve seen a technology quite like this that mirrors what humans do in such an open-ended task,” says Prof Gerdes, director of Stanford’s automotive research laboratory. “It really is a place where we have a robot doing something which, up to this point, has been exclusively human.”When it comes to automated transport, the ethical questions are high stakes and fiendishly complicated.格迪斯教授是斯坦福大学汽车研究实验室的主任,他说:“我认为我们还没有见过类似这样的技术,重现人类在这种开放式任务中的所作所为。真的是让机器人做某种目前完全由人类做的事。”就自动化交通运输而言,伦理问题既事关重大,也极为复杂。Established manufacturers including Daimler and BMW, as well as tech upstarts such as Tesla and Google, are known to have engaged experts such as Prof Gerdes to discuss ethical questions. Others, such as Fiat Chrysler, say they have engineers “exploring” the implications of autonomous driving.戴姆勒(Daimler)和宝马(BMW)等老牌制造商,以及特斯拉(Tesla)和谷歌(Google)等高科技新贵,据悉都已请了格迪斯教授这样的专家探讨伦理问题。而菲亚特-克莱斯勒(Fiat Chrysler)等其他厂商表示,他们的工程技术人员在“探索”自动驾驶的潜在影响。General Motors says “an autonomous system for production is not close enough today to have answers to these questions, or even to know all the questions”. But Nissan, the Japanese group that with partner Renault is the world’s fourth-largest carmaker, has gone further, appointing a researcher at its Silicon Valley office dedicated to looking at these ethical issues. Melissa Cefkin, an anthropologist, is researching the interaction between autonomously driven vehicles and pedestrians and cyclists.通用汽车(General Motors)表示:“当今生产的自动系统远远不足以掌握这些问题的,甚至还不了解所有问题。”不过,日产(Nissan)——与它的合作伙伴雷诺(Renault)合起来是全球第四大汽车制造商——走得比较远,这家日资企业在其硅谷分公司任命了一名专职研究这些伦理问题的研究人员。人类学家梅利莎嬠夫金(Melissa Cefkin)正在研究自动驾驶汽车与行人和骑自行车的人之间的互动。One layer of ethical questions for driverless cars involves scenarios and thought experiments. Daniel Hirsch, an automotive expert at PA Consulting, poses one: “A child runs on the street and the car has only two options — killing the child or killing the old, cancer-suffering driver.” The “correct” response to this situation in one country or culture might be different in another. It might even be illegal — both German and Swiss law say human lives cannot be weighed against one another.无人驾驶汽车伦理问题的一个层面涉及不同情景和思想实验。安咨询(PA Consulting)汽车专家丹尼尔欠希(Daniel Hirsch)提出了一个情景:“一个孩子在街上跑动,汽车只有两个选项:撞死这名儿童,或者使车上的老年癌症患者丧生。”对这个情景,某一国家或文化的“正确”回答在另一个国家或文化也许会不同。这个问题本身可能是非法的——德国和瑞士的法律都规定,不能比较人命孰轻孰重。And what about the position of big business, such as insurers? “There’s a significant number of these cases in which the insurance company would decide differently — for instance, to them a handicapped child is more expensive than a handicapped elderly person due to remaining lifespan,” says Mr Hirsch.那么,保险公司等大企业的立场又如何?赫希表示:“在许多此类案例中,保险公司会做出不同决定——比如,由于剩余的生命期不同,对它们来说残障儿童比残障的老年人更昂贵。”While fully driverless cars remain some years away, highly automated cars with sophisticated crash-prevention technology are on the road today.Toyota wants to build cars that cannot be responsible for a crash, but most modern vehicles have some sort of active safety features. Such considerations are making carmakers take ethical questions seriously.尽管完全无人驾驶的汽车仍是多年以后的事,但是具备先进防撞技术的高度自动化汽车如今已上路行驶。丰田(Toyota)希望打造不可能为车祸负责的汽车,然而多数现代汽车都有某种主动安全功能。这方面的考虑令汽车制造商认真考虑伦理问题。“There is an increasing awareness across all automakers that they have to deal with the psychological issues of these vehicles,” says Hans-Werner Kaas, senior partner at McKinsey, a consultancy. “They’re beefing up their skillset.”咨询公司麦肯锡(McKinsey)高级合伙人汉斯-维尔纳愠斯(Hans-Werner Kaas)表示:“在所有汽车制造商中,越来越多的制造商认识到,它们必须处理与这些汽车有关的心理问题。它们正在充实各自的技能。”These moves underline that the industry is hypersensitive to safety following a series of high-profile recalls of millions of vehicles, meaning the race to adopt new technologies must be approached with caution.这些举措凸显出,在涉及数百万辆汽车的一系列备受关注的召回后——这些事件意味着必须谨慎处理对新技术的竞相采用——汽车业对安全问题极为敏感。Volvo, which has built its brand around safety, typifies that approach. Erik Coelingh, a senior technical leader for safety at the Swedish carmaker, says: “In practice, we have to make sure a car never gets into a situation where it has to make an impossible choice.”围绕安全性打造其品牌的沃尔沃(Volvo)是这一方式的典型。埃里克克林(Erik Coelingh)是这家瑞典汽车制造商主管安全的资深技术主管,他说:“在实践中,我们必须确保汽车永远不会陷入必须做出不可能选择的境地。”That means driving conservatively and observing traffic rules. To underscore the point, Volvo said in October it would accept full civil liability for accidents caused by its self-driving technology. But that is not the same as saying drivers can enter what one BMW executive calls “brain off” mode.这就意味着要保守地驾驶汽车并遵守交通规则。为强调这一点,去年10月沃尔沃表示,将为其自动驾驶技术导致的事故承担全部民事赔偿责任。不过,这与说驾驶员可以进入宝马一名高管所称的“大脑关闭”状态并不是一回事。Facing the full ethical dilemma of autonomous cars is still some years away. California — one of the most forward-looking transport regulators — last month adopted draft rules that would require humans to stay in control of a vehicle at all times, as is written in the Vienna Convention observed by many European countries.人类要到好几年后才会面对自动汽车的全部道德困境。上月,最具前瞻性的交通监管机构之一加利福尼亚州通过了要求人类全程控制汽车的规则草案——就像许多欧洲国家遵守的《维也纳公约》(Vienna Convention)那样。This means fully driverless cars would be “initially excluded from deployment” in California.这意味着完全无人驾驶的汽车最初将不会在加州上路。“We as a society have to decide whether we’re y for a machine, with no driver intervention, to decide what should happen in a critical situation,” says Ian Robertson, BMW’s board member for sales and marketing. “And I’m not sure that we are yet y for that.”宝马主管销售和市场营销的董事会成员伊恩圠伯逊(Ian Robertson)表示:“作为一个社会,我们必须决定我们是否准备让机器在没有驾驶员干预的情况下,在危急关头决定该怎么做。我不肯定我们已做好准备。” /201602/424117Very few things represent summer more than a lemonade stand. I was reminded while visiting my niece#39;s lemonade stand the lessons all business owners can learn from this first step into the entrepreneurial journey。在我看来,这个夏天就是路边的汽水摊。我之所以这么说,是因为我去侄女的汽水摊逗留了一会,惊讶于她的成功创业,而这也是值得所有企业家学习的。Location, Location, Location位置,位置,还是位置!The first thing my niece did well is she put her lemonade stand on the corner of a very busy street。首先,我的侄女把她的汽水摊成功定位于一条非常繁华的街道的拐角处。When starting your business, location is everything. If selling a physical product, you need to ensure an adequate number of physical locations and your product must be visible and easily accessible. Don#39;t make the mistake of believing the hard part is getting a product on the shelf--it#39;s just as difficult (and important) to get the product off the shelf and into your customer#39;s hands。这就好比,当你决定开始创业时,你规划的经营地点则是你成败的关键。如果你打算做实体产品的生意,你就得确保你选的实体店位置,能充分展现你的实体产品的特点并吸引合适。千万别觉得只有把产品放在货架上的什么位置才是最难的一步,而店面的位置场所这同样也很重要,你要确保能够吸引顾客走进店中把你的产品从货架上买走。If you are planning to sell a service, picking a city and location within that city is equally as important. When I started my research company, I placed it in the Perimeter area of Atlanta because it is central to the 5 primary business centers. This location made it easy to travel to customers and have them travel to my location. Atlanta is a good market because of the number of large companies as potential customers。如果你打算开务公司,那么最重要的就是要物色好可行的城市并在该市找到合适的商业场所。当年,我之所以选择在在亚特兰大周边地区开调查公司,是因为它位处5大商业中心核心,方便我同顾客相互往来。而且亚特兰大市场潜力巨大,新兴的大型企业都有可能成为合作伙伴。Timing is Everything时机决定商机!Lemonade stands are in high demand in the summer, but don#39;t have much success in the winter。我们都知道汽水在夏天比较好卖,在冬天就少有人问津。Do some research and know your market. Learn what types of products and services sell best and when. Very few companies I work with are immune to some type of cycle--based on fiscal calendars, seasonal factors or even vacation schedules. You must time entering the market and survive the ebbs and flows that are a natural part of running a business。因此在你决定开始创业时,你要做一些调查,熟悉你要经营的市场。你需要了解到哪种产品和哪种务何时卖得最好。大多数公司都会在不同的季度受到如财政日历、天气因素或是假期等因素的影响。所以你要规划好时间,抓住市场商机,占领市场,也要做好准备应对淡季——做生意总归是有起有伏的。Give a Sample提供样品My niece is very quick to offer up a sample before letting her patrons know the .00 price tag。在让她的顾客知道1美元的价格标签之前,我的侄女飞快的拿出一个样品。You should plan to give away free samples of your products or services. Daniel Lubetzky, creator of the Kind bar, increased his sampling budget from 0 in 2008 to a massive increase in 2009 of 0,000. He credits this increase to the success that Kind is experiencing and now spends upwards of million on efforts to get people to try Kind bars。你必须制定一个计划,宣传你即将发行的产品或务的免费样品。肯德坚果能量条(Kind bar)的创始人,丹尼尔鲁比兹基(Daniel Lubetzky)在2008年投入了800美元的样品预算,而到了2009年则提高至80万的预算。他坚信这将使得肯德更为成功,而随后增加到1000万美元的预算会让更多的人尝试并选择肯德坚果能量条。Who is Selling the Product Matters销售人员至关重要There is no better salesperson for lemonade than my niece. She is enthusiastic about flagging cars down and hustles to get the product in her customers#39; hands。这世上没有比我的侄女更好的汽水摊销售员了。她总是热情地挥舞她的小旗子让汽车停下,穿过车水马龙将产品交到她的顾客手上。Make sure your sales team is just as excited about the product being sold as you are. You need cheerleaders promoting your product or service - not someone who is just there to collect a paycheck. A sales team that understands the product and is enthusiastic about selling it yields higher sales, takes on larger markets and creates more demand. They are willing to attend networking events, promote your product via social media and their efforts will ultimately lead to the greatest success。类似地,你要确保你的销售团队与你一样对产品充满热爱与。你需要的是不断宣传你的产品或务的拉拉队长,而不是只会站在那里等薪水的人。一个好的销售团队不仅对产品十分熟悉,还坚信销售才能创造更高的销售量,占有更多的市场份额,引起更大的需求。因而他们热衷于加入网络营销,通过社会媒体宣传你的产品,而他们的努力最终会带来巨大的成功。Always Have Something to Upsell推广套餐增加盈利My niece had chocolate chip cookies available for upsell and she pushed them to everyone that bought a drink。我的侄女用巧克力薄片饼干作为促销,推销给每一个买饮料的人。When growing a business, don#39;t limit yourself to just one product or service. You may find that your initial product is the giveaway or must be discounted to gain the customer. It#39;s in the upsell that you make the most money. This is especially true in the restaurant space. A burger joint makes very little on the burger. Their profit is found in the milkshakes and fries added to the order。同样地,你的业务会逐渐扩大,你不能只将业务局限在某种产品或务上。你或许会发现你的主打产品逐渐脱离市场或是你必须通过打折来吸引顾客。通过促销,反而赚更最多。尤其是餐饮业如汉堡店,他们销售的汉堡的利润很小,但利润主要来源于汉堡套餐中的奶昔和菜单上的油炸食品。The hardest part is getting your customer in the door; increase your profit by adding on to their sale. What else can you offer?其实销售最难的部分便是吸引你的顾客上门,推销套餐商品,获取更多的利润。除了这些你还能提供别的什么吗?Some of the most important lessons in sales can be learned from the simplicity of a lemonade stand。如果你还是不知道的话,可以来参观我侄女的汽水摊,从最平凡不过的汽水摊上学到一些重要的销售课程。 /201508/392659WASHINGTON — In an investigation involving guns and drugs, the Justice Department obtained a court order this summer demanding that Apple turn over, in real time, text messages between suspects using iPhones.华盛顿——今年夏天,在一起涉及和毒品的调查中,美国司法部获得了法院命令,要求苹果(Apple)实时提交使用iPhone的嫌疑人之间的短信。Apple’s response: Its iMessage system was encrypted and the company could not comply.苹果的回应是:iMessage系统是加密的,所以公司无法提交。Government officials had warned for months that this type of standoff was inevitable as technology companies like Apple and Google embraced tougher encryption. The case, coming after several others in which similar requests were rebuffed, prompted some senior Justice Department and F.B.I. officials to advocate taking Apple to court, several current and former law enforcement officials said.在此之前的多个月里,政府官员就不断发出警告:随着苹果、谷歌(Google)等科技公司开始采用更加严格的加密方案,这种僵局是不可避免的。一些现任和前任执法人员表示,在此案发生之前,还有其他几次类似的要求也遭到拒绝,导致司法部和联邦调查局(FBI)的一些高级官员主张把苹果公司告上法庭。While that prospect has been shelved for now, the Justice Department is engaged in a court dispute with another tech company, Microsoft. The case, which goes before a federal appeals court in New York on Wednesday and is being closely watched by industry officials and civil liberties advocates, began when the company refused to comply with a warrant in December 2013 for emails from a drug trafficking suspect. Microsoft said federal officials would have to get an order from an Irish court, because the emails were stored on servers in Dublin.虽然此事被暂时搁置到一边,司法部却正在与另一家科技公司微软(Microsoft)对簿公堂。位于纽约的一家联邦上诉法院本周三将审理该案,行业人士和公民自由权益提倡者正在密切关注。该案的起因是2013年12月,法院开出一份搜查令,要求微软提供一名贩毒嫌疑人的电子邮件,但微软拒绝从,表示联邦官员必须获得爱尔兰法院的命令,因为那些邮件储存在都柏林的务器里。The conflicts with Apple and Microsoft reflect heightened corporate resistance, in the post-Edward J. Snowden era, by American technology companies intent on demonstrating that they are trying to protect customer information.政府与苹果和微软之间的这些冲突,反应了企业在“后爱德华·J·斯诺登(Edward J. Snowden)时代”施加的阻力有所加大,因为美国科技公司想要表明,自己在努力保护用户的信息。“It’s become all wrapped up in Snowden and privacy issues,” said George J. Terwilliger III, a lawyer who represents technology companies and as a Justice Department official two decades ago faced the challenge of how to wiretap phone networks that were becoming more digital.“这些事都演变为围绕着斯诺登和隐私问题,”代表科技公司的律师乔治·J·特威利格三世(George J. Terwilliger III)说。他二十年前在司法部任职,当时电话网络正变得日益数字化,因此他曾面临如何窃听的挑战。President Obama has charged White House Homeland Security and cybersecurity officials, along with those at the Justice Department, the F.B.I. and the intelligence agencies, with proposing solutions — some legislative, some not — to the technology access issue. They are still hashing out their differences, according to law enforcement and administration officials.奥巴马总统让白宫的国土安全和网络安全官员,连同司法部、联邦调查局及各情报机构的官员一起,提出一些方案——部分涉及立法,部分不涉及——来解决从科技公司获得信息的问题。根据执法官员和奥巴马政府内部人士的说法,目前他们还在努力消除彼此间的分歧。Some Justice and F.B.I. officials have been frustrated that the White House has not moved more quickly or been more outspoken in the public relations fight that the tech companies appear to be winning, the law enforcement officials said, speaking only on condition of anonymity because they were not authorized to discuss the private conversations.多名执法官员表示,司法部和联邦调查局的一些官员感到不快,他们觉得白宫行动太慢,在公关大战中不够慷慨陈词,似乎被科技公司占据了上风。由于没有获得私下讨论的许可,这些官员不愿具名。The White House, after months of study, has yet to articulate a public response to the argument that a victory in the Microsoft case would provide authoritarian governments, particularly the Chinese and Russians, with a way to get access into computer servers located in the ed States.有人提出,如果微软这次败诉,那么极权政府——尤其是中国和俄罗斯——就可能会获得一条途径,从位于美国的计算机务器上取得信息。白宫已经研究了数月之久,但尚未公开阐明对这种观点的回应。“Clearly, if the U.S. government wins, the door is open for other governments to reach into data centers in the U.S.,” Brad Smith, Microsoft’s general counsel, said in a recent interview. Companies and civil liberties groups have been sending in briefs of their own, largely opposing the government’s surveillance powers.“很显然,如果美国政府获胜,大门就会敞开,其他国家的政府就可以从美国的数据中心获取数据了,”微软的总法律顾问布拉德·史密斯(Brad Smith)在近期的一次采访中说。公司和公民自由组织在散发自己的宣传资料,主要是表示反对政府掌握监视的权力。At issue are two types of encoding. The first is end-to-end encryption, which Apple uses in its iMessage system and FaceTime, the conversation system. Companies like Open Whisper Systems, the maker of Signal, and WhatsApp have adopted such encryption for stand-alone apps, which are of particular concern to counterterrorism investigators.问题关乎两种类型的编码。一种是端到端加密,苹果公司在iMessage和视频聊天务FaceTime中就使用了这种方式。Signal所属的Open Whisper Systems公司和WhatsApp在单独的应用上也采用了这种加密方式,而此类应用是反恐调查人员尤其关注的一个问题。With Apple, the encryption and decryption is done by the phones at either end of the conversation; Apple does not keep copies of the message unless one of the users loads it into iCloud, where it is not encrypted. (In the drug and gun investigation this summer, Apple eventually turned over some stored iCloud messages. While they were not the real-time texts the government most wanted, officials said they saw it as a sign of cooperation.)在苹果公司,加密和解密都是由其中一方的通话手机来进行的。苹果没有相关讯息的备份,除非一方用户将其上传到不加密的iCloud上。(在今夏那起毒品和调查中,苹果最后还是移交了存储在iCloud上的部分讯息。尽管它们不是政府最想要的实时短信,但官员表示,他们认为这是合作的标志。)The second type of encoding involves sophisticated encryption software on Apple and Android phones, which makes it all but impossible for anyone except the user of the phone to open stored content — pictures, contacts, saved text messages and more — without an access code. The F.B.I. and local authorities oppose the technology, saying it put them at risk of “going dark” on communications between terrorists and about criminal activity on city streets. The American military is more divided on the issue, depending on the mission.第二种编码涉及苹果和Android手机上的复杂的加密软件。有了它们,除手机用户外,任何人在没有访问码的情况下几乎都不可能打开存储内容,如照片、联系人、保存下来的短信等。FBI和地方当局反对这项技术,称它让自身面临对通讯信息一无所知的风险,而相关通讯会涉及恐怖分子,以及街头犯罪活动。美国军方在这个问题上则存在一定的分歧,具体情况视任务而定。Officials say a court fight with Apple is still an option, though they acknowledge it would be a long shot. Some object that a legal battle would make it harder for the companies to compromise, the law enforcement officials said. They added that Apple and other companies have privately expressed willingness to find common ground.官员称,与苹果对薄公堂依然是选择之一,但他们承认,成功的可能性很小。执法官员称,一些人持反对意见,认为打官司会导致科技企业更难妥协。他们还表示,苹果等公司私下里表示愿意寻找共同点。Apple declined to comment on the case for this article. But company officials have argued publicly that the access the government wants could be exploited by hackers and endanger privacy.苹果拒绝为本文该案。但公司领导层曾公开表示,政府希望获得的访问权限可能会被黑客利用,危及隐私。“There’s another attack on our civil liberties that we see heating up every day — it’s the battle over encryption,” Tim Cook, the company’s chief executive, told a conference on electronic privacy this year. “We think this is incredibly dangerous.”“我们看到,又一场针对公民自由的攻击每天都在升温,它就是围绕加密展开的斗争,”苹果首席执行官蒂姆·库克(Tim Cook)在今年的一次有关电子隐私的会议上说。“我们认为这种情况极其危险。”Echoing the arguments of industry experts, he added, “If you put a key under the mat for the cops, a burglar can find it, too.” If criminals or countries “know there’s a key hidden somewhere, they won’t stop until they find it,” he concluded.接下来,他重复了行业专家的观点,“如果为了给警察行方便而把钥匙放在门垫下,那么窃贼也能找到。”如果罪犯或某些国家“知道有一把钥匙藏在某个地方,那么他们不找到钥匙是不会罢休的,”他总结道。The Microsoft case centers on whether the fact that data is stored around the world relieves American firms of turning it over. The government, which won in Federal District Court, has argued in its brief to the appeals court that where the data is stored is irrelevant because the company still has control of email records. The White House declined to comment because the case is in litigation.微软一案的核心是,数据存放在世界各地这个事实,是否能免除美国公司移交数据的责任。在联邦地区法院胜诉的政府在给上诉法院的案情摘要中称,数据存放在哪里无关紧要,因为微软依然控制着电子邮件记录。因为案件正在诉讼过程中,白宫拒绝置评。“People want to know what law will be applied to their data,” Mr. Smith of Microsoft said. “French want their rights under French law, and Brazilians under Brazilian law. What is the U.S. government going to do when other governments reach into the U.S. data centers, without notifying the U.S. government?”“大家想知道他们的数据会适用什么法律,”微软的史密斯说。“法国人希望用法国的法律保护自己的权利,巴西人希望用巴西的法律。假如其他国家的政府无需通知美国政府就能进入美国的数据中心,美国政府会怎么做?”Chinese firms aly have plans to build facilities on American soil that would store electronic communications, so the question may be more than hypothetical. In its brief, Microsoft argues that Congress will ultimately have to weigh in on the issue, since it is as much a political matter as a legal one: “Only Congress has the institutional competence and constitutional authority to balance law enforcement needs against our nation’s sovereignty, the privacy of its citizens and the competitiveness of its industry.”中国公司已经打算在美国境内修建设施,用以存放电子通讯信息,所以这个问题并非凭空想象。在案情摘要中,微软认为国会最终将不得不介入此事,因为这既是一个政治问题,也是一个法律问题:“只有国会拥有相应的制度能力和宪法权力来平衡执法需求与国家主权、公民隐私和业界竞争力之间的关系。” /201509/397738

  WASHINGTON — Apple engineers have begun developing new security measures that would make it impossible for the government to break into a locked iPhone using methods similar to those now at the center of a court fight in California, according to people close to the company and security experts.华盛顿——据公司知情人士和安全专家称,苹果公司(Apple)的工程师已经开始研发新的安全手段,令政府不可能强行进入一部加锁的iPhone,新手段使用的方法,和目前卷入加州一场诉讼中的方法类似。If Apple succeeds in upgrading its security — and experts say it almost surely will — the company will create a significant technical challenge for law enforcement agencies, even if the Obama administration wins its fight over access to data stored on an iPhone used by one of the killers in last year’s San Bernardino, Calif., rampage. If the Federal Bureau of Investigation wanted to get into a phone in the future, it would need a new way to do so. That would most likely prompt a new cycle of court fights and, yet again, more technical fixes by Apple.为了进入去年制造加州圣贝纳迪诺惨案的一名凶手所使用过的iPhone,获取存于其中的数据,奥巴马政府正和苹果展开斗争,而一旦成功进行此次安全升级——专家称几乎可以肯定苹果公司能做到——苹果将给执法部门制造一个极大的技术难题,即便政府赢得诉讼胜利也无法改变这一点。今后联邦调查局(FBI)若再要进入一部iPhone,就必须另想办法。这很有可能将引发又一轮的法庭诉讼,进而令苹果再做出更多的技术修补。The only way out of this scenario, experts say, is for Congress to get involved. Federal wiretapping laws require traditional phone carriers to make their data accessible to law enforcement agencies. But tech companies like Apple and Google are not covered, and they have strongly resisted legislation that would place similar requirements on them.专家称,这样的局面下,唯一的出路是让国会参与进来。联邦窃听法要求传统手机运营商向执法部门提供其持有的数据。但苹果和谷歌(Google)这样的科技公司并不在规定范围内,它们此前也曾强烈反对通过立法对它们做出同样的要求。“We are in for an arms race unless and until Congress decides to clarify who has what obligations in situations like this,” said Benjamin Wittes, a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution.“我们这是在展开一场军备竞赛,唯有等国会出来明确,像这样的情况下,各方应该尽何种义务,”布鲁金斯学会(Brookings Institution)高级研究员本杰明·维茨(Benjamin Wittes)说。Companies have always searched for software bugs and patched holes to keep their code secure from hackers. But since the revelations of government surveillance made by Edward J. Snowden, companies have been retooling their products to protect against government intrusion.企业从来都会搜寻软件臭虫(bug),修补漏洞,以让自己的代码免遭黑客侵扰。但自爱德华·J·斯诺登(Edward J. Snowden)披露政府的监控措施以来,各公司便开始更新其产品,防御政府的侵入。For Apple, security is also a global marketing strategy. New security measures would not only help the company in its fight with the government, but also reassure investors and customers.对苹果来说,安全还是一项全球市场战略。新的安全手段不但能帮助公司与政府展开对抗,还能增强投资人和顾客的信心。“For all of those people who want to have a voice but they’re afraid, we are standing up, and we are standing up for our customers because protecting them we view as our job,” Apple’s chief executive, Timothy D. Cook, said on Wednesday in an interview with A News.“为了那些出于恐惧不敢发声的人,我们决定挺身上前,我们要为用户而战,因为保护他们是我们的职责,”苹果首席执行官蒂莫西·D·库克(Timothy D. Cook)周三在A新闻频道(A News)接受采访时说。The company first raised the prospect of a security update last week in a phone call with reporters, who asked why the company would allow firmware — the software at the heart of the iPhone — to be modified without requiring a user password.安全升级的打算是上周在一次记者电话会议上首次提出的,当时记者问为什么公司可以在不需要用户密码的情况下改动固件——iPhone的核心软件。One senior executive, speaking on the condition of anonymity, replied that it was safe to bet that security would continue to improve. Separately, a person close to the company, who also spoke on the condition of anonymity, confirmed this week that Apple engineers had begun work on a solution even before the San Bernardino attack. A company spokeswoman declined to comment on what she called rumors and speculation.一位要求匿名的高管答称,可以十分肯定地说,安全将会不断得到改进。一位同样要求匿名的公司知情人士本周在另一场合表示,苹果工程师的确在圣贝纳迪诺袭击之前就已经着手于一个解决方案。苹果公司一名女发言人称这些都是传闻和猜测,并拒绝置评。Independent experts say they have held informal conversations with Apple engineers over the last week about the vulnerability. Exactly how Apple will address the issue is unclear. Security experts who have been studying Apple’s phone security say it is technically possible to fix.一些独立专家称,上周他们和苹果工程师就安全防御弱点进行了非正式的讨论。苹果具体会如何处理这一问题尚不得而知。研究苹果手机安全的安全专家称,技术上讲这些弱点是可以修补的。“There are probably 50 different ideas we have all sent to Apple,” said Jonathan Zdziarski, a security researcher.“我们大概总共向苹果提了50个不同的想法,”安全研究员乔纳森·兹阿尔斯基(Jonathan Zdziarski)说。Apple built its recent operating systems to protect customer information. As Mr. Cook wrote in a recent letter to customers, “We have even put that data out of our own reach, because we believe the contents of your iPhone are none of our business.”苹果从保护用户信息的角度开发了近年的操作系统。库克近日在一封致顾客的公开信中说,“我们甚至把数据放在了我们自己都无法取得的地方,因为我们相信,你们放在iPhone中的内容不关我们的事。”But there is a catch. Each iPhone has a built-in troubleshooting system that lets the company update the system software without the need for a user to enter a passcode. Apple designed that feature to make it easier to repair malfunctioning phones.但这里面有一个问题。每部iPhone都有一个内置的故障排除系统,让公司可以在无需用户输入口令的情况下更新系统软件。苹果设计这个特性的目的是方便维修运转失常的手机。In the San Bernardino case, the F.B.I. wants to exploit that troubleshooting system by forcing Apple to write and install new software that strips away several security features, making it much easier for the government to hack into the phone. The phone in that case is an old model, but experts and former Apple employees say that a similar approach could also be used to alter software on newer phones. That is the vulnerability Apple is working to fix.在圣贝纳迪诺案中,FBI希望利用这个故障排除系统,为此他们强迫苹果编写和安装新的软件,把多个安全特性去掉,大大降低政府侵入该手机的难度。本案涉及的是一部老款iPhone,但专家和前苹果雇员说,类似手法可以用于改动更新的型号。这就是苹果打算修补的薄弱环节。Apple regularly publishes security updates and gives credit to researchers who hunt for bugs in the company’s software. “Usually, bug reports come in an email saying, ‘Dear Apple Security, we’ve discovered a flaw in your product,’ ” said Chris Soghoian, a technology analyst with the American Civil Liberties Union. “This bug report has come in the form of a court order.” 苹果定期发布安全升级,并在公司的软件中明确那些找到臭虫的研究人员的贡献。“通常来说,臭虫报告就是一封邮件,说‘亲爱的苹果安全部门,我们在你们的产品里发现了一个缺陷,’”美国公民自由联盟(American Civil Liberties Union)技术分析师克里斯托弗·索戈延(Christopher Soghoian)说。“这次的臭虫报告是一纸法庭判令。”The court order to which Mr. Soghoian referred was issued last week by a federal judge magistrate, and tells Apple to write and install the code sought by the F.B.I. Apple has promised to challenge that order. Its lawyers have until Friday to file its opposition in court.索戈延提到的判令是上周由一名联邦治安法官发出的,命令要求苹果编写和安装FBI所需的代码。苹果已经承诺要挑战该命令。公司律师需在周五前向法院递交异议书。In many ways, Apple’s response continues a trend that has persisted in Silicon Valley since Mr. Snowden’s revelations. Yahoo, for instance, left its email service unencrypted for years. After Mr. Snowden revealed the National Security Agency surveillance, the company quickly announced plans to encrypt email. Google similarly moved to fix a vulnerability that the government was using to hack into company data centers.从许多方面看,苹果的反应延续了硅谷自斯诺登披露以来的一种趋势。比如,雅虎(Yahoo)的邮件务多年来一直是不加密的。在斯诺登披露国家安全局(National Security Agency)的监控后,该公司很快宣布了对电子邮件进行加密的计划。谷歌也同样采取行动,修补了一个政府用来潜入公司数据中心的安全薄弱环节。Apple’s showdown with the Justice Department is different in one important way. Now that the government has tried to force Apple to hack its own code, security officials say, the company must view itself as the vulnerability.但苹果与司法部(Justice Department)的对决有一个非常重要的不同之处。安全官员说,现在政府要强迫苹果去破解自己的代码,公司必须把自己当做一个薄弱环节来看待。“This is the first time that Apple has been included in their own threat model,” Mr. Zdziarski said. “I don’t think Apple ever considered becoming a compelled arm of the government.”“这是苹果第一次被纳入到他们自己的威胁模型中,”兹阿尔斯基说。“我认为苹果肯定不希望被逼着成为政府的一个附属机构。”The F.B.I. director, James B. Comey Jr., signaled this week that he expected Apple to change its security, saying that the phone-cracking tool the government sought in the San Bernardino case was “increasingly obsolete.” He said that supported the government’s argument that it was not seeking a skeleton key to hack into all iPhones.FBI局长小詹姆斯·B·科米(James B. Comey Jr.)本周表示,他希望苹果改变其安全策略,并称政府在圣贝纳迪诺案中寻求获取的手机破解工具已经“越来越过时了”。他的言论持了政府的主张,即它并不打算得到一把能破解所有iPhone的万能钥匙。Apple, though, says the case could set a precedent for forcing company engineers to write code to help the government break into any iPhone. “The U.S. government has asked us for something we simply do not have, and something we consider too dangerous to create,” Mr. Cook said in his letter.不过苹果认为该案会创下强迫公司工程师编写代码,帮助政府侵入任一iPhone的先例。“美国政府要求我们拿出的东西,是我们没有的,也是我们认为不该去创造的,因为它们太过危险,”库克在信中说。The heated back-and-forth between the government and technology companies is, at least in part, a function of the Obama administration’s strategy. The White House has said it will not ask Congress to pass a law requiring tech companies to give the F.B.I. a way to gain access to customer data. That has left the Justice Department to fight for access one phone at a time, in court cases that often go unnoticed.这场政府和科技公司的激烈交锋,至少在一定程度上是奥巴马政府的策略造成的。白宫此前表示不会请求国会通过法律,要求科技公司向FBI提供获取用户数据的方式。这就让司法部通过一些往往无人关注的诉讼,去逐个争取进入这些手机的办法。While it is generally accepted that Silicon Valley’s tech giants can outgun the government in a technical fight, the companies do face one important limitation. Security features often come at the expense of making products slower or clunkier.人们普遍认为,硅谷科技巨头在一场技术争议中可以压制政府,但企业也面临着一个重要的限制。追求安全特性,往往要付出产品变得更慢、更迟钝的代价。Apple’s brand is built around creating products that are sleek and intuitive. A security solution that defeats the F.B.I. is unworkable if it frustrates consumers. One of the impediments to encrypting all the data in Apple’s iCloud servers, for instance, has been finding a way to ensure that customers can easily retrieve and recover photos and other information stored there.苹果通过创造流畅且顺应直觉的产品来建立其品牌形象。如果一个能击败FBI的安全解决方案会令消费者感到困扰,那就是不可取的。例如,将苹果iCloud务器上的所有数据加密就会造成困难,其中一点是要找到一种办法,让用户可以方便地找回密码,恢复存储于其中的照片和其他信息。“Telling a member of the public that they’re going to lose all the family photos they’ve ever taken because they forgot their password is a really tough sell,” Mr. Soghoian said. “A company wants to sell products to the public.”“要对一个公众人士说,由于他们忘记了密码,他们迄今为止拍下的家庭照片将全部丢失,那可是说不过去的,”索戈延说。“企业终归是要向公众出售产品。” /201603/428736

  A Chinese state-controlled technology group has terminated a .8bn plan to become the largest shareholder in data storage group Western Digital, after the investment was flagged for an investigation by US authorities.中国政府控股的一家高科技集团终止了成为美国数据存储集团——西部数据(Western Digital)最大股东的38亿美元投资计划。此前美国当局指明要调查这笔投资。Yesterday a unit of Tsinghua Unigroup, China’s most ambitious overseas acquirer in the chipmaking sector, said it would abandon a deal agreed last September that would have seen it acquire a stake of about 15 per cent.清华紫光(Tsinghua Unigroup)是中国在芯片制造领域境外收购最雄心勃勃的集团。昨天,该集团的一个部门表示,将放弃去年9月达成的一宗交易,按照协议该集团原本会收购约15%的股份。Shares in Western Digital had slumped more than 6 per cent by late yesterday morning, to .93. The California-based company said the deal with Tsinghua had fallen apart after a decision by the Committee on Foreign Investment in the ed States (Cfius) to investigate the transaction.昨天接近中午时分,西部数据股价下滑逾6%,至每股42.93美元。这家总部位于加利福尼亚州的企业表示,在美国外国投资委员会(CFIUS)决定调查该交易之后,与清华紫光达成的交易已破裂。The move comes at a time when Chinese companies are striking large overseas deals at the fastest pace in history, even as concerns remain about their ability to close the transactions.这种局面出现之际,中国企业正以史上最快节奏在境外发起大规模收购——尽管有关它们能否完成交易的担忧挥之不去。Shares in Western Digital have fallen sharply in the past year. This has affected both the value of its bn cash and stock acquisition of SanDisk, a flash-memory disk maker, as well as the premium of the investment from Unisplendour, the Tsinghua subsidiary.过去一年里西部数据的股价急剧下滑。这不仅影响了该集团以现金和股票形式对闪存盘制造商晟碟(SanDisk)的190亿美元收购的价值,也影响了清华紫光子公司紫光控股(Unisplendour)对其投资的溢价。The deal would have seen Tsinghua given the right to nominate one person to the board of Western Digital. Neither company would incur a termination fee, Western Digital said.按照协议,清华紫光原本能通过该交易获得在西部数据董事会提名一位董事的权利。西部数据表示,双方均无需付解约金。One Washington-based lawyer said it was odd for Tsinghua to walk away from the deal as the government had only said it would investigate the investment, not that it would block the deal.一位驻华盛顿的律师表示,由于美国政府只是表示会调查(而不是封杀)这一交易,清华紫光退出该交易有点奇怪。“All that happened here was that Cfius said it was a covered transaction and that they would look into it,” he said. “The Chinese were getting a board seat and a joint venture was being formed, so of course they would review it.”他说:“CFIUS只是表示该交易属于其调查范围,他们会对其开展调查,这就是事情的全部。中国人将获得一个董事会席位,双方将成立一家合资企业。出于这个原因,他们当然会审查这一交易。”The collapse marks the second time this year such a transaction has collapsed due to scrutiny by Cfius, the US body which reviews foreign investments for national security concerns.这一交易的破裂是今年第二宗因CFIUS审查而破裂的交易。CFIUS是从国家安全角度对外来投资开展审查的美国机构。 /201602/428509

  After witnessing growing interest in paid content in China, Amazon Kindle officially unveiled a new subscription service on Tuesday that offers all-you-can- digital books for 12 yuan (.84) per month.在见了中国对付内容产生日益浓厚兴趣之后,亚马逊Kindle官方于上周二正式推出一项新的订阅务,每月花12元即可畅读所有你能读的电子书。The service called Kindle Unlimited gives Chinese subscribers access to a collection of more than 40,000 Chinese language e-books and 3,500 English e-books, including best-sellers by popular Chinese and foreign authors such as Han Han, Yi Zhongtian and Higashino Keigo.这项务名叫Kindle Unlimited,订购该务的中国用户可以阅读超过4万本中文电子书、3500本英文电子书,韩寒、易中天、东野圭吾等受欢迎的中外作家所著畅销书均在其列。The service supports Kindle devices and smartphones, computers and tablets with Kindle apps.该务持Kindle设备,以及安装了Kindle应用程序的智能手机、电脑、平板电脑。The service is aimed to provide Chinese customers a more flexible way to and to foster China#39;s nascent e-book market, said Gu Fan, the head of Kindle content product management at Amazon China.在亚马逊中国负责Kindle内容产品管理的顾凡表示,该项务的目标是为中国客户提供更灵活的方式来阅读以及培育中国初生的电子书市场。Amazon launched its Kindle e-book store in China in December 2012. It saw the number of active paid ers per month shoot up about 37 times by the end of 2015.亚马逊于2012年12月在中国推出的Kindle电子书商店。截止2015年年底,活跃的付费用户的数字每月已经迅速增长到了最一开始的37倍。The Kindle Unlimited service was launched when China saw a drop in the number of books being by its people.随着中国人阅读书籍的数量持续下跌,Kindle Unlimited这项务应运而生。Zhu Ning, an economist, who recently published a book named The Guaranteed Bubble, said the number of books by Chinese people is ;embarrassingly low;.一位名叫朱宁的经济学家近日出版了一本名为The Guaranteed Bubble的书籍,在书中他就指出,中国人的阅读书籍的数量现在是;低得让人难堪;。However, for the sustainable development of the subscription service, Kindle needs to get more publishers and authors to participate.但是,为了让订阅务可持续发展,Kindle还需要让更多的出版商和作者加入进来。 /201602/428354。


  America’s largest technology companies have joined Apple’s fight against the government over data protection and security, in an unusual display of unity by the Silicon Valley rivals. 美国大型科技公司纷纷加入苹果(Apple)的战队,持后者就数据保护和安全与美国政府进行斗争。这些相互竞争的硅谷公司在此事上表现出了异乎寻常的团结。 More than a dozen motions filed on Thursday sided with Apple as it tries to resist a demand to write software that would help the FBI unlock the San Bernardino shooter’s iPhone. Civil liberties groups and IT trade associations lined up alongside dozens of law professors and cryptography experts, after Apple filed its own motion for the judicial order to be withdrawn last week. 周四,这些公司提交了十几份动议,持苹果努力抵制一项要其编写软件帮美国联邦调查局(FBI)解锁圣贝纳迪诺击案凶手iPhone的要求。上周苹果提交要求撤销这一法庭令的动议后,公民自由组织、信息科技行业协会以及数十名法学教授和密码学专家联合起来站在苹果一边。 “If the government prevails, then this case will be the first of many requiring companies to degrade the security and to undermine the trust in their products so essential to privacy in the digital age,” the American Civil Liberties Union wrote in its brief. 美国公民自由联盟(American Civil Liberties Union)在其案情摘要中写道:“如果政府获胜,那么此案将催生许多要求企业降低安全和自毁人们对其产品信任的案子,而在这个数字化时代,安全和信任对于隐私有着至关重要的意义。” James Comey, FBI chief, warned at a congressional hearing this week of the dangers of creating “warrant-proof spaces”, saying: “The tools we use to keep you safe are becoming less and less effective.” FBI局长詹姆斯#8226;科米(James Comey)本周在美国国会听会上针对造就“抗令状空间”的危险发出警告,他表示:“我们用来保护人们安全的手段正逐渐失去效力。” In one heavyweight grouping led by Google, Microsoft, Facebook and Amazon, 15 tech companies collectively worth more than tn said the government’s order against Apple “exceeds the bounds of existing law and, when applied more broadly, will harm Americans’ security in the long run”. 以谷歌(Google)、微软(Microsoft)、Facebook和亚马逊(Amazon)为首、合计市值超过2万亿美元的15家重量级科技公司表示,美国政府对苹果的命令“逾越了现行法律的界限,若被更加广泛地采用,终将损害美国人的安全。” The companies, who also include Cisco, Dropbox, Snapchat and Yahoo and are together used by billions of people around the world, noted that they “often compete vigorously with Apple — and with each other” but “here speak in one voice because of the singular importance of this case to them and their customers”. Users were demanding increased protection from hackers as they store more and more personal information on devices such as smartphones, they said. 这些公司还包括思科(Cisco)、Dropbox、Snapchat和雅虎(Yahoo!),它们在全世界合计拥有数十亿用户。这些公司指出,它们“与苹果、以及彼此之间经常展开激烈竞争”,但“现在以一个声音发声,是因为此案对它们以及它们的用户有着独特的重要性”。它们表示,随着用户往智能手机等设备里存储的个人信息越来越多,他们也在要求加强保护措施、防止黑客侵入。 While being careful to note that they were not “shielding those who break the law”, the group said it wanted to resist the government’s attempt to “commandeer a company’s own engineers to undermine their products’ data security features”. If their engineers were forced to rewrite their software in this way, “those new versions would not be the same product any more. Box would not be Box; Gmail would not be Gmail; WhatsApp would not be WhatsApp; and so on”. 这些企业谨慎地指出,它们并不是在“保护犯法者”,而是想抵制政府“强征一家企业的工程师去破坏他们产品数据安全特性”的企图。如果以这种方式迫使它们的工程师重写它们的软件,“那些新的版本将不再是原来的产品。Box将不再是Box,Gmail将不再是Gmail,WhatsApp将不再是WhatsApp,别的也是如此。” A second group of tech companies including Airbnb, Twitter, LinkedIn, Reddit and eBay made a separate filing accusing the government of “circumventing the procedures adopted by Congress” to “enlist the judiciary in re-writing laws without engaging in an essential public debate”. 包括Airbnb、Twitter、领英(LinkedIn)、Reddit和eBay在内的另一群科技公司也提交了动议,谴责政府“绕开国会通过的流程,在不展开必要的公开辩论的情况下就拉司法部门重写法律。” /201603/430527


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