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襄阳保康人民医院可以治疗漏尿症吗襄阳治前列腺Books and Arts; Book Review;Diana Athills letters;Dear Edward;文艺;书评;戴安娜·阿西尔的信;致亲爱的爱德华;Instead of a Book: Letters to a Friend. By Diana Athill.并不是一本书,只是些给朋友的信。戴安娜·阿西尔著。Diana Athill was well past normal retirement age when she wrote a series of memoirs that made her a cult figure. As a young woman she had written a novel, a collection of short stories and a cathartic memoir about being jilted by her lover. But her literary skills went mainly into editing the books of others at André Deutsch, a London publisher, where she worked for decades until she was 75. Near the end of this career she started writing again, and over the next 22 years she produced five more memoirs, including “Stet”, an acclaimed account of her editing life, working with authors such as Philip Roth and John Updike, published when she was 83. She finished with “Somewhere Towards the End”, about getting old, for which she earned the Costa Biography prize as well as an OBE in .当戴安娜·阿西尔完成自己的系列回忆录,备受追捧的时候,她早已经过了正常退休年龄。年轻的时候,她也写过一部小说,一本短篇故事集,还有一本宣泄感情的回忆录,记述的是她被爱人抛弃的故事。但是她在伦敦André Deutsch出版社工作期间,其文学上的天赋主要投入了编辑出版别人的书,而这一做就是几十年,直到她七十五岁才退休。在她职业生涯结束之际,她重新执笔开始创作,在接下来的22年间先后又出版了五部回忆录。其中包括她83岁那年出版的回忆录《留存》。这本书记录了她当年和像菲利普.罗斯、约翰·厄普代克这样的作家一起共事的记忆,称颂了自己的编辑生活。此后,她凭借《终点前某处》(有关老年生活)的创作,于年获得科斯塔文学奖同时被授予大英帝国勋章。Now 93, Miss Athill still takes speaking engagements, but her writing seems to be behind her. So it is good to have this new collection of her letters to Edward Field, a close friend, spanning a period of 26 years. This is not just squeezing the lemon for a bit more juice. By their nature these letters are quite different from the polished prose of the memoirs. They are spontaneous and unstructured, full of daily minutiae (visits to the dentist, car trouble, useless builders) and delightful snippets from her colourful personal life. She gossips about mutual friends and tells stories about the literary world she is immersed in (“I am going to have an interesting lunch tomorrow with the mistress dumped by Vida Naipaul when he married his Indian wife”). Mr Field, a poet six years her junior, is gay, so he was never one of her many lovers, but the relationship is clearly very close, both personally and professionally.现龄93岁的阿西尔女士仍然会去做演讲,不过她在写作方面似乎没有跟上。所以说这本新鲜出炉的书信集是一次很好的尝试。其收信人是阿西尔女士一位的密友爱德华·菲尔德,信件的时间跨度则有26年之长。这可不只是为了多榨点汁而去挤柠檬。从其本质来说,这些书信与回忆录里那些优美的散文可谓是大相径庭。这都是发自肺腑之言,随性而为的叙述,满是日常生活的细枝末节(像看牙医,交通纠纷,失效的洗选强化剂),还有她丰富多的私生活里那些幸福的片段。她闲话自己的好朋友,也会说些关于那个她所沉浸其中的文学世界的故事(“我明天要和被韦达·奈保尔抛弃的那个女人一起吃午饭,这一定很有趣,要知道韦达要娶个印度女人”)。菲尔德比阿西尔小六岁,是一位诗人,不过是同性恋,因此他也绝不会成为阿西尔的众多情人之一,但是很显然他们之间的关系不论是私交还是在专业领域都非常亲密。For all Miss Athills pleas of relative poverty, hers has been a privileged life. Raised in a grand country house, she lived for decades in Primrose Hill, a salubrious bit of London, in a house belonging to a cousin (a journalist at The Economist, it so happens), with weekends in the cousins Norfolk cottage and lots of trips to places like Venice and the Caribbean. When money seemed tight, cash always turned up from somewhere. Her voice on the page is that of an upper-middle-class Englishwoman—good things are “dear” or “darling”, bad things are “tiresome”, “horrid” or “vile”. But she also swears like a trooper and does not care what people think.尽管阿西尔一直声辩自己比较穷困,她的生活其实非常优越。在豪华的郊区住宅长大的她,之后在伦敦环境宜人的樱草花山也住了有几十年。房子是她一个表兄的(经济学人的记者,很巧),周末则到她表兄的诺福克别墅去小住,没事就去像、加勒比海这样的地方旅行。手头紧的时候,钞票总是又会在哪冒出来。字里行间透露的是那种中上层阶级英国女性的调调:好的事情则叫“宝贝”呀,“亲爱的”呀,糟糕的事情则说“讨人嫌”呀,“讨厌”呀,或者是“糟透了”。但是她也会像巡警一样破口大骂,完全不在乎别人怎么想。Miss Athill did not keep the letters she received from Mr Field. When he suggested that hers be made into a book, she had reservations about “publishing ones private conversation”, particularly if it meant printing only “half the conversation”. Luckily he persuaded her, and the result makes for addictive eavesdropping. Miss Athill writes beautifully, even about mundane subjects, and it is fascinating to follow the change in her preoccupations with advancing years. The letters are frank about the indignities of getting old, from hearing aids to cataract operations, and about the burdens of looking after Barry, her increasingly ailing Jamaican partner.阿西尔女士并没有保留菲尔德给她写的信。最初还是菲尔德建议她把自己那部分的信件整理出来出本书,但阿西尔对于“公开私人谈话”的做法还是有所保留,尤其如果是要仅仅发表“一半的谈话内容”。幸亏菲尔德说了她,结果这本书出来让人们迷上了“窃听”。阿西尔的文字非常漂亮,即使是写微不足道的小事也毫不逊色。读者会情不自禁地跟随她,关注她一直所关心的事情随着年华逝去将会如何变化。阿西尔在信中坦率地表达了老年生活的窘困,从助听器到白内障手术,还有照顾她那位病情日甚一日的牙买加伴侣——巴里。But Miss Athill is too clear-eyed to become a bore about such things. Her correspondence with Mr Field continues, now by e-mail, but the letters in the book end in 2007. She explains in a postscript that this is “because we have become old and…too often the experience old people have to share is wobbly health.” Enough said.但是阿西尔的头脑可是相当精明,她才不会对这种事情一钻到底。她与菲尔德的通信一直在继续,只是现在改成发电子邮件,但是书中的信件则截止到2007年。她在附言中解释到,这是因为“我们都年事已高,而且……老年人之间能够分享的无非就是不稳定的健康问题”。说得应该够多了吧。 /201305/241771枣阳市人民医院能做人流吗 Finance and economics Inflation财经商业 通货膨胀The price is a blight价格是一块心病The rich world, and especially the euro zone, risks harmfully low inflation欧元区,富人世界,正遭受低通胀率的困袭WHEN central banks adopted quantitative easing and other unorthodox means to buoy economies holed by the financial crisis, many feared that the result would be out-of-control inflation.当央行采取了量化宽松政策并采取其他的非常规手段去刺激被经融危机滞涩的经济时,很多人担心这结果会是失控的通货膨胀。Asset prices have certainly soared.金融资产的价格会随之飙升。But consumer prices have not.但消费价格不会。Indeed, the growing fear is that rich countries may be entering a twilight zone of ultra-low inflation.确切地说,这是人们逐渐害怕富裕国家的经济进入一个介于高通胀和低通胀之间的模糊区域。A downward lurch has been most notable in the euro area, where annual inflation dropped from an aly low 1.1% in September to 0.7% in October; a year ago it stood at 2.5%.最显著的下降发生在欧元区,那里年通胀率由一年前的2.5%在9月份掉到1.1%,在10月份掉到0.7%。It is now a percentage point lower than the European Central Banks inflation target of below but close to 2%.现在它的通胀率还是地狱欧洲央行的通胀目标值略低于2%。The ECB lowered its main policy rate to 0.5% in May; on November 7th its governing council, responding to the weak inflation figures, reduced the interest rate further, to 0.25%.欧洲央行在五月份削弱了整体税率政策到0.5%;在11月7号,管理委员会进一步减少利率到0.25%。这个委员会专门负责弱势通胀情况。Elsewhere, too, inflation is low and falling.在别处也是一样,通胀率很低而且持续下滑。Almost five years after the Federal Reserve led the way with quantitative easing, inflation is well below the Feds 2% target.美联储实行量化宽松政策后大约五年时间,通胀率已经很稳定的保持在2%以下的目标。In August this wider measure stood at little more than 1%. Across the G7 economies, inflation has been weak this year and has recently fallen back to 1.3%; a year ago it was 1.8%.8月,这项更宽广的措施让通胀率维持在略高于1%。纵观七国集团的经济,通货膨胀在今年持续弱势并且最近掉到1.3%;一年前是1.8%。Even inBritain, which has the highest inflation in both the G7 and the European Union, the rate has been broadly stable this year.就是英国,通胀今年保持总体稳定,在7国集团和欧盟里,有着最高的通胀率达到2.7%。Slack energy prices have contributed to recent declines in overall inflation.下滑的能源价格对最近整体通胀下滑也有一定影响。That is a welcome development, boosting the purchasing power of both businesses and households.这是一个受欢迎的进展,刺激了购买力,不管是对于商业还是房产。But core inflation, which by excluding the more volatile elements of energy and food offers a surer guide to underlying price pressures, tells a less heartening story.但是核心通胀,它排除了更多的挥发元素,如能源、食品,给物价压力垫定了更厚实的基础,这无疑是令人不那么振奋的消息。Across the G7 core consumer-price inflation has been stuck over the past year at 1.4%.纵观七国集团的核心消费者价格,去年通胀持续卡在1.4%。On the Feds measure it is just 1.2%.在联邦储备系统的调控下,它只有1.2%。And in the euro zone, core inflation has fallen over the past year from 1.5% to 0.8%, matching the record low of early 2010.并且在欧元区,核心通胀率已经由去年的1.5%降到0.8%,与2010年的低纪录一致。One bright spot that has helped to keep G7 inflation from falling further isJapan, where the reflationary drive of Shinzo Abe, the prime minister, is stoking hopes that the past decade and a half of deflation may at last be coming to an end.日本帮助七国集团只住通胀下滑趋势是一大亮点,它的通货再膨胀的驱动者,安倍晋三首相,正使人们燃起希望,过去十五年的通货紧缩可能最终结束。Overall inflation has risen to 1.1%—higher than in the euro area—and core inflation is now at zero.整体的通胀会升到1.1%—比欧元区高—并且核心通胀现在处于0。But the immense difficulty that successive Japanese governments have encountered in trying to escape the shackles of deflation serves as a warning of the danger of letting inflation fall too low.但是历任日本政府所面临的巨大困难是,在尝试避免通货紧缩的桎梏时,不想充当危险警报器,让通胀降得太低。Once people start to anticipate declining rather than rising prices, it can be very hard to reverse their expectations.但一度人们开始预期价格下跌而不是升高,所以很难扭转人们的预期。Abandoning reserve撤销储备金That danger is less acute in Americathan in the euro area largely because the Fed is more proactive than the ECB.与欧元区相比,在美国没有那么严重的危机,很大程度上因为美联储比欧洲央行更有前瞻性。It surprised the markets in September by sustaining quantitative easing at its present pace of 85 billion of asset-purchases a month, rather than starting to curb it.9月,它延续量化宽松政策,也就是每个月不去限制资产购买而是用850亿美元购买资产的步幅,让市场振奋起来。A study by economists at the Federal Reserve, published this week, has fuelled speculation that it may keep interest rates at rock bottom even longer by lowering the level of unemployment at which it will consider rate increases from the current 6.5%.这星期出版的美联储经济学家们的研究结论使投资充满动力,它可能会更久地保持低利率在一个最低点,措施是降低失业率,因为失业会将利率从现行的6.5%提高。By contrast, the euro area looks increasingly vulnerable to a slide into deflation.相比而言,欧元区的经济看起来更容易受通货紧缩的冲击。Although the region emerged this spring from a painfully protracted double-dip recession, the recovery is expected to be a feeble one.尽管,欧元区在经历痛苦而蛮长的双底衰退之后迎来了复苏,复苏的程度仍被预期很微弱无力。GDP will fall by 0.4% this year and rise by only 1.1% in 2014, according to forecasts from the European Commission published on November 5th.根据欧洲委员会在11月5号的展望,今年GDP会降到0.4%,在2014年也只能上涨1.1%。Such weak growth is unlikely to overcome the forces pushing inflation down.这样缓慢的增长不可能扭转让通胀率下滑的颓势。Output will remain well below its full potential next year, estimates the commission; all that idle capacity acts as a drag on prices.委员会分析明年的出口量将很可能持续低迷;所有闲置的生产力将会对价格起到副作用。Unemployment across the euro area will stay stuck at a woefully high 12.2%, which will keep wages down.整个欧元区的失业率会持续卡在令人痛苦的12.2%上,这无疑会让工资水平下降。The strength of the euro will also exert a downward pull.欧洲整体的购买力将会下滑。It has been trading this week at 1.35, more than 5% higher than a year ago; on a trade-weighted basis it is 8% higher.本周它与美元的汇率处在1比1.35,比去年高5%;从贸易加权上看高了8%。Very low inflation in the euro zone makes it much more difficult for uncompetitive countries, predominantly in southernEurope, to regain lost ground.欧元区的极低通胀使无竞争力的国家更加艰难回复兴盛,尤其是南欧的国家们。Workers tend to resist nominal cuts in pay more fiercely than they do the subtler erosion of their income through inflation.工人们怀有抵制心态,他们需要名义上付更多的钱,这样就很微妙地侵蚀了工资额度。If inflation in the countries with which the weak economies trade is high, they can improve their competitiveness simply by keeping their rate lower.如果一个国家里的通胀是建立在脆弱经济和高贸易量上,他们只要保持低税率就可以提高竞争力。That is in essence howGermanygained a big edge in the first decade of the euro.这就是前十年德国在欧洲占有重要地位的关键。But with overall inflation so low, peripheral countries must instead adjust through outright deflation or something close to it, meaning a freeze or absolute cuts in wages.但是整体的通胀率如此低下,小国家们必须作出调整,不能使经济完全通货紧缩或是接近这样。否则就意味着工资的冻结或大幅度降薪。Aly, in September, when euro-wide inflation was 1.1%, prices were falling by 1% inGreece.9月份,整个欧元区通胀率为1.1%,希腊的物价已下跌了1%。They were flat inIrelandand rising by just 0.3% inPortugal.爱尔兰保持平稳,葡萄牙升高了0.3%。A sustained period of deflation would be particularly hard on the euro zones periphery, weighed down by debt.处在欧元区边缘的国家持续的通货紧缩很难抑制,它们被债务拖累;Cyprus,Ireland,PortugalandSpainhave high public and private debt;Greece and Italyhave high public debt.塞浦路斯,爱尔兰,葡萄牙和西班牙哟很高的公共债务和私人债务。希腊和意大利有着很高的公共债务。When prices are falling, debt, which is fixed in nominal terms, becomes more onerous in real terms.当价格下跌时,债务在合约上不变,就会使它们负担更重。Higher inflation, in contrast, makes escaping heavy debt much less burdensome.更高的通胀,相反会让他们逃离沉重债务,减轻很大负担。Central banks have had to move beyond past orthodoxies in order to coax a modest recovery from the ruins of the financial crisis.央行已经超越了正统做法,目的是引导出一个温和的经济复苏,拯救被金融危机破坏的经济。Now, to avoid the blight of stagnating or falling prices, they may have to venture still further into unconventional territory.现在,要避免经济发展的滞涩或是下跌的物价他们可能必须进一步冒险,去探索非常规领域。 /201311/264216枣阳市人民医院医生

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