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重庆前臂脱毛多少钱价格多少钱问医共享

2019年06月26日 02:08:41|来源:国际在线|编辑:咨询对话
When it comes to treating glaucoma, the goal of eye doctors is assuring their patient don’t go blind.在治疗青光眼上,眼科医生的目标通常是确保病人不会失明。That would seem relatively easy. Give them eye drops or refer them to surgery, which helps relieve what is known as intraocular pressure (IOP) inside the eye. But with current technology, it can often be difficult to measure this pressure because it fluctuates so much and those measurements have to be done in a doctor’s office.这个目标看似不难,只要给他们开点眼药水或让他们去做手术就行了,手术主要是为了降低眼压。但是凭借现有技术,测量眼压是有难度的,因为眼压的波动比较大,而且测眼压的过程必须要在医生的办公室里完成。That soon could change, thanks to a new device described in Nature Medicine.但是借助于《自然医学》杂志描述的一种新设备,这种情况可能很快就会改变。A team of researchers from Stanford University and Bar-Ilan University in Israel has designed an implantable sensor that can be with a smartphone camera. This allows the patient to take ings themselves and should improve the accuracy of pressure data.美国斯坦福大学(Stanford University)和以色列巴伊兰大学(Bar-Ilan University)的研究团队设计了一款可植入式的传感器,通过智能手机摄像头就可以获得它的读数。因此患者完全可以自行读取读数,同时它也提高了眼压数据的准确性。“We believe this self-monitoring capabilities of the implant can significantly enhance the treatment and make it significantly better for the patient,said Bar-Ilan’s Yossi Mandel, who co-authored the paper with Ismail Araci, Baolong Su and Stephen R. Quake of Stanford.巴伊兰大学的约西o曼德尔表示:“我们认为,这款可植入眼压传感器带来的自我监测能力,可以显著提高青光眼的治疗,并改善患者的处境。”《自然医学》杂志上的这篇论文就是曼德尔与斯坦福大学的伊斯梅尔o阿拉西、苏宝龙(音译)和史蒂芬oRo奎克合作撰写的。“Today, we think we are not treating them good enough,he added. “They come once in a while and we take a single point in time of measurement. This probably is not good enough and we know from other studies that there is large variation in the IOP. In the same day, it can vary a lot.”曼德尔补充道:“现在,我认为我们对青光眼治疗得还不够好。患者偶尔到医院来一趟,然后我们测量到的是他们在某个时间点上的眼压。这可能不够奀?我们从其它研究得知,眼压会有很大变化。哪怕在同一天里,眼压也会有很大的变化。”Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that in most cases produces increased pressure within the eye and affects more than 65 million people worldwide. When the eye pressure is increased, the optic nerve becomes damaged, resulting in the death of the retinal cells, degeneration of the nerve fibers and eventually permanent loss of vision.青光眼是一系列眼科疾病的统称,在大多数情况下会导致眼内压增高,全球青光眼患者超500万人。一旦眼压升高,视神经就会受到损伤,导致视网膜细胞死亡,神经纤维退化,最终直至永久失明。There are several good methods to diagnosing glaucoma but only one that monitors the disease to ensure the prescribed treatments are working. Called the Goldman applanationtonometery, or GAT, the method requires that the eye be anesthetized in a physician’s office and then a plastic prism makes contact with the cornea to measure the pressure. Not only is this uncomfortable and complex but this technique has been found in several studies to be inaccurate.青光眼有好几种不错的诊断方法,但是能对病情进行监测,以了解治疗是否有效的办法只有一种——它叫做Goldman压平眼压计测量法或GAT。用这种方法测量眼压,首先需要在医生的办公室里将患者的眼部麻醉,然后用一根塑料棱镜按压患者的角膜来测量眼压。这种方法不仅难受、复杂,而且根据多项研究显示,并不是非常精确。“Unfortunately, the patient can’t today measure his own IOP like he would with hypertension where you can measure your own blood pressure. Glaucoma patients have to go to their physicians,Mandel said in a phone interview. “In one study, they measured IOP over 24 hours and saw there were large variations. In about 80 percent of the patients, they changed the treatment.”曼德尔在接受电话采访时表示:“可惜的是,现在病人还不能像量血压一样自行监测自己的眼压。青光眼病人必须到医院去。在一项研究中,研究人员测量了患4小时内的眼压,发现患者一天内的眼压有很动。所以他们对80%的患者改变了治疗方法。”The self-monitoring device, Mandel said, is about 50 microns in diameter and a few millimeters long. Looking much like a small tube, Mandel said the device developed in Quake’s lab is implanted in the eye.曼德尔表示,这款自测试备的直径只0微米,长度只有几毫米,看起来像一根极微小的管子。曼德尔称,这款在奎克的实验室开发出来的设备可以植入人的眼中。“It looks very simple,Mandel said. “The pressure in the eye causes a shift in the position of the fluid column in the device which then can be much like the temperature in a thermometer.”曼德尔解释道:“它的原理非常简单。眼内压会导致设备内的液柱位置变化,然后读取它的读数即可,原理很像温度计。”Glaucoma experts welcomed news of the device, saying it offers several advantages over the current methods including that it s the pressure and does it around the clock.青光眼专家们都对这款设备表示欢迎,并表示它与以往的测量方法相比有很多优点,包括它可以显示读数,而且可以随时监测。“If patient comes in for cataract surgery and, if at the same time you can implant the device that would allow monitoring IOP more accurately and remotely, that has a huge benefit,Dr. Andrew Iwach, chairman of board for the Glaucoma Research Foundation and executive director Glaucoma Center of San Francisco said. He also founded the foundation’s annual event, Glaucoma 360, which brings together researchers, industry executives and philanthropist to find a cure for glaucoma.美国青光眼研究基金会(Glaucoma Research Foundation)的董事会主席、旧金山青光眼中心常务主任安德鲁o伊瓦施表示:“如果患者做了白内障手术的话,如果在做手术的同时,你把这款设备植入进去,那么就能更精确地监测眼压,这是有巨大好处的。”伊瓦施还是青光眼基金会“青光眼360”活动的发起人,这个活动旨在召集青光眼研究专家、行业高管和慈善人士来寻找治疗青光眼的方法。“So if you look at the risk benefit ratio the question wouldn’t be why did you put it in but why you didn’t put it in,he said.他表示:“因此,如果你看看风险收益比,问题就不会是你为什么要植入,而是你为什么不植入。”There is a similar device available in Europe to measure pressure around the clock called the Sensimed Triggerfish. But this contact lens sensor doesn’t measure the eye pressure directly, which makes it less accurate and, according to a 2012 study in Arch of Ophthalmol, caused blurred vision and other adverse reactions in over 80 percent of the patients.欧洲也有一款类似的可以随时测量眼压的设备,名叫Sensimed Triggerfish。不过这款接触式镜片传感器并非直接测量眼压,导致测量结果精确度不高。另外根据《眼科学报》(Arch of Ophthalmol012年的一份研究显示,它会导致80%的患者出现视觉模糊和其它负作用。Iwach said the lack of a reliable device to measure pressure in the American market has prompted a competition of sorts with at least five companies vying to be the first to get a device inserted into the eye, which transmits an electronic signal out onto the American market.伊瓦施指出,由于美国市场缺乏一款可以测量眼压的可靠设备,现在至少有五家以上的公司都在这个领域进行竞争,他们都希望能第一个在美国市场上推出植入式眼压测量设备。“This is an exciting a horse race,Iwach said. “Different camps realize the first to market, the one who figures out how to do this best, is going to potentially revolutionize how we manage glaucoma and ultimately patients will be better for it.”伊瓦施表示:“这是一场令人兴奋的竞争。大家都意识到,第一个进入市场、第一个知道怎样最好地测量眼压的公司,可能会给青光眼的治疗带来革命性的效果,而且最终会造福患者。”While showing promise to be the first, the latest device still is several years away from being commercially feasible. It has only been tested in pigs so the next step, Mandel said, is to do further research to ensure the device is safe in humans and can remain in the eye for an extended period of time.虽然上文提到的这款微传感器还是该领域的第一款设备,但它离正式商用还有好几年。目前它只在猪身上测试过。因此曼德尔表示,下一步重点是要进一步深入研究,以确保它对人体的安全性,并且确保它能长期妥善地存在于眼部。“As scientist we are always skeptical about what we and others do,Mandel said. “There are challenges that have to overcome but this device shows a lot of promise.”曼德尔表示:“作为科学家,我们总是对我们和其他人做的事感到怀疑。不过虽然前路还有一些挑战需要克,但这款设备的确带给我们很多希望。 /201409/326311Rescuers are working to reach remote areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan rocked by Mondays 7.5 magnitude earthquake that has killed more than 360 people and injured more than 2,200 others in both countries.救援人员正设法抵达在星期一发生的里.5级地震中受灾的巴基斯坦和阿富汗边远地区。地震造成两国一60多人丧生200多人受伤。The quake struck northern Afghanistans sparsely populated Badakhshan province, but the toll is the worst in Pakistans northwestern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, where officials have confirmed at least 202 people killed and more than 1,486 injured.地震发生在阿富汗人烟稀少的巴达尚赫省,而死亡人数最多的是巴基斯坦西北部的开伯尔-普什图省。当地官员确认有至少202人死亡,超过1486人受伤。While traveling through some of the badly-hit areas Tuesday, VOA witnessed military-led rescue teams busy evacuating injured people and bringing emergency aid to victims in remote mountainous districts.美国之音记者星期二穿越了一些重灾区,看到军方主导的救援队忙于疏散受伤群众,并将紧急援助送到边远山区的灾民手中。In Afghanistan, President Ashraf Ghani tweeted Tuesday that the death toll in his country had risen to 115 killed with 538 others injured in nine provinces. The deaths in Afghanistan include 12 schoolgirls who were killed in a stampede as they rushed out of shaking buildings in Takhar province.阿富汗总统加尼星期二在推特网站上说,阿富汗的死亡人数上升到115人,另有遍布8个省份的538人受伤。遇难者中包括12名学童,他们在逃出一座晃动的建筑物时发生踩踏而丧生。Aid officials say getting assistance to all of the quake stricken areas will take time.援助官员说,将援助送至所有地震灾区需要时间;Security is a problem overall. When you want to deliver assistance or deploy teams in an insecure area you have to make sure you establish contacts with armed groups, make sure that there is not land mines or military operations on the ground. We’re trying. Right now, in some areas, we are operating in unsecure areas,; he told VOA.阿富汗红新月会的灾害管理负责人对美国之音表示:“总体来说安全是个问题。为了将援助或者救援队伍送往一个不安全的地区,就一定要与武装组织建立联系,确保不会遇到地雷或者军队行动。”The Taliban issued a statement urging aid agencies to ;not hold back; in their work and ordering the groups fighters to ;lend their complete help; to victims.塔利班发表声明,敦促救援机构的工作“不要踌躇不前”,并下令该组织武装人员向灾民“提供全面的帮助”。来 /201510/406478China has achieved pollution reduction targets set five years ago with six months to spare, its environment minister said yesterday, as international leaders gathered in Paris to negotiate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.中国环保部昨日称,中国已提前半年完成年前设定的污染物减排目标。目前各国领导人正齐聚巴黎举行减少温室气体排放的谈判。However, Chen Jining, environment minister, cautioned that China needed a further 30-50 per cent cut in pollutants in order to achieve a “substantialimprovement in its damaged air, soil and water, in a report carried by the state-run Xinhua news agency.然而,据官方的新华社报道,环保部部长陈吉宁警告称,中国需要进一步减0%-50%的污染物排放,才能实现中国受损空气、土壤及水源的“明显”改善。Beginning in 2010, China pledged to cut emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and ammonia nitrogen as well as chemical oxygen demand (COD), a measure of organic pollutants in water.010年开始,中国承诺减少二氧化硫、氮氧化物、氨氮以及化学需氧量(COD,衡量水中有机污染物的指标)的排放。The goals were incorporated in its 12th five-year plan, which concludes this year, and were primarily tackled by installing emissions-control equipment on power plants, steel mills and other industrial facilities.这些减排目标被纳入了今年结束的“十二五”规划,主要通过在发电厂、炼钢厂及其他工业设施安装排放控制设备来实现。During those five years, choking air pollution has become a top source of discontent among China’s increasingly prosperous urban middle classes.在过去五年中,令人窒息的空气污染已经成为中国日益富裕的城市中产阶层的首要不满。This month the north-eastern city of Shenyang was blacked out by thick brown smog as the city’s heating boilers revved up at the same time, creating the worst recorded pollution in the country in two years. Yesterday, Beijing raised its air pollution alert to “orangefor the first time in 13 months as the concentration of tiny particulates known as PM2.5 hit 300 on a scale in which 50 is considered dangerous to health.本月,中国东北的沈阳市被棕色的浓雾笼罩,该市的供暖锅炉同时投入运行,创造了中国两年以来最为严重的污染纪录。昨天,北京发布3个月以来首次空气污染“橙色”警告,被称为PM2.5的微小颗粒浓度达00,而PM2.5达到50即被认为有害健康。Beijing has been enveloped by smog for most of November, following an unusually clear period that some attributed to a slowing economy. Mr Chen said 20m tonnes of major pollutants are still discharged every year in China.在经历了空气异常清新的一段时期(有人将其归因于经济放缓)后,11月的大部分时间里北京一直被雾霾笼罩。陈吉宁称,中国每年仍然排放2000万吨的主要污染物。China estimates that its carbon emissions will peak around 2030, as economic growth slows and the economy matures enough to shift away from heavy, pollution-intensive industry.中国估计,随着经济增长放缓、以及经济逐渐成熟到足以摆脱重工业和污染密集型产业,中国碳排放量将030年左右达到顶峰。来 /201512/413486

Is the state making a comeback? It can certainly look like it. Old-fashioned interstate conflicts are roiling the China Sea and Russia’s western borders. Inter-governmental meetings such as the last Apec conference and the Group of 20 leading economies in Sydney took on an unwonted urgency. More positively, it is old-fashioned diplomacy that is making the running on issues from Iran’s nuclear programme to global warming.国家正在“卷土重来”?看起来可能就是如此。老式的国家间冲突正搅动着中国China Sea)和俄罗斯西部边境。政府间会议,比如刚结束的亚太经合组Apec)会议0国集G20)悉尼峰会,都具备了一种少有的紧迫性。更能明这一点的是,在从伊朗核计划到全球变暖等一系列问题上,老式的外交仍发挥着主导作用。Yet the dominant view since the early 1990s has been that globalisation meant the transformation of the world through non-state actors. The end of the cold war ushered in an almost Marxist expectation that the state would wither away overshadowed by free flows of money and goods, undermined by non-state actors of which terrorist groups were only the most obvious. It was an expectation shared right across the political spectrum.然而,上世0年代初以来的主流观点一直是,全球化导致非国家力量成为世界变革的主导因素。冷战的结束催生了一种近乎马克思主义式的预期:在资本与货物自由流动的巨大阴影下,在非国家力量(恐怖组织只是其中最明显的一力量)的削弱下,国家将逐渐消亡。各个政治派别都曾产生这种预期。On the left, critics of market globalisation anticipated the rise of people power. Non-governmental organisations would supersede the supposedly worn out institutions of the nation state and create new, more vibrant forms of political activity. Technology would bring better solutions to old problems, bypassing stagnant state institutions.在左翼阵营,市场全球化的批评者曾预期民众力量会崛起。非政府组织将取代应该已破败不堪的民族国家机构,并创立新的、更具活力的政治活动体制。科技将为老问题带来更有效的解决办法,绕开死气沉沉的国家机构。The neoliberal right hailed the rise of global finance, the dismantling of capital controls and the deregulation of banking, not least because all of these weakened national governmentscapacity to control markets. In manufacturing and services, enormous new powers accrued to corporations able to take advantage of differing tax regimes and wage levels across the world.新自由主Neoliberalism)右翼阵营则为全球金融的崛起、资本管制的解除和业的去监管叫好,其重要原因在于,这几个因素都弱化了民族国家政府对市场的管制能力。在制造业和务业,巨大的新兴力量渐渐集中到那些能利用全球税制和工资水平差异牟利的企业手中。Yet these hopes underestimated the sheer staying power indeed the legitimacy of the state and its institutions, and the extreme difficulty of creating new ones from scratch. NGOs remain on the sidelines: international organisations are vehicles for clusters and coalitions of national states to act in concert where they can. To that extent they are essentially derivative, reflecting the wishes of their most powerful members. The idea that they could be freed from the clutches of national governments was a pipe dream.但是,这些预期低估了国家及国家机构的巨大耐久力(其实就是其合法性),以及从无到有创建新机构的极端困难性。非政府组织唱的仍然是配角:国际组织是民族国家为在可能领域采取一致行动而设立的抱团及联合平台。就此而言,它们本质上属于派生物,反映的是其最强大成员的意愿。有人认为它们能摆脱民族国家政府的控制,这种想法就是白日做梦。And the neoliberal infatuation with unfettered markets has not fared much better. The era of globalisation was always one of instability and in Mexico, east Asia, and Russia, the costs of crisis were evident to those who cared throughout the 1990s. But it was only a decade later, when the failure of Lehman Brothers and its aftermath robbed Americans and Europeans of their faith in capitalism, that perceptions started to change where it counted.新自由主义对自由市场的迷恋,导致的结果也没好到哪去。全球化时代一直伴随着动荡;整0世纪90年代,在墨西哥、东亚和俄罗斯,危机带来的损失对那些关心这一切的人来说显而易见的。但自由市场经济体的民众观念开始发生转变是0年之后,那一年,雷曼兄弟(Lehman Brothers)垮台及其余波导致欧美人丧失了对资本主义的信心。Since then, power has shifted back towards the state on multiple fronts. It was, after all, taxpayers who bailed the banks out. It fell to central banks, in conjunction with finance ministries, to superintend the exit from crisis. Since 2010, the increasing inequality that has accompanied the recovery has fuelled an underlying swell of electoral anger not only against the banks but also against the light tax burdens enjoyed by many global corporations. The change in sentiment threatens further trade liberalisation and has propelled calls for the international harmonisation of corporation taxes up the political agenda. At the same time, Vladimir Putin’s muscle-flexing illustrates the continued indispensability of states in settling matters of war and peace.自那以来,国家已在多个方面“卷土重来”。毕竟,是纳税人拯救了业。正是多国的央行和财政部携起手来,才引领世界脱离了危机。自2010年以来,与复苏相伴而来的是不平等的加剧,这可能已令选民对乃至对许多跨国企业享有的轻税负产生更大的愤慨。民众情绪的变化对进一步的贸易自由化构成了威胁,并引发了把制定国际统一公司税摆在政治议程更靠前位置的呼声。同时,弗拉基米#8226;普京(Vladimir Putin)炫耀武力的行为表明,在解决战争与和平的问题时,国家一直是不可或缺的。In reality, the state has been with us the whole time. Its fiscal imprint has hardly changed in decades: US government receipts, for instance, are much the same percentage of output today as in 1960. In the UK, public spending has fluctuated within a fairly narrow band throughout the same period. What happened over the past two or three decades was less a withering away of the state than a recalibration of official priorities. Abdicating strategic planning internally, the state become an arbiter of regulatory regimes. Externally, it transformed defence budgets, transferring resources from men to machines.在现实中,国家由始至终没有离开过我们。几十年来,国家的财政印迹几乎没有发生变化:比如,如今的美国政府收入与经济产出之比,960年基本相同。同期,英国的公共出一直在相当窄的范围内波动。过去二三十年发生的事,更多的是一种官方优先事项的重校,而不是国家力量的日渐衰落。对内,国家不再做战略规划,变身成为监管体制的仲裁者。对外,国家大幅调整了防务预算,把资源从人转到机器上。The financial crisis has accelerated some of these trends and started to reverse others. States or the politicians who lead them are still reluctant to do what would have been done in the 1940s. They remain strikingly reluctant to impose tougher penalties on banks or to identify unemployment as a priority. But what is perhaps important is what the crisis has done globally: by discrediting the more mythical idealisations of the market, it has encouraged the restoration of state power as a goal in itself. This programme is easily harnessed by authoritarian leaders in the name of national sovereignty and democracy. Hungary and Russia exemplify the trend. We have heard a lot, this past 20 years, about the decline of the state. We will not be hearing much more.金融危机加快了上述部分趋势,并开始逆转另一些趋势。国家——或者说领导国家的政治人士——仍不愿做原本在上世0年代就可做到的事情。他们仍极不愿意对处以更严厉的惩罚、或把解决失业作为优先任务。但重要的可能是金融危机在全球造成的后果:它让那些神乎其神的、把市场理想化的理论名誉扫地,从根本上促使人们把恢复国家的力量做为一项目标。这一进程容易被假托国家主权与民主之名的威权领导人利用。匈牙利和俄罗斯就是这一趋势的典型例子。过去二十年,我们听到了许多关于国家力量走下坡路的议论。未来,这种议论不会显著增多。来 /201412/346231

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