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2018年09月25日 03:09:17|来源:国际在线|编辑:QQ资讯
IF YOU GO TO CUBA古巴的食住行Where to Eat餐厅推荐Café Laurent (Calle M No. 257, between 19 and 21, Vedado, Havana, cafelaurent.ueuo.com) is a stylish family-run paladar popular for its penthouse views and Spanish-themed . Expect to pay about 20 American dollars per person for dinner.Café Laurent(哈瓦那维达多区19街与21街之间,M街257号,cafelaurent.ueuo.com)是一家有格调的顶楼餐厅,家庭自营,因其顶楼的风景和西班牙菜而受到好评。晚餐人均大约20美元。Siá Kará Café (Calle Industria No. 502, www.siakaracafe.com) offers reasonably priced Cuban cuisine in the heart of Old Havana. It is also known for live music.Siá Kará Café(Industria街502号,www.siakaracafe.com)位于哈瓦那旧城,提供价格合理的古巴美食。现场音乐演奏也很不错。Nazdarovie (No. 25 Malecón, nazdarovie-havana.com) is a retro-styled Soviet restaurant and bar with live music; overlooks the sea.Nazdarovie(马雷贡25号,nazdarovie-havana.com)是一家复古风格的苏式餐厅及酒吧,有现场音乐演奏,可以看海景。Mamaine (Calle L No. 206, between 15 and 17, Havana) is an artsy, intimate cafe known for a breakfast that includes tortillas and fresh mango juice.Mamaine(哈瓦那15街与17街之间,L街206号)是一家充满艺术气息的私密咖啡馆,早餐很出名,有墨西哥玉米饼和鲜芒果汁。Where to Go值得一去的地方Alejandro Robaina Tobacco Plantation in the Vuelta Abajo region, southwest of the city of Pinar del Río. The farm offers daily tours, but it is best to have your hotel arrange a guide for this all-day trip into a rural area: 53-48-79-74-70.亚历杭德罗·罗瓦伊纳烟草种植园(Alejandro Robaina Tobacco Plantation),位于比那尔德里奥省(Pinar del Río)西南方的大阿瓦奥(Vuelta Abajo)区域。农场每天都开放一日游,但最好让你的酒店为这次乡村之旅安排一位导游:农场电话53-48-79-74-70。Old Partagás Factory and Cigar Shop (Calle Industria No. 520, Havana) is 170 years old and perhaps the island’s best-known factory. Its production recently moved to the El Rey del Mundo Factory nearby but the retail store is still open, and sells a variety of brands made at the factory, from Bolivar to La Gloria Cubana.老帕塔加斯雪茄工厂及雪茄商店(Old Partagás Factory and Cigar Shop)(哈瓦那Industria街520号)拥有170年历史,也许是古巴最著名的雪茄工厂。工厂的生产线最近搬到了附近的世界之王工厂(El Rey del Mundo Factory),但雪茄零售店仍在营业,这里出售由该工厂制造的多个品牌的雪茄,包括玻利瓦尔(Bolivar)和古巴荣耀(La Gloria Cubana)。La Casa del Habano (5ta Avenida y Calle 16, Miramar, Playa, Havana, lacasadelhabano.com) is among the premium cigar stores and lounges in Cuba and several other countries authorized to sell Habanos S.A. brands. The ed States is the only country to which Habanos S.A. does not sell cigars.哈瓦那雪茄之家连锁店(La Casa del Habano,哈瓦那普拉亚区[Playa],Miramar,5ta Avenida与16街交界,lacasadelhabano.com)是古巴最高档的雪茄商店及雪茄吧之一,经古巴烟草公司授权销售其旗下品牌的雪茄,在很多国家设有分店,但唯独不向美国出售雪茄。Where to Stay住宿Hotel Capri (Calle 21 between calle N and O, Vedado, nh-hotels.com/hotel/nh-capri-la-habana), a modern high-rise in the heart of central Havana, offers easy access to popular restaurants, nightclubs and cultural sights, including the famous Hotel Nacional, a block away. Single rooms run about 0.卡普里酒店(维达多区,N街与O街之间,与21街交界处,nh- hotels.com/hotel/nh-capri-la-habana),位于哈瓦那中心地带的现代化高层建筑,附近是深受欢迎的餐厅、夜总会及文化景点,距著名的古巴国际酒店仅一个街区。单人间每晚大约130美元。A Few Top Brands顶级雪茄品牌Some popular Cuban cigars, to each.一些受欢迎的古巴雪茄,每10美元到20美元Partagás Serie D No. 4 A full-bodied robusto with a woody and spicy aroma.帕塔加斯D4号(Partagás Serie D No. 4),浓郁型罗布图雪茄,带有木质及辛辣的香味。H. Upmann Royal Robusto Known for its full coffee bean flavor and oak finish.乌普曼皇家罗布图雪茄(H. Upmann Royal Robusto),以浓郁的咖啡豆香味及橡木的尾调而闻名。Montecristo No. 2 Medium to full with creamy and spicy notes.蒙特2号(Montecristo No. 2),中等-浓郁型雪茄,带有奶油及辛辣香调。Bolivar Royal Corona Richly complex with hints of chocolate and coffee.玻利瓦尔(Bolivar Royal Corona),浓郁型雪茄,混合了巧克力及咖啡香调。Cohiba Siglo III Vanilla, leathery flavored and best paired with sweet desserts.高斯巴世纪三号香草雪茄(Cohiba Siglo III),带有皮革味道,与甜食是最佳搭配。Vegas Robaina Don Alejandro Medium bodied with sweet and woody undertones.维加斯·罗瓦伊纳·唐·亚历杭德罗雪茄(Vegas Robaina Don Alejandro),中等浓郁型,带有甜味及木质基调。 /201601/419670While the Western New Year is more about drinking, the Chinese New Year is an opportunity to honor family and friends, and to enjoy some culinary traditions. We consulted Fuchsia Dunlop, author of Shark#39;s Fin and Sichuan Pepper, and Doris Lum, president of the Association of Chinese Cooking Teachers, as well as Rosemary Gong#39;s book on Chinese culture and celebrations, Good Luck Life, to find out what foods we should have on hand to ensure a prosperous and happy year to come.西方人过新年,总免不了开怀畅饮,而中国人过春节,讲究的则是亲朋好友团聚,享用传统美食。究竟如何吃出一个喜庆繁荣的好运年呢?在这里,三位美食达人——《鱼翅与花椒》的作者扶霞·邓洛普、膳艺社主管多丽丝·林与《红运生活》的作者罗斯玛丽·龚——将向你细细道来。1. Tangerines and Oranges 福橘Displaying and eating these fruits is said to bring wealth and luck. According to the Chinese Culture Center of San Francisco, the tradition stems from the way the Chinese words for gold and orange sound alike, while the word for tangerine echoes luck.;It#39;s good if they have leaves,; adds Lum, ;because leaves symbolize longevity.; But don#39;t group them in fours, because, Dunlop says, this number is associated with death.春节摆福橘,吃福橘,能带来财富与好运。旧金山中国文化中心的成员告诉我们,在中文里,“金”与“橘”谐音,而“橘气”又代指“好运气”,于是就有了吃福橘的传统。“福橘最好能带上叶子。”多丽丝·林补充道,“因为叶子象征长命百岁”。而邓洛普提醒,可千万别把福橘成四放置,因为数字4在中文里音近“死”。2. Long Noodles 长寿面If noodles are served, then ;keep them as long as possible for long life,; says Lum.林说,春节里做面条,“尽量做得越长越好,那代表着长寿”。3. The Tray of Togetherness 八宝盒Put out for visiting relatives to snack on, or given as a gift, the eight (;a traditionally symbolic lucky number,; explains Dunlop) compartments of the tray are filled with things such as preserved kumquats for prosperity, coconut for togetherness, longans to bring many sons, and red melon seeds for happiness.春节期间,走亲串户,家家都会准备八宝盒,既可作零嘴,也可当赠礼。八宝盒分为八格(邓洛普解释道:“8是个吉祥数字。”),分别装有象征财富的金桔,象征团聚的椰片,象征多子多孙的龙眼,象征喜庆的红瓜子,等等。4. Nian Gao 年糕;Nian gao means year cake, but gao sounds the same as the word for tall or high,; says Dunlop. Hence the cakes symbolize achieving new heights in the coming year. The steamed sweets are made of glutinous rice flour, brown sugar, and oil. Some versions have white sesame seeds, red dates, or nuts in them (the dates are said to bring ;early prosperity,; writes Gong in Good Luck Life). If you want to try your hand at making nian gao, here#39;s our recipe. Chowhounds also have some tips.“年糕是种面食,不过‘糕#39;与‘高#39;同音,意义非凡,”邓洛普表示。因此,年糕就被赋予了年年高升的寓意。年糕味甜,由糯米、红糖及食用油制作而成。有时,人们也会加入芝麻、红枣或坚果(罗斯玛丽·龚在《红运生活》中写道,据说红枣能让人早生福气)。如果你想动手做年糕,我们的网站(chowhound.com)上有相应食谱及烹饪小贴士。5. Pomelo 禄柚This large citrus fruit is popular, writes Gong, because it is thought to bring ;continuous prosperity and status.; The tradition comes from the way the Cantonese phrase for pomelo sounds similar to the words for prosperity and status, explains Lum.龚在书中还写道,柚子在春节期间很受欢迎,因为中国人认为它象征着“财源广进,扬名四海”。林则解释道,广东人把“柚子”称作“禄柚”,吉祥之意由此而来。6. Jai 斋菜This vegetarian dish is eaten because it#39;s ;part of the Buddhist culture to cleanse yourself with vegetables,; says Lum. It#39;s also packed with good-luck foods, writes Gong, breaking it down by ingredient: sea moss for prosperity; lotus seeds for children/birth of sons; noodles for longevity; lily buds to ;send 100 years of harmonious union;; Chinese black mushrooms to ;fulfill wishes from east to west;; and more. Try our recipe.春节期间,也有食素的传统。“佛教认为,吃斋能净化自己,”林解释道。龚也在书中写道,制作斋菜,选料还需图个喜庆,比如:裙带菜代表着兴旺,莲子代表着多子多孙,面条代表长寿,百合则寓意着“百年好合”,香菇象征了“万事如意”,等等。不妨试试咱们的食谱吧。7. Long Leafy Greens and Long Beans 绿叶时蔬与长豆Gong writes that leafy greens, such as Chinese broccoli, are ;served whole to wish a long life for parents.;龚在《红运生活》中写道,春节期间烹制绿叶时蔬,比如芥蓝,寄托着子女“希望父母长命百岁”的美好心愿。8. Whole Fish 全鱼The Chinese word for fish sounds like the word for abundance, says Lum. It#39;s important that the fish is served with the head and tail intact, writes Gong, ;to ensure a good start and finish and to avoid bad luck throughout the year.;林解释道,中文里,“鱼”和“余”同音。春节吃鱼,得连着鱼头鱼尾吃一整条。《红运生活》中这么写道,“如此一来,才能保一年到头红红火火,霉运全无”。9. Sweets 甜食Serving desserts brings a sweet life in the new year. Gong writes that a childhood favorite was the flaky cookie pockets called gok jai, filled with peanuts, coconut, and sesame.春节期间吃甜食,寓意新年甜甜蜜蜜。龚在书中记录了儿时最爱的甜点——糕仔,口感酥脆,里头有花生、椰片与芝麻。10. Yuanbao (Jiaozi) 元宝(饺子);In North China, everyone eats the jiaozi dumplings,; says Dunlop. ;Families will make a dough and wrap it around pork and cabbage, and boil [the dumplings], then serve them with vinegar and soy sauce. You can wrap them in the shape of an old silver ingot.; Gong writes that during New Year celebrations jiaozi are called yuanbao, a reference to the ancient, ingot-shaped Chinese currency, and that eating them is said to bring prosperity. While making them, families sometimes tuck added good-luck foods like peanuts (to bring long life) into some of them.“中国北方过年,人人都要吃饺子。”邓洛普说,“家家户户都要包白菜猪肉饺子,入锅烹煮,以醋与酱油作蘸料。而且,饺子常常会被包成元宝的形状。”龚则在书中进一步解释道,元宝是中国古代的货币。每逢春节,中国人会把饺子称作元宝。于是,吃饺子便寓意了来年财源广进。另外,不少人家还会在一些饺子中包入其他吉利食品,比如花生,寄寓了长寿之意。 /201602/426443

A few months ago, I stood at the corner of a busy roundabout called Place Lamartine, across from the Roman gates leading into Arles in southern France, on a spot that was pivotal in the life of Vincent van Gogh. Behind me was the Rhone River, where he painted sparkling reflections from the quay on one particularly memorable starry night. Before me was a run-down commercial strip leading toward vast fields of the sunflowers he painted time and again.几个月前,我站在人来人往的拉马丁广场的拐角,马路对面是进入法国南部阿尔勒的古罗马门。这个地方对文森特·梵高(Vincent van Gogh)的一生都至关重要。我身后是罗纳河,一个繁星满天的夜晚,梵高曾在这里的码头画下了河中闪烁的倒影。在我面前是一条破败的商业街,通向大片大片的向日葵花海,而它们曾一次次地出现在梵高的画作中。It was where Vincent van Gogh’s Yellow House once stood, the sun-drenched Proven home that was the subject of his 1888 oil painting, where he took a period of “enforced rest” as he put it, in a pale violet-walled “Bedroom” he depicted in oil paintings three times that year.这里曾经矗立着梵高的黄房子,那个洒满阳光的普罗旺斯住宅是他1888年的油画的主角。用梵高自己的话来说,他曾在里面度过了一段“集中休憩”的时光,“卧室”的墙壁是淡紫色的,那一年曾三次出现在他的油画中。The little house contained legends: It was where one of the world’s most famous artists pushed his painting technique to its peak with works such as “Café Terrace at Night,” “Sunflowers” and “The Sower.” And it was where his personal life turned a dramatic and tragic corner. Here, van Gogh had a tumultuous fight with his friend, Paul Gauguin, and sliced a blade through his own ear, before admitting himself to the local mental hospital.这栋小房子充满了传奇色:在这里,世界最负盛名的艺术家之一把自己的绘画技术推向了巅峰,创作了《夜晚露天咖啡座》、《向日葵》和《播种者》等作品。在这里,梵高的个人生活出现了戏剧性和悲剧性的转折。在这里,他与好友保罗·高更(Paul Gauguin)发生了激烈的争吵,用刀割掉了自己的耳朵,入住了当地的精神病医院。From March to August, I traveled to many of the landmarks of van Gogh’s artistic life, beginning in the Belgian mining town of Mons, where the 27-year-old Dutchman was fired from his job as a missionary working among local coal miners for “undermining the dignity of the priesthood” by opting to live in the same squalid conditions as the miners — and where he instead began to draw. From there, I traveled to his renowned painting locations, Montmartre in Paris and Arles and St. Rémy in Provence, and ultimately to the Parisian suburb of Auvers-sur-Oise, where his life was cut short in his 37th year.去年3月到8月,我造访了梵高艺术生涯中的许多重要地点,起点是比利时矿业城市蒙斯。27岁的荷兰人梵高曾在那里失去了在当地煤矿公司传教的工作,原因是他选择和矿工生活在同样肮脏的环境里,“破坏了传道士的尊严”,并开始在画画。此后,我来到了他一些知名画作的诞生地,巴黎的蒙马特、普罗旺斯的圣雷米和阿尔勒,最后是见梵高匆匆走完37年人生的瓦兹河畔欧韦。I was on the trail of the artist during Van Gogh Europe 2015, the year that commemorates the 125th anniversary of his death, observed by cultural events and exhibitions related to van Gogh throughout the Netherlands, Belgium and France. What struck me was that, considering how famous and beloved van Gogh is, there are a number of historical landmarks of his life that have not been preserved, or are neglected. A few spots, however — such as van Gogh’s room at the asylum in St.-Rémy-de-Provence and his hotel room in Auvers-sur-Oise, where he died — have been handsomely renovated to great effect for visitors interested in the artist’s life, and for the local communities, which benefit economically from this form of gentle cultural tourism. 我的梵高之旅正好赶上了2015欧洲梵高年。为了纪念梵高逝世125周年,荷兰、比利时和法国举办了大量文化活动和与梵高有关的展览。让我难以置信的是,虽然梵高享有如此的声望和爱戴,他生命中好几处重要地标竟然没有被保护起来,或者无人问津。不过,有几个位置——比如梵高在普罗旺斯的圣雷米的精神病院房间,以及他度过最后人生的瓦兹河畔欧韦的酒店房间,都被精心地修葺,迎接着对这位艺术家的人生感兴趣的游客和当地居民。当地人也从这种轻文化旅游中获得了丰厚的经济利益。Hoping to replicate these strong examples, officials involved in Van Gogh Europe 2015 said their aim was to promote the forgotten sites, to focus attention on the fact that many sites linked to van Gogh were still in need of preservation.为了复制这些强大的典范,与2015欧洲梵高年有关的官员称,他们打算大力宣传这些被遗忘的角落,让人们了解到许多与梵高有关的遗迹还需要保护。“There’s a huge amount of interest worldwide in van Gogh’s paintings, and there’s a great audience for his work in museums,” Frank van den Eijnden, chairman of the Van Gogh Europe Foundation, said in a phone interview. “But generally there is less money for restoration and preservation of van Gogh heritage, mainly the local heritage sites that you can find in France, Belgium and the Netherlands. We needed more attention for all the organizations involved, and especially from the governments that were linked to these locations. We really want van Gogh heritage to be a world heritage in the coming years.”“世界各地的人们对梵高的画作都有着强烈的兴趣,他在物馆的作品有庞大的拥趸,”梵高欧洲基金会主席弗兰克·范登艾金登(Frank van den Eijnden)在电话采访中说。“但总体来说,用于恢复和保护梵高遗产的资金却不多,主要包括在法国、比利时和荷兰的遗产。我们需要为相关机构赢得更多关注,尤其是来自政府机构的关注。我们真心希望梵高的遗产在未来几年成为世界性的遗产。”Mostly, in places where van Gogh lived, there are a number of plaques featuring van Gogh images or words from his letters, in sometimes inscrutable locations. In St.-Rémy-de-Provence, for example, there is a plaque that shows his “Green Wheat Field With Cypress” posted in front of the white stucco wall of a private home. 在梵高居住过的地方,往往会看到梵高的照片或用梵高信件中的文字制作的牌匾,有些会出现在不可思议的位置。例如,在普罗旺斯的圣雷米,一户私人住宅的白色灰泥墙前就有一块牌匾,上面印着他的《麦田里的丝柏树》。I wasn’t a van Gogh fan when I embarked on this journey. I moved to the Netherlands nine years ago to do research for a novel on Rembrandt, and my passion lies more in the Dutch old masters. My trouble with van Gogh’s work was that, to me, it had the familiarity of cereal boxes — or, as Andy Warhol might have it, soup cans — copied and reproduced to the point of unseeability. Even when I was standing among the originals, the freshness of his work evaded me. Also, I was weary of what seemed like a triteness in van Gogh’s biography, the tortured-genius-who-never-sold-a-painting-in-his-life.踏上这次旅程时,我并不是梵高的仰慕者。九年前,我为了给一本关于伦勃朗的小说做研究搬到了荷兰,我更偏爱荷兰的早期绘画大师。对我来说,梵高作品的问题在于,它熟悉得就像是麦片包装盒——安迪·沃霍尔可能会说像汤罐头——如此频繁地遭到模仿和复制,到了让人无感的程度。即使站在真迹面前,我也感受不到新鲜。此外,我也厌倦了梵高传记的陈词滥调,它们无一例外地把他描述成“一生中从未卖出一幅画的饱受折磨的天才”。I often write about van Gogh, because I’m an American art journalist based in Amsterdam, where tourists flock by the millions to the largest trove of his paintings anywhere in the world, the Van Gogh Museum, at the center of Amsterdam’s sprawling Museumplein (museum square).我经常写梵高的故事,因为我是驻阿姆斯特丹的美国艺术记者,而每年会有大量游客来到全世界最大的梵高作品收藏地——梵高物馆,它就位于阿姆斯特丹庞大的物馆广场的中央。But when I learned that van Gogh once sat down in front of one of Rembrandt’s most famous works, “The Jewish Bride,” in the Rijksmuseum (also on Museumplein, next to the Van Gogh Museum) and confided to a friend, “I should be happy to give 10 years of my life if I could go on sitting here in front of this picture for two weeks, with only a crust of dry b for food,” I began to think about van Gogh and his creative process. That painting, to which Rembrandt applied yellow paint in such thick impasto that it lifts right out into three-dimensionality, was the link for me into the world of van Gogh.然而当我了解到,梵高曾经坐在阿姆斯特丹国家物馆(也在物馆广场,梵高物馆旁边)里面伦勃朗最著名的画作《犹太新娘》前对一个朋友说,“如果我可以在这幅画前坐上两周,我宁愿少活10年,哪怕只吃干面包充饥都行,”我开始思考梵高和他的创作过程。伦勃朗利用厚重的黄色油塑造出立体形象的这幅画,让我走进了梵高的世界。So, that is what brought me, in the heat of July, to the busy intersection in Arles, to see if, in a place that he once inhabited, I could find traces of van Gogh’s soul. But there was no more Yellow House. It was demolished in the 1940s in World War II, I would find out later. In front of me was a white plaque affixed to a pole that stood on the sidewalk, with an image of van Gogh’s painting, all shades of golden hay, fresh butter and sunlight, under a stippled blue sky. There was that impasto yellow again, straight out of Rembrandt’s palette. But no van Gogh.因此,在7月的炎热天气里,我来到了阿尔勒这个繁忙的交叉路口,想看看在他曾经住过的地方,我是否能找到梵高灵魂的踪迹。但是黄房子已经不在,后来我才知道,它于上世纪40年代在“二战”中被摧毁。我面前是一块白色的牌匾,固定在人行道的柱子上,图片上是梵高的画作:各种色调的金黄干草,新鲜的奶油和阳光,在点手法绘出的蓝色天空之下。画上又见浓墨重的黄色,如同脱胎于伦勃朗的调色盘。但那不是梵高。Disappointed, I got back in my car and decided to try to find another van Gogh location on my list: Langlois Bridge, a drawbridge on the outskirts of Arles, which he depicted nine times in 1888. I knew it was still there because it’s now called Pont Van-Gogh.大失所望的我回到车里,决定寻找我的单子上另一个与梵高有关的地点:阿尔勒郊外的朗格鲁瓦吊桥,他在1888年画这座桥画了九次。我知道它仍在那里,因为它现在叫做梵高桥。The Borinage, Belgium比利时里纳日I began my journey not in van Gogh’s birthplace, but in the location where van Gogh the artist came to life: in the gritty, drab eastern coal-mining region of Belgium called the Borinage, where van Gogh at age 25 went to minister to the destitute, soot-blackened workers of the coal pits. Because this is where he was rejected from the priesthood and began his artistic career, the city of Mons has declared this the “birthplace of the artist,” with a host of events and an exhibition of his early work at the Museum of Fine Arts, in Mons, which ended in May. (Van Gogh’s birthplace was in Zundert, the Netherlands.)我此行的起点不是梵高的出生地,而是梵高作为画家的诞生地:在比利时东部破旧乏味的煤矿区里纳日,25岁的梵高曾在这里向煤矿里贫穷、被煤灰熏得漆黑的工人布道。因为他就是在这里被剥夺了传道士的身份,开始了艺术家的生涯,蒙斯城已经宣布这里是“这位艺术家的诞生地”。蒙斯的美术馆举办了大量活动和早期作品展,这些活动已经于5月结束(梵高的出生地是荷兰的津德尔特)。Van Gogh lived in a few locations in Mons; but he found himself ashamed to be living so well while the people to whom he ministered lived in overcrowded huts, and so he jettisoned his middle-class possessions and moved into smaller and simpler homes. He had started out in a large home up the hill from the local mine, in a red brick house he rented from a landlord named Jean-Baptiste Denis.梵高在蒙斯的几个地方居住过,但是他发现自己羞耻于自己过着优越的生活,听他传道的人们却只能生活在拥挤棚屋里,所以他放弃了中产阶级的财产,搬到了更小更简陋的房子里。他开始时租住在山上的一所大红砖房子里,房东名叫让-巴蒂斯特·丹尼斯(Jean-Baptiste Denis)。Everyone I spoke to told me that Maison Denis was only about a 15-minute drive outside Mons, but it took me an hour of driving in circles. It’s not on any map and I got there by chance: I asked directions from a man who happened to be a private van Gogh tour guide in the area. Finally, there it was: At the bitter end of a seemingly endless stretch of ramshackle rowhouses at 221, rue Wilson was a square red brick house with a red tile roof, only a bit larger than the houses that surrounded it.人们都告诉我,这栋房子位于蒙斯城外,相距只有15分钟左右车程,但我花了一小时才找到。地图上没有这个地方,我能找到全凭运气:我向一名男子问路,而他刚好是该地区的一名私人梵高路线导游。最后,我终于看到了它,在威尔森街221号的一排似乎没有尽头的破破烂烂的房屋的最远端,有一栋方方正正的红砖房子,屋顶铺着红瓦,比周围的房屋稍大一点。The home was one of the sites that Mr. van den Eijnden of the Van Gogh Europe Foundation had told me was nearly dilapidated, but thanks to fund-raising by a local foundation for Van Gogh Year, renovation of the house was underway. The house was still shuttered and there was a large fence around the property, but I walked to the edge of the backyard, where it bordered a grassy field blanketed in wildflowers that followed all the way down the hill to where I could see the colliery of the Marcasse mine, now closed. The refurbished house has since opened as Maison Van Gogh in Colfontaine, and can be visited on weekends from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. 梵高欧洲基金会的范登艾金登告诉我,许多与梵高有关的宅子都已经倾圮,这座房屋是其中之一,多亏了当地的一家基金会为梵高年进行的筹资,这栋房屋的翻新正在进行当中。房屋仍然关闭,外面围着巨大的栅栏,我走到了后院的边上,它毗邻的草地上开满野花,从山下一直开到我能看到马卡斯煤矿的地方。这座煤矿现在已经关闭。房屋经过修缮目前已经重新开放,叫做“科尔方丹的梵高故居”(Maison Van Gogh in Colfontaine),周末上午10点到下午6点可供参观。The attraction’s previously poor state was in sharp contrast to the other landmark van Gogh home in the Borinage, in the village of Cuesmes, Maison Van Gogh, a quaint cottage on a plot of grass at the end of a gravel road where van Gogh lived in 1879 and 1880. This was the location where he regrouped after he was told to abandon his ministry because he had disgraced the church, and where he wrote a letter to his brother, Theo, telling him he would like to try his hand at art. “Try to understand the last word of what the great artists, the serious masters, say in their masterpieces; there will be God in it,” he wrote. “Someone has written or said it in a book, someone in a painting.”这个景点之前的破败景象,与另一处位于尔纳日奎姆村的梵高故居形成了鲜明对比。这所别致的小房子位于一条砂砾路尽头的草地上,梵高1879年和1880年曾在此居住。正是在这里,他因为令教廷蒙羞被要求放弃传教士的工作,他写信给弟弟提奥,跟他说自己想要尝试画画。“试着理解伟大的艺术家、严肃的大师在作品中表达的最后一句话;那里面会有上帝,”他写道。“有人在书里写作或表达,有人在画中。”Inside this tourist site (which has an admission fee of 4 euros, or about .25 at .06 to the euro) I was one of only a few visitors, and watched a short biographical , looked at some of van Gogh’s early, clumsy sketches displayed in a glass vitrine and spent a few minutes among his spartan furnishings — a small wooden writing table, a chair and a wood-burning stove.在这处故居中(门票4欧元,即大约4.25美元),我是为数不多的参观者之一,我观看了一部梵高的传记短片,欣赏了玻璃橱窗里展示的一些粗糙的早期素描,花了几分钟看了看他简朴的家具——一张小木书桌,一把椅子,一个燃烧着木头的壁炉。Nuenen, the Netherlands荷兰纽南After he had resolved to devote himself to art, van Gogh moved back to the Netherlands, to live with his parents for two years in the town of Nuenen, where his father was the local minister. This town is proud of its legacy as the place where the itinerant artist remained for the longest stretch of his adult life, and where he painted “The Potato Eaters,” which is now known as his early masterpiece.决心投身绘画之后,梵高搬回了荷兰,与在纽南的父母生活了两年。他的父亲是当地的一名牧师。令这座小城自豪的是,这位四处漂泊的艺术家成年期间在这里居住了最长时间,而且这里也是《吃马铃薯的人》的创作地。这幅画目前被认为是梵高的早期杰作之一。Nuenen has turned the former town hall into the Vincentre, with a museum largely devoted to van Gogh’s family relationships, a cafe and a gift shop. The center is at the heart of Van Gogh Village Neunen, and the starting point of an outdoor museum, a 22-point walking or biking tour that takes you to some lovely locations where van Gogh painted, and to the Starry Night bike path that lights up with swirls of twinkling stones after dark.纽南已经把从前的市政厅变成了文森特中心(Vincentre),包括一座基本上完全用来展示梵高家庭关系的物馆,一家咖啡馆和一家礼品商店。这个中心是纽南梵高村的核心,也是一个户外物馆的起点,可以步行或骑自行车游览22处景点,包括梵高画过的一些美景,《星夜》自行车道上的石头在天黑之后呈现出螺旋形的灯光。It is also directly across the street from van Gogh’s family home, a two-story brick house, now a private residence that one can’t visit. Next to it is the home of Margot Begemann, the girl next door, who fell in love with the artist and tried to poison herself with strychnine when her family objected to the affair. Her family home, called Nune Ville, which came on the market recently by chance, has become a focus of efforts by local historic preservationists who would like to turn it too into a van Gogh heritage site.马路对面正好是梵高父母的家,一栋两层的砖房,现在是一处私人住宅,无法参观。它旁边是玛高特·贝格曼(Margot Begemann)的家,这个隔壁女孩爱上了梵高,当她的家庭阻止他们的恋情之后,她曾试图用番木鳖碱自杀。她家的房子名叫 “Nune Ville”,已经成为当地历史保护专家的重点保护对象,他们也想把它打造成一处梵高的遗产。Over last summer, when I visited, most of the rooms of the stately home were given over to contemporary artists who had created room-size installations inspired by van Gogh, in an exhibition called “The Vincent Affair,” which ended in October. Since then, attempts to find investors who could help turn the site into a permanent tourist spot have stalled, Mr. van den Eijnden said.去年夏天,我来参观的时候,这个庄重住宅的多数房间都被当代艺术家占据,他们受到梵高的启发,创作了一些房间大小的艺术装置,展览的名字叫“文森特集市”(The Vincent Affair),10月份结束。范登艾金登说,此后,寻找投资者把这里变成长期旅游景点的努力陷入停滞。Montmartre, Paris巴黎蒙马特Van Gogh didn’t stay in Nuenen long after the end of the Margot Begemann affair. He moved first to Antwerp, Belgium, and then to Paris, where his brother Theo had a job as an art dealer with the leading art gallery, Goupil amp; Cie. Van Gogh moved into his brother’s third-floor apartment at 54, rue Lepic in Montmartre, which is a private residence now, and designated only by a marble plaque: “Dans cette maison Vincent van Gogh a vécu chez son frère Théo de 1886 à 1888.” (“In this house Vincent van Gogh lived at his brother Théo’s place from 1886 to 1888.”) And some plastic sunflowers dangle from the window grate.在与玛高特·贝格曼的爱情告终之后,梵高没有在纽南待太长时间。他搬到了比利时的安特卫普,然后又搬到了巴黎。他的兄弟提奥在巴黎顶尖的画廊Coupilamp;Cie做艺术品交易的工作。梵高搬到了弟弟位于勒皮克大街54号三楼的公寓。这里现在是一处私人住宅,只有一块大理石板上写着,“1886年到1888年,文森特·梵高来到这栋房子与弟弟提奥同住。”窗户的格栏上挂着几朵塑料向日葵。The Rue Lepic arcs upward through Montmartre, passing the old windmills, and ultimately arrives at the Sacré-Coeur. On the way up, one can discover many prime landmarks of the nearly two years that van Gogh spent here, including the apartment of his friend Henri Toulouse-Lautrec and the oldest surviving Parisian vineyard, where van Gogh sometimes painted, now on Rue Saint Vincent.勒皮克大街向北蜿蜒穿过蒙马特,经过一些老风车,最终抵达圣心圣殿。在路上可以发现梵高在这度过的两年留下的许多足迹,包括他的友人亨利·图卢兹-罗特列克(Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec)的公寓,以及现在位于圣文森特街的最古老的巴黎葡萄园,梵高有时会在这里画画。The area, which was a hamlet outside Paris when van Gogh lived there, was critical to his progress as a painter, because it is where he met many of the Impressionists and other artists, including his friend Paul Gauguin, and imitated and explored various Parisian painting styles. There are no physical landmarks one can enter and explore in Montmartre to get a sense of how he lived, though there are museums, like the Musée d’Orsay, that now contain his work.梵高在那里居住时,这片地区是巴黎城外的一个小村子。这里对于他作为画家的成长至关重要,因为他遇见了许多印象主义和其他流派的画家,包括好友保罗·高更,模仿并探索了巴黎的各种绘画风格。在蒙马特没有一个有形的场所可以让你走进去探索并感受梵高当时的生活,但是有些物馆收藏了他的作品,比如奥赛物馆。Provence, France法国普罗旺斯Finding original artworks by van Gogh in most of the locations I visited would have been nearly impossible except for the special exhibitions designed for Van Gogh Year. The Fondation Van Gogh in Arles, an expansive exhibition space topped with an artwork of colored glass refracting Proven light through its roof, which opened in 2014, is a notable exception. Through an agreement with the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam, the foundation will have one original van Gogh painting on display year-round.在我参观的多数地方,想找到梵高的真迹几乎都是不可能的,除非是在专门为梵高年举办的展览上。阿尔勒的梵高基金会(Fondation Van Gogh in Arles)是一个宽敞的展览空间,顶棚是色玻璃的艺术设计,可以让普罗旺斯的阳光折射进来。这处2014年开设的场所是一个例外。凭借与阿姆斯特丹的梵高物馆的一份协议,基金会全年都会展示一幅梵高的真迹。The final stages of van Gogh’s life are the best preserved, and they are also the most moving. After he cut off a part of his ear in Arles, he was admitted to the Arles hospital in Provence, where he painted the lush gardens that are still on display free to the public, as Espace Van Gogh. When he found that this was not sufficient treatment, his brother secured a spot for him at the asylum in St.-Rémy-de-Provence, about 30 minutes to the north. The drive there took me past the endless stretches of sunflowers now so closely associated with his art, and through the foothills of the range of small mountains at the base of the Alps, called the Alpilles, where he painted a series of “Wheat Fields” and his most famous “Starry Night.”梵高人生最后几个阶段的故居保存最完好,也最打动人。他在阿尔勒切掉了一片耳朵之后,被送到了普罗旺斯的阿尔勒医院,他在那里画下的郁郁葱葱的花园目前仍然免费展示给公众,这家医院目前叫做梵高医院。当他发现这里不能提供足够的治疗时,他的弟弟在北部30分钟路程的普罗旺斯的圣雷米的精神病院为他安排了一个床位。开车前往这家精神病院的途中,我路过了一片片绵延不断的向日葵,以及阿尔卑斯山脚下的山麓丘陵,叫做阿尔皮勒,梵高在这里画下了《麦田》系列和最著名的《星夜》。The municipality of St. Rémy has done van Gogh tourists a service by creating a 19-point walking tour from the city center called Promenade de van Gogh, which can be complemented with an app called Van Gogh Natures that adds information about paintings he made in and around the asylum. I followed this self-guided tour up the hill, finding myself softly whispering: “Vincent, where are you? Are you here?” I realized, for the first time on my journey, that I had come in search of a ghost.圣雷米市为梵高的游客提供了一个从市中心出发的包含19个景点的徒步旅行路线,叫做梵高人行道,游客还可以下载Van Gogh Natures的应用程序,获取关于他在精神病院和周围创作的画作的信息。我按图索骥来到了山上,突然发现自己在轻声低语:“文森特,你在哪呢?你在这儿吗?”我在旅行中第一次意识到,我是在寻找一个灵魂。The destination was the St. Paul de Mausole, a Romanesque former religious cloister that is part of a still-functioning mental hospital, and its sumptuous surrounding gardens. Depending on the season when you visit, you can find all the beautiful irises and lilies that inspired van Gogh’s paintings. And around the asylum are the twisted olive groves and the tall elegant cypresses that he captured with dense, emotional brushwork.终点是莫索尔的圣保罗修道院(Saint Paul de Mausole)和它周围华丽的花园。这里曾经是一个罗曼式建筑风格的修道院,目前属于一所精神病院。在适当的季节,你可以看到为梵高绘画带去灵感的美丽的鸢尾花和百合。精神病院周围是扭曲的橄榄树,以及他曾经用浓烈而情绪化的笔触描绘过的高耸而优雅的丝柏树。Inside the cool cloister, through its medieval stone halls and up the shallow Romanesque stairs, is van Gogh’s preserved former room at the asylum. The steel bars on the windows are a jarring counterpoint to the easel positioned next to his wrought-iron bed, but what is more shocking is the room next door with two steel baths used for administering “hydrotherapy treatments” — only a hint of the therapeutic tortures he might have endured here. I wandered through the gardens for a moment of calm after seeing the hospital cell, my mind raging with thoughts of van Gogh’s suffering, and wondering how he managed to paint at all during the time he was at the asylum — let alone make 143 oil paintings and 100 drawings.在修道院内,穿过中世纪的石头大厅和浅浅的罗曼式的楼梯,就来到了梵高在精神病院住过的房间。窗户上的钢铁栅栏和他铁床边的画架形成了强烈的反差,但更加令人震惊的是,隔壁的房间有两个用于“水疗护理”的钢铁浴盆——这只会让人联想到他可能遭受的折磨。在参观完了病房之后,我在花园中游荡,寻找片刻宁静,满脑子都在想梵高的痛苦,我好奇他在精神病院里是怎么画画的——更不用说他还创作了143幅油画和100幅素描。Auvers-sur-Oise, France法国瓦兹河畔欧韦Van Gogh’s troubles did not end, though he finally left the St. Rémy hospital. He made his way back to northern France, to the town of Auvers-sur-Oise, about a 30-minute drive from Paris. It is where I visited the most poignant landmark, Van Gogh’s Room in the historic inn Auberge Ravoux. This tiny second-floor room (even smaller than his room at the asylum) remained empty for years after van Gogh died, suffering the curse of any French hotel room that was thought to be the scene of a suicide, and has been restored entirely through the efforts of a citizen, Dominique-Charles Janssens. This room, where van Gogh completed more than 80 paintings in just 70 days, with its only access to natural light a small ceiling window, is reminiscent of a coffin. Here is where van Gogh died of a fatal gunshot wound — probably self-inflicted — with his brother at his side.虽然梵高最终离开了圣雷米精神病院,他的不幸没有结束。他回到了法国北部的瓦兹河畔欧韦镇,这里距离巴黎有30分钟车程。我在那里参观了最令人印象深刻的地标,梵高在历史悠久的拉乌餐厅旅馆(Auberge Ravoux)的房间。因为被认为是自杀的不祥之地,这个二楼的小房间(比他在精神病院的房间还小)在梵高去世之后空了很多年,通过一位名叫多米尼克 - 查尔斯詹森的公民的努力得到了完全的修复。在这个房间里,梵高用了仅仅70天的时间完成了超过80幅画作,屋子里只能通过天花板上的小窗获得一些自然光,感觉就像一口棺材。梵高在这里死于致命伤——可能是自己开的——弟弟当时就在他身边。And in close walking distance is his grave, alongside his brother and confidante, Theo, who died six months later, at age 33.他的坟墓就在附近,葬在他身边的是弟弟兼好友提奥。提奥在梵高去世的六个月后去世,终年33岁。What is more compelling, however, was a short walk away from his grave: the wheat fields down the dusty road where he painted his final series of canvases.不过,从他的坟墓走不了多远,有更为值得一看的地方:沿着尘土飞扬的路走下去,是一片麦田,梵高在这里创作了他最后系列的油画作品。By the end, the trip became something of a pilgrimage. I had gone to where van Gogh trekked alone with his easel on his back, gazing at the crooked olive groves, the obelisk-like cypresses and the swirling starry nights.到了最后,这趟旅程已经有了几分朝圣的味道。我来到了梵高背着画板独自远行,以及他凝视着歪橄榄树、方尖碑样的丝柏树和令人眩晕的星夜的地方。When I tramped down a dirt road along a river in Arles to the Pont de Langlois, which van Gogh depicted in four drawings, one watercolor and four oil paintings, I wondered: Why, when living in the center of a city like Arles, dotted with beautiful Roman ruins that filtered evening light in dramatic and wonderful ways, he was instead attracted, over and over again, to this slightly old-fashioned little drawbridge miles outside of town. And, having come all the way from Amsterdam, through so many van Gogh locations, I realized that I knew. Although van Gogh traveled far to discover the right effects, the right light and the right subjects for his paintings, all the while he was longing for a sense of home.当我踏着阿尔勒一条河边的泥土路,来到梵高在四幅素描、一幅水和四幅油画中描绘过的朗格鲁瓦吊桥,我在想:梵高住在阿尔勒这样一座城市的市中心,周围散落着美丽的罗曼式旧建筑遗迹,以奇妙和梦幻的方式照进夜晚的灯光,为何他还一次次地执迷于城外几里地远的这座有点过时的小吊桥?从阿姆斯特丹千里迢迢来到这里,造访了那么多梵高的故居之后,我意识到,我知道。尽管梵高为了寻找恰当的效果、光线和绘画对象而远走他乡,但他一直都渴望家的感觉。The more I traveled the more I became fascinated by this man van Gogh, who transmuted the reality of things he saw into images that are more real than real. The landmarks provided me with a starting point, from which I could travel out, and get a sense of the distances he traveled, both physically and mentally, to achieve the remarkable heights of artistic creation in the short span of a 10-year career.走的地方越多,我对梵高就愈加着迷。他把眼中的世界幻化了比真实更加真实的画面。这些地标是我的起点,我可以继续远行,去感受梵高在短短10年绘画生涯中要达到如此惊人艺术创作高度,其肉体和心灵所走过的距离。IF YOU GO参观建议In the Netherlands荷兰Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam (Museumplein 6; 31-20-570-5200; Vangoghmuseum.nl) is the world’s largest trove of artworks by van Gogh. It is in the heart of Amsterdam, with a permanent exhibition of his work as well as temporary exhibitions that relate his works to other great artists.阿姆斯特丹的梵高物馆(Museumplein 6; 31-20-570-5200;vangoghmuseum.nl)是世界上最大的梵高作品收藏中心。它位于阿姆斯特丹的中心位置,长期展出他的作品,以及与其作品有关的当代展览。Vincentre / Van Gogh Village Nuenen(Vincentre Berg 29, Nuenen; 31-40-283-9615; for biking and walking tours, April through October), a small museum, is the beginning of an open-air walking tour that takes you through important locations for van Gogh’s painting in Nuenen, where he lived with his parents for two years, and fell in love with Margot Begemann. (Above, van Gogh’s father’s Reformed Church in Nuenen.)文森特中心/纽南梵高村(Vincentre Berg 29, Nuenen; 31-40-283-9615; 4月到10月,自行车和徒步旅游路线),一家小型物馆,你可以从这里开始一次露天的徒步之旅,途径梵高画作中在纽南的重要景点。梵高在纽南与父母居住两年,并在这里爱上了玛高特·贝格曼。Van Gogh Starry Night Bike Path(vangoghvillagenuenen.nl/het-vincentre.aspx), which lights up at night, begins at the Opwettense watermill in Nuenen and ends at the Collse Watermill in Eindhoven.梵高星夜自行车道(vangoghvillagenuenen.nl/het-vincentre.aspx),道路在夜晚会发光,起点是纽南的Opwettense 水车,终点是埃因霍温的Collse水车。Van Gogh House in Zundert(Markt 27, Zundert; 31-76-597-19 99; vangoghhuis.com), where van Gogh was born, was torn down in 1903, but the new house was built in 2008 with a permanent exhibition about his birthplace, Zundert.津德尔特的梵高故居(Markt 27, Zundert; 31-76-597-19 99;vangoghhuis.com),梵高出生的地方,1903年被拆除,2008年重建,长期举办关于梵高的展览。In Belgium比利时The Borinage: Maison Van Gogh (Rue du Pavillon 3, Cuesmes; en.maisonvangogh.mons.be), just outside of Mons, in bucolic Cuesmes, is a little brick house and museum that tells the story of van Gogh’s time in this part of Belgium. (Above, inside Maison Van Gogh in Cuesmes, the Borinage.)里纳日:梵高故居(Rue du Pavillon 3, Cuesmes;en.maisonvangogh.mons.be),一栋小砖房,如今是一座物馆,讲述着梵高在比利时这个地区度过的时光。Maison Van Gogh in Colfontaine(Rue Wilson 221, formerly rue du Petit-Wasmes, Colfontaine; mons2015.eu/en/maison-van-gogh-colfontaine), also known as Maison Denis, the newly renovated house van Gogh rented when he arrived in Mons to be an evangelist, is near the Marcasse Mine.科尔方丹的梵高故居(Rue Wilson 221, formerly rue du Petit-Wasmes, Colfontaine; mons2015.eu/en/maison-van-gogh-colfontaine),也被称作丹尼斯的房子,这是梵高抵达蒙斯担任福音传道者时租住的房子,目前已经被翻修,位于马卡斯煤矿附近。BAM/Musée des Beaux-Arts in Mons(Rue Neuve, 8, Mons; 32-65-39-5939; www.bam.mons.be/) had an exhibition dedicated to van Gogh in the Borinage in 2015, but that show is now over. But exhibitions are often linked to the painter, who had a tremendous influence in Mons.蒙斯美术馆(Rue Neuve, 8, Mons; 32-65-39-5939; www.bam.mons.be/)2015年举办了一个关于梵高在里纳日的展览,目前已经结束。但这里的展览经常与梵高有关,梵高对蒙斯产生了深远的影响。In France法国Fondation Vincent Van Gogh in Arles(35 rue du Dr. Fanton; Arles; fondation-vincentvangogh-arles.org/), in the center of the old city of Arles, is a great place to begin a tour of van Gogh locations throughout Arles. Exhibitions are connected to van Gogh’s work; and at least one original van Gogh painting is on display in the museum all year round.阿尔勒的文森特·梵高基金会(35 rue du Dr. Fanton; Arles; fondation-vincentvangogh-arles.org/),位于阿尔勒老城的中心,从这里开始在阿尔勒寻访梵高的足迹再合适不过了。这里的展览都与梵高的作品有关,全年至少有一幅梵高的真迹在物馆展出。St. Paul de Mausole Monastery(Chemin St. Paul, 13210 St.-Rémy-de-Provence; 33-4-90-92-77-00) is the “asylum” where van Gogh received treatment in St.-Rémy-de-Provence, and where you can visit his former room and see the lush gardens and landscapes he painted during his time there. Different flowers are in bloom throughout the year; check for seasons for irises, almond blossoms and sunflowers.莫索尔的圣保罗修道院 (Chemin St. Paul, 13210 St.-Rémy-de-Provence; 33-4-90-92-77-00)是梵高在普罗旺斯的圣雷米接受治疗的“精神病院”,你可以在这里参观他当时的病房,看到他在此治疗期间画过的茂盛的花园和风景。全年都有不同的花儿绽放;在适当的季节可以看到鸢尾花、杏花和向日葵。Maison de Van Gogh(Place de la Mairie, Auvers-sur-Oise; 33-1-30-36-60-60), the restaurant and inn Auberge Ravoux, the last place where van Gogh lived, and where he died. You can see the tiny room he inhabited, and eat a classic French meal at the lovely restaurant downstairs.梵高故居(Place de la Mairie, Auvers-sur-Oise; 33-1-30-36-60-60),拉乌餐厅旅馆,梵高居住过的最后一个地方,他也在这里走完了人生。你可以看见他居住的小房间,在楼下的迷人的餐厅享受一顿传统的法餐。 /201602/426533

5.Sweet#39;n#39;Low5.低脂糖This sugar substitute was discovered in 1879 by a chemist named Ira Remsen who couldn#39;t be bothered to wash his hands before eating. At that time, the national obsession with weight-loss schemes hadn#39;t started, and folks were happy to eat plain old sugar. Saccharin didn#39;t come into mainstream use until World War I imposed rations on consumer staples like sugar, and people began buying up alternatives in droves.这种糖的替代品是一个不喜欢饭前洗手的化学家雷姆森在1879年发明的。那时很多人还没开始痴迷于减肥,而且他们还很乐意吃普通的糖。直到第一次世界大战时,物资紧缺,对食糖之类的消费必需品实行定量配给,糖精的使用才逐渐变成一种主流,人们也才开始成群结队地去购买这种替代品。The same thing happened again in World War II, and when a father and son team combined saccharine with dextrose at their diner in the 1950s, their product was rebranded as Sweet#39;n#39;Low. Turning the leftovers from wartime rationing into a new weight-loss gimmick, saccharin survived the return of natural sugar and kept its place on restaurant tables across America.同样的事情在二战期间再一次出现。那是20世纪50年代,一位父亲和儿子们在用餐时把糖精和葡萄糖混合在一起,并把这个产品重新命名为;低脂糖;。这把战争时期残羹剩饭的限量供给变成了一种瘦身的新花招。糖精被当做是一种天然糖的回归,在美国大多数饭店的餐桌上都可以见到它的身影。4.Microwave Ovens4.微波炉Before Hot Pockets and TV dinners made the nuclear option a staple of the American kitchen, microwaves were simply a side-effect of World War II radar emitters. Self-taught engineer Percy Spencer was conducting research on magnetrons — a key component of radar systems — when he noticed that a candy bar in his pocket had melted. He theorized that microwaves emitting from the magnetrons generated the heat responsible for ruining his snack. Naturally, he tested his theory by proceeding to blow eggs and popcorn up using microwave emissions.当今社会,爆米花与电视餐盛行,微波炉已然成为美国家庭厨房的霸主。但在二战期间,微波只不过是雷达辐射源产生的一种电磁波。珀西·斯宾塞是当时一名自学成才的工程师,他在研究雷达系统的关键部件——磁控管时发现,口袋里的巧克力棒竟然化了。他认为,宝贝巧克力棒之所以会化,是因为磁控管发出的微波产生了热效应。之后,他成功利用微波烹调鸡蛋、制作爆米花,在实自己推断的同时还能享用美食,赞!He finally managed to pull himself away from his new toy long enough to let his employers know what he had found. His discovery was soon put to work, and the first commercial microwave ovens were produced in 1955.很长一段时间,他都在潜心研究微波;新宠;,雇主们这才了解到他发现了微波的热效应。很快,他的新发现就投入了生产,第一台家用微波炉也于1955年面世。3.Duct Tape3.布基胶带Quibbles over whether ;duct; or ;duck; came first aside, this ubiquitous, multi-functional tape first emerged during the Second World War. GIs needed a flexible, water-proof material they could use to repair everything from canteens to ammunition cases. When Johnson and Johnson came up with a combination medical tape and self-adhesive strip they could deliver in rolls to the troops, duct tape was born.布基胶带在我们的生活中随处可见,它最初是指管道胶带还是防水胶带早已不得而知,但有一点毋庸置疑——这款多功能胶带是在二战时期推广开来的。战争时期,美国士兵需要修补的东西很多,他们希望有一款多功能的防水材料,既能用于水壶等生活用品,又能用于各种军事装备。于是,强生公司结合了医用胶带与自粘胶带的特性,推出了一款便于运输的军用产品,布基胶带由此应运而生。The versatility of the tape made it popular among troops long after the war ended. Consumer demand quickly turned the military tool into a household name — which is only fitting, considering it was a Navy mother who first conceived of the idea out of concern for her enlisted family.布基胶带应用广泛,在二战结束后依然深受士兵们青睐。随着市场需求的与日俱增,这款军用产品很快就家喻户晓了。人们认为布基胶带的创意源自一名海军的母亲,而她会有这样的奇思妙想只是出于对儿子的关心。2.Disposable Syringes2.一次性针筒As anyone who lived through the #39;80s most homophobic health scare can tell you, sharing needles is a quick way to sp diseases. But before America became obsessed with HIV/AIDs, the military was trying to balance the need for frontline painkillers with the risk of overdoses and morphine addiction.80年代是最严重的同性恋健康恐慌期,任何一个经历过这个时期的人都可以告诉你,共用针头是快速传播疾病的一种方式。但在美国受到HIV/AIDs困扰之前,军队还冒着用药过度和对吗啡上瘾的风险来满足前线对止痛药的需求。During the American Civil War, as well as the First World War, wounded soldiers pretty much had to play through the pain until they were carted off to ad hoc medical tents and treated with morphine there. By World War II, the old glass and metal syringes were abandoned in favor of a new product, called the Syrette, which was compact (limiting the dosage it could administer), and expendable. Syrettes were distributed to troops pre-filled with single doses of morphine. This set the stage for later inventors who moved beyond distributing morphine to troops and reworked the product into a mass-produced medical device, now typically made of plastic.在美国内战和第一次世界大战期间,受伤的战士在被送到临时救护帐篷并在那里注射吗啡进行麻醉前,都要和疼痛作斗争。到了第二次世界大战,旧的玻璃管和金属注射器都被弃置,这催生了新产品:西雷特皮下注射器。它外型小巧且不能二次使用,在装入一次剂量的吗啡后才分发到军队。这就为后来的发明家们在用这种注射器分发军用吗啡的基础之上,将它改良为可批量生产的医疗用品奠定了基础。现在这种注射器通常用塑料制成。1.Disney1.迪士尼No, Walt Disney didn#39;t start his namesake entertainment company in the midst of World War II. As the screaming voices of those within the Disney vault will tell you, his animation studio had been enjoying years of success with a string of animated shorts in the 1920s, as well as feature-length efforts like Snow White.虽然华特·迪士尼在二战中期还没有创立他的同名公司,但在20世纪20年代,他的工作室已经成功推出了一系列动画短片和像《白雪公主》一样的长片。Walt proceeded to drive all that success straight into the ground, releasing a string of feature-length failures (we now call them ;classics;) and then fumbling management of his striking animators who wanted Disney to unionize. By the time he capitulated, the company was facing bankruptcy. Then the U.S. government, out of concern over fascist influence in South America, offered Disney an all-expenses paid trip down through Brazil, Argentina and Chile. The plan was for Disney to do a series of animated propaganda pieces celebrating Latin American culture, softening international relations and allowing the U.S. to focus on storming European beaches. Disney#39;s deal with the military grew to include a series of propaganda cartoons, and resuscitated his collapsing brand so it could grow into the international entertainment superpower we all know and fear today. Without WWII, Disney would have gone whistling while he worked into the margins of history.取得成功后,华特开始走下坡路。他制作了一系列失败的长片作品(我们现称之为;经典;),此外,他还得研究对一些动画设计师进行管理——他们要求成立工会,否则就罢工。但到他最终决定让步的时候,他的公司已经面临着破产的局面了。之后,考虑到法西斯在南美洲的影响,美国政府承担了迪士尼在巴西、阿根廷和智利的所有推广费用。该计划要求迪士尼做出一系列动画宣传片来赞美拉美文化,为的是缓和美国和南美洲各国之间的关系,使美国集中精力对付欧洲沿海地区。军事形势成就了迪士尼,他制作了一系列宣传动画片,恢复了他没落的品牌。自此,迪士尼成为了当今世上首屈一指的国际王国。如果没有二战,迪士尼恐怕早就被淹没在历史的洪流之中了。审校:梅子九 编辑:旭旭 来源:前十网 /201602/426876

Loss, nostalgia for a vanished past and “the unspeakable peril of the everyday” represented by “swimming pools, high-tension wires, lye under the sink, aspirin in the medicine cabinet” — these are the themes that have animated Joan Didion’s work, since “Slouching Towards Bethlehem” established her as one of America’s most distinctive and acute literary voices almost five decades ago.丧失、对逝去的时光的怀恋以及那些“司空见惯却又难以说清的危险”(比如游泳池、高压线、厨房水盆下存放的碱性洗涤剂、药柜里的阿司匹林等等)是琼·狄恩作品的一贯主题,也是令其作品绘声绘色、生命力持久的重要元素。自从50年前发表《缓缓走向伯利恒》(Slouching Towards Bethlehem)奠定了狄恩在美国文学的地位,这些主题一直赋予狄恩一个独特敏锐的文学声音。All her fears about the precariousness of life were horribly realized in December 2003, when her daughter, Quintana Roo, went into a New York hospital with an apparent case of flu and was soon lying unconscious in an intensive care unit, suffering from pneumonia and septic shock; days later, her husband of 40 years, John Gregory Dunne, sat down for dinner and collapsed, dead from a massive heart attack. Quintana would die about a year and a half later at the age of 39.她对于人生的重重险象及不稳定性的所有恐惧都在2003年12月不幸地兑现了:她的女儿,昆塔娜·璐,貌似患流感入住医院,却很快因肺炎及败血性休克躺在ICU病房昏迷不醒;几天后,她相濡以沫40年的丈夫格里高利·邓恩在餐桌前坐下准备用晚餐时突然瘫倒,死于大面积突发性心衰;一年半之后,昆塔娜也撒手人寰,时年只有39岁。Ms. Didion, now 80, chronicled these events in two books — “The Year of Magical Thinking” (2005), a shattering contemplation of loss and grief and sorrow, and “Blue Nights” (2011), a more elliptical meditation on her daughter’s life and death — much as she chronicled the rest of her life in her other work: her nervous collapses, her marital ups and downs, her anxieties, her illnesses, her craving for stability. In “The Last Love Song,” Tracy Daugherty — a fiction writer, and the author of critically acclaimed biographies of Donald Barthelme and Joseph Heller — unavoidably draws heavily upon Ms. Didion’s own writings while at the same time trying to draw distinctions between her real life and her literary persona, between her experiences as a daughter, writer, wife, and mother and what he astringently describes as her “working her brand.” He notes, for instance, that Ms. Didion wrote in “Blue Nights” about thinking of taking Quintana, then an infant, with her on assignment to Saigon, during the Vietnam War, implying that she was so unprepared to be a mother that the absurdity of such an undertaking never occurred to her. In fact, he writes, she was anything but clueless — “she was a steely professional, not about to let motherhood get in the way of her career.” What stopped her, Mr. Daugherty argues, was the simple fact that Quintana’s adoption had not yet been finalized and “she could not be transported out of state, much less out of the country.”现年已经80高龄的狄恩用两本书记录了她所承受的巨大损失与悲恸——《奇思幻想的一年》(The Year of Magical Thinking,2005),书中她直面丧夫之痛,对人生的失去与悲伤的反思直撼人心;《蓝色的夜》(Blue Nights,2011)是对女儿的生与死更加委婉含蓄的沉思。一如她的其他作品,两本书均对生活种种做了记录:从神经崩溃,婚姻的起起落落,到焦虑、病痛,以及对稳定生活的渴望,面面俱到。 小说家特雷西·多尔蒂(曾写过备受赞誉的唐纳德·巴塞尔姆和约瑟夫·海勒传记) 新近出版的《最后的恋歌》(The Last Love Song)无可避免地从狄恩自己的作品中提取了大量资料,同时又将生活中的狄恩与文坛上的狄恩区分开来,把她作为女儿、作家、妻子、母亲的多重角色以及多尔蒂所描述的狄恩的“自我品牌塑造”一一展现给读者。虽然狄恩在《蓝色的夜》中写到自己曾打算带上襁褓中的昆塔娜去西贡执行写作任务,尽管当时正值越战,这意味着她对于初为人母毫无思想准备,丝毫没有意识到带着一个婴儿奔赴战场采访的荒谬。多尔蒂却指出,事实上,狄恩并非对于做母亲的责任一无所知,“她是一个意志刚强的职业女性,不想让母亲的角色阻碍了她事业的发展”。多尔蒂认为,最终使她没能把昆塔娜带到西贡的原因是领养手续没有完成,“昆塔娜无法被带出州,遑论带出国”。The Didion who emerges from “The Last Love Song” is both a frail, angst-ridden outsider and a shrewd Hollywood and New York insider; a vulnerable witness to history and a hardheaded survivor; a writer drawn to theatricality and extremes, and a woman who prizes order and control. Mr. Daugherty — who did not get Ms. Didion’s cooperation — does an agile job here of examining how his subject’s life illuminated the eras she traversed (and vice versa). He uses her experiences, much as Ms. Didion did, as an index of the cultural convulsions that rocked the country during the 1960s and ’70s, while at the same time, using her literary methods and musical sense of language to chart her peregrinations between California and New York, and her intellectual evolution over the years.《最后的恋歌》呈现给我们的狄恩既是一个身体虚弱、充满焦虑的局外人又是一个精明锐敏的好莱坞和纽约的圈内人;既是易受伤害的历史见人又是精明务实的幸存者;既是追逐戏剧性和极端事件的作家,又是珍视秩序与掌控的女人。多尔蒂先生并没有得到狄恩的配合,但他对传主一生的审视却也机敏自如,使狄恩的人生与她所经历的时代辉映成趣。他以狄恩的个人经历作为上世纪六七十年代美国文化大震荡的指数,同时又以狄恩的创作手法及富有乐感的语言记录了她游走于加州和纽约之间的经历以及她心智上的发展。There are a few tasteless and superfluous lapses into gossip in this book — in one case, he even notes that a source’s observations “should be taken with heavy pitchers of salt.” And Mr. Daugherty dances nervously (though not as nervously as Ms. Didion has) around the subject of Quintana’s emotional difficulties and alcoholism, ing a close friend who says her depressions and drinking were “probably intertwined” with her final illness (acute pancreatitis, which Mr. Daugherty writes, is “usually caused in young people by prolonged drug or alcohol abuse”). For the most part, this thoughtful and ambitious biography remains focused on Ms. Didion’s writing, using her life to shed light on her highly autobiographical work. Mr. Daugherty reminds us of the pioneer past of Ms. Didion’s family — her mother was a descendant of Nancy Hardin Cornwall, who, with her husband, had followed the ill-fated Donner-Reed party west, but split from the group in Nevada — and how this indelibly shaped her vision of California, and how California, in turn, became, for her, a metaphor for the promises and betrayals of America.书中也有几处庸俗无聊的八卦闲话;有一处甚至多尔蒂自己都坦言可信度极低。对于昆塔娜的情感困扰和酗酒,多尔蒂和狄恩一样都是小心翼翼地旁敲侧击(尽管他比狄恩女士更放开一些)。借用一位关系密切的狄恩家庭朋友的话,多尔蒂告诉我们,昆塔娜的抑郁症和酗酒与她最终的病患——急性胰腺炎——很可能有着千丝万缕的联系(年轻人的急性胰腺炎“大多与长期滥用毒品和酗酒有关”,多尔蒂指出)。总之,这是一部深思熟虑、内容丰富的传记。它始终以狄恩的写作生涯为主线,探索了她的个人生活与她极富自传色的作品如何相得益彰;同时也让我们了解了狄恩家族的西部开拓者背景。她的母亲是南希·哈丁·康沃尔(Nancy Hardin Cornwall, 1811-1886)的后代,康沃尔夫妇曾经跟随时运不济的唐纳-瑞德大队西迁,在内华达州与大队分手;这一历史背景奠定了狄恩的加州观,同时对于狄恩,加州又成为美利坚的希望与背叛的隐喻。Over time, her nostalgia for a vanished frontier — the wagon-train mentality of its first settlers, the stoic individualism embodied by her beloved John Wayne — would mutate into something more ambivalent, an acknowledgment that selfishness and what she called a “mean scrambling for survival” had always lain beneath the romantic myths.随着时间的推移,她对逝去的那个边疆的怀恋——早期开拓者的大篷车心态、以她所喜爱的约翰·韦恩为代表的吃苦耐劳、坚忍不屈的个人主义——逐渐演变成某种矛盾的心理,一种认为自我利益及“为生存下去而抢夺”本就是浪漫传奇之内涵的观点。Although ers may not agree with all of Mr. Daugherty’s assessments of individual Didion books, his biography evinces a deep appreciation of her skills and idiosyncrasies, and an understanding of how writers like Conrad, Hemingway and her college professor Mark Schorer (who sharpened her awareness of textual nuances and the use of point of view) helped her forge her singular style. Mr. Daugherty expertly dissects Ms. Didion’s preoccupation with narratives — not just with the techniques of storytelling but also with the subtexts undergirding the personal and political story lines mapped in her work.读者未必赞同多尔蒂先生对狄恩每部作品的评价,但他的传记表现了对狄恩的写作技巧和独特风格的高度赞赏,揭示了康拉德、海明威等作家以及狄恩的大学教授马克·绍尔如何影响锻造了她的卓尔不凡的风格(是绍尔教授培养了狄恩对文字微妙差异和不同叙事视角的敏感)。多尔蒂先生详尽地分析了狄恩对叙事的专注——不仅仅是她讲故事的技巧,还有那些埋伏在字里行间的个人的和历史的故事线索。At the same time, Mr. Daugherty tries to tease out correspondences between Ms. Didion’s life and those of the heroines in her novels — most notably, anxiety over troubled or wayward daughters, from the emotionally impaired Kate in “Play It as It Lays” to Marin, the fugitive radical, in “A Book of Common Prayer” to the drug-addicted Jessie in “Democracy.” He suggests that Ms. Didion and Mr. Dunne’s focus on their own careers and self-absorption as writers sometimes sidelined Quintana when she was little (she was frequently parked with Ms. Didion’s parents, when they were traveling); that the Hollywood scene she knew as a teenager fueled her penchant for medicating her anxieties with alcohol and drugs; and that Ms. Didion was often in denial about Quintana’s problems. He is tough on Ms. Didion as a parent but arguably no tougher than Ms. Didion has been on herself (in print and in interviews) about her shortcomings as a mother, who missed or mis clues to Quintana’s unhappiness and screened off her worst worries and fears.多尔蒂先生还试图挖掘出狄恩女士和她小说里的女主人公的相应经历,其中最明显的就是对于任性的、有问题的女儿的担心与焦虑——这样的女儿遍布其小说作品,如《顺其自然》(Play It As It Lays)一书中有感情障碍的凯特;《祈祷书》(A Book of Common Prayer)里逃亡的激进分子马琳;《民主》(Democracy)中吸毒成性的杰茜等等。他认为狄恩女士和邓恩先生对事业的专注和各自写作的全身心投入往往使他们忽略了年幼的女儿(狄恩夫妇旅行时常常把女儿留在父母家里); 十几岁就近距离接触好莱坞文化的经历加剧了昆塔娜以酒精、毒品缓解焦虑的嗜好;而狄恩又常常拒绝承认女儿的问题。对于狄恩作为母亲的失职,对昆塔娜精神抑郁的种种端倪视而不见或误解,并一再屏蔽自己的担心与恐惧,多尔蒂都毫不留情地揭示出来,但他并没有比狄恩在书中或采访中的自我评判更严苛。After finishing “Blue Nights,” Mr. Daugherty reports, Ms. Didion felt increasingly “weary, listless,” less inclined to push herself, less invested in maintaining the momentum she’d once prized, uncertain whether she would write again. Even her commitment to the pioneer imperative of stoicism and survival, he writes, had begun to waver. He es her saying to a friend, “There’s something missing in survival as a reason for being, you know?”写完《蓝色的夜》之后,多尔蒂写道,狄恩女士越来越感到“疲惫,倦怠”,不再愿意发愤图强,不再有从前的动力,甚至不确定是否还会继续写作;连她一贯推崇与遵守的边疆开拓者的坚韧不屈、顽强活下去的精神都开始动摇了。多尔蒂引用狄恩自己对朋友说的话:“活下去作为存在的理由缺失了什么东西,你懂吗?” /201510/402131

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