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贵阳观山湖社区医院精液检查贵州市贵阳乌当区人民医院孕检多少钱A:Hey, dad, how can you tell when someone’s lying?A:嗨,爸爸,怎样才能知道谁说谎了?Dad:How do I know? Go ask an expert.爸爸:我怎么知道,去问专家。A:Ok. Hey, mom...A:哦,妈妈~~B: I’d like to join your liars club.B:我想加入你的说谎者俱乐部。C: Ok, you’ll need to fill out an application.C:好的,你需要填一张申请表。C: Occupation?C:职业B:Mule skinner.B: 骡夫C: Age?C:年龄?B:20B:20C:Weight?C:体重?B:92 LBS.B:92磅C:Hey, what the heck...Go on in and make yourself at home!C:哦,见鬼,你可以随时回家了。 /201504/371660贵阳市第六人民医院乳腺科 DUNHUANG, China — In the cool shadows of Cave 98, Li Lingzhi watched as workers in blue suits inspected the Buddhist frescoes commissioned in this Gobi Desert cliff grotto more than a millennium ago by a local ruling family.中国敦煌——李凌志(音译)站在98号窟阴凉的暗处,看着身穿蓝色工装的工作人员查看洞窟里的佛教壁画,这些在戈壁滩崖洞里的壁画,是1000多年前由一个统治当地的家族出资创制。It has taken a decade to restore the cave. Metal scaffolding still surrounds the central statue, a three-story seated Buddha with orange robes.修复这个洞窟前后花了十年时间。洞窟中心是一座三层楼高、身披橘色袈裟的坐佛,佛像周围还立着金属脚手架。“We’re waiting for an expert to inspect this, and then we will discuss when we can open it to the public,” said Mr. Li, who works on conservation for the Dunhuang Research Academy, which has managed the Mogao Caves for the central government since 1944, even before the Communists took power. “We’re monitoring humidity and temperature now in this cave.”“我们正在等待一位专家来检查这座佛像的修复情况,然后再讨论何时可以向公众开放,”李凌志说到,他在敦煌研究院负责文物保护工作。该院自1944年就开始为中央政府管理莫高窟,当时中国共产党还没有掌权。“我们正在监测这个洞窟现在的湿度和温度,”李凌志説。Such is the delicate work that goes into preserving these small, centuries-old caves, with nearly 500 of them providing a time capsule of art along the Silk Road and ranking among the world’s greatest Buddhist treasures.保护这些有成百上千年历史的小洞窟,正需要这样细致入微的工作,沿着昔日的丝绸之路分布着五百多座洞窟,它们是穿越时间的艺术,是世界上最重要的佛教宝藏之一。There are statues and figurines and frescoes of Buddha with curly hair and sharp noses, a style common in ancient Central Asian art; Tibetan-style bodhisattvas with a thousand arms drawn in the time of Mongol rule; and disciples wearing Indian dhotis. Most of the caves with art were paid for by royal families seeking a place for private worship. The oldest one dates back 1,600 years.洞窟中的雕塑和壁画描绘的佛陀有卷曲的头发和笔挺的鼻子,这种形象在古代中亚艺术中比较常见;蒙古统治时期绘制的藏式千手观音;身着印度传统饰托蒂(dhotis)的佛教徒。大部分存有艺术创作的洞窟都是由当时的王族出资建造,作为私人的礼佛之地。最古老的洞窟可以追溯到1600年前。The caves marked the western frontier of Chinese empires and the eastern one of Central Asian kingdoms. Camel caravans crossed the Hexi Corridor here laden with spices, silks and scriptures, some of which were deposited in the famous library cave that drew the explorers Sir Aurel Stein and Paul Pelliot in the early 20th century. An entire school of scholarship called “Dunhuang Studies” has sprung up in the decades since, and the area has been designated a World Heritage Site by the ed Nations.这些洞窟曾处在历代中华帝国疆土和西方的中亚王国接壤的地方。当时穿梭于河西走廊的骆驼满载着香料、丝绸、经卷,有些经卷原先保存于著名的藏经洞里,正是这个洞窟吸引探险家奥雷尔·斯坦因爵士(Sir Aurel Stein)和保罗·伯希和(Paul Pelliot)在20世纪初来到敦煌。一大批被统称为“敦煌学”的学术研究在之后几十年陆续涌现。这个地区也被联合国列入世界遗产名录。But the modern era’s threats to the art have been legion: sandstorms, rainwater, local tomb raiders, plundering foreign archaeologists (Messrs. Stein and Pelliot among them), and White Russian soldiers who once lived in the grottoes.但到了近现代,这些艺术品却遭遇来自多方面的威胁:沙尘暴、雨水、当地盗墓者和前来捋掠的国外考古学家(包括斯坦因和伯希和),以及曾经住在这些洞窟里的白俄罗斯士兵。Scholars and preservationists now warn of an even greater looming threat: tourist hordes, even beyond the thousands of daily visitors who flood the area between May and October.如今,学者和文物保护者担心一个更为严重、日益突出的威胁:成群结队的游客,这远不止五月到十月间令这里人满为患的成千上万名游客。Officials in Gansu Province, which includes Dunhuang, and a company in Beijing have drawn up plans for a sprawling theme park connecting the caves with a separate area of sand dunes that aly exists as a tourist playground (think dune buggies and camel rides). The connecting strip of desert would be filled with faux temples, folk villages and souvenir stands.敦煌所在的甘肃省政府和一家北京公司已经在规划建设一个巨大的主题公园,将敦煌石窟和另一片沙丘连起来,那里已经是一个观光乐园(提供沙漠越野车和骆驼骑行之类的项目)。中间相连的狭长沙漠地带将会建起假寺庙、民俗村和纪念品商店。“We hope it won’t become reality,” said Fan Jinshi, 76, known as the “Daughter of Dunhuang,” who has worked at the academy since 1963 and directed it for 17 years, until March. “The Mogao Caves are irreplaceable and nonrenewable. Not only do the caves have to be respected, but the atmosphere around them must be protected, too. The atmosphere around them is part of their integrity.”“我希望它不要变成现实,”76岁的樊锦诗说到,她被称为“敦煌的女儿”,自1963年就开始在敦煌研究院工作,担任该院院长17年,直到今年三月退休。“莫高窟无可替代,一旦破坏也不可恢复。我们不仅要保护洞窟本身,还要保护其周边环境。周边环境也是这个整体的一部分。”He Shuzhong, founder of the Beijing Cultural Heritage Protection Center, a nonprofit preservation group, expressed his concerns in an essay in the March issue of World Heritage Magazine, a publication of the Chinese Foreign Ministry.非盈利保护机构北京文化遗产保护中心发起人何戍中今年三月在中国外交部主管的《世界遗产》杂志发表了一篇文章,也表达了这方面的担忧。“For 20 years, the city has never stopped trying to exploit the caves for money,” Mr. He said in an interview. “The plan would destroy the environment of the caves.”“过去20年,这个城市一直在利用洞窟敛财,”何戍中在一次接受采访时说到。“这个项目会毁掉洞窟的环境。”The plan, requested by Gansu officials, was completed last October by the Boya Strategy Consultation Group, a Beijing-based company that develops commercial tourism sites across China. The proposal has circulated among Gansu officials and the Dunhuang Research Academy, but it has not been publicly released.应甘肃省官员的要求,在全国参与多个商业旅游景区开发的雅方略咨询集团已经在去年十月完成了这个项目的策划。这份策划书已经在甘肃官员手上和敦煌研究院里传阅,但还没有对外公布。In the plan, Boya designers list various shortcomings in the area around the Mogao Caves, including a lack of hotels, live entertainment, large shopping areas and bus parking lots, according to a copy obtained by The New York Times.《纽约时报》获得的一份策划书复印件显示,雅公司在其中列举了在莫高窟周边建景区的各种弊端,包括缺少配套酒店、设施、大型购物区和大巴停车场。The plan proposes building a trailer park and campground complete with a drive-in movie theater, a vineyard and wine cellar, and a “Silk Road Village” between the caves and the sand dunes with hotels, shopping malls, museums, performance halls, restaurants, bars and movie theaters.策划书建议在周边建立旅行拖车公园、带汽车影院的露营地、一个葡萄园和酒窖,以及在沙丘和洞窟之间建一个有配套酒店、购物中心、物馆、表演场所、餐厅、酒吧和影院的“丝绸之路村”。Its authors give generous estimates of potential income. By 2017, it says, the main tourism zone will attract more than 2.13 million tourists a year, with revenue of 496 million renminbi, or million. By 2020, the revenue will grow to 3 million.据策划者估算,这个商业项目的潜在收入将非常可观。策划书中写道,2017年主旅游区每年将会吸引213万游客,创造4.96亿人民币(或8000万美元)的营收。至2020年,收入将增至1.23亿美元。“The concept of the tourism zone was suggested by the provincial government after it established a tourism industry leading group,” said Dou Wenzhang, a Peking University business scholar who founded Boya. “The goal is to establish 20 of these zones across Gansu Province.”“这个旅游区的概念是省政府在成立了一个旅游产业领导小组之后提出的,目标是在甘肃省内建起20个这样的景区,”雅方略创始人、北京大学经济学者窦文章说到。Jiang Jianhong, director of daily operations at the Dunhuang City Tourism Bureau, said, “There is no timeline as to when construction will start on the tourism zone.” He added, “Protection of the caves is of the highest importance.”敦煌市旅游局姜建宏表示,“对于何时开始建设这个旅游区,我们还没有具体的时间表。”他还说,“洞窟的保护是最重要的。”Perhaps most worrying to the Dunhuang Research Academy, the plan calls for the creation of a provincial government commission to oversee tourism, potentially stripping the academy of some or all of its authority. Mr. Dou argued that the academy would retain much of its power and that its rules on tourism would be respected.最让敦煌研究院担心的恐怕是,该计划需要省政府建立专门委员会来监督旅游业发展,这可能会部分削弱或完全剥夺研究院的权力。窦文章认为政府会保留研究院的很多权力,他们对景区旅游的管理权也会得到尊重。In the eyes of Ms. Fan and her colleagues, the imperatives of preservation must be placed well above tourism. Aly, the number of tourists generates anxiety at the academy. After 1979, when the caves were opened to the public, 10,000 to 20,000 people visited annually. In recent years, the crowds have sometimes reached that number in a single day in the peak season, with a total of 810,000 last year.在樊锦诗和她的同事看来,文物保护的重要性一定要高于旅游开发。单是大量游客到来已经让他们倍感焦虑。1979年敦煌莫高窟对外开放后,每年有一两万人到访。最近几年,旅游旺季一天的游客人数就能达到这个量,去年的游客总数已经达到81万。Ms. Fan and her colleagues worked for years on a plan to control tourism that is just now taking effect. The academy built a new visitors’ center about 10 miles north of the caves. People park there and are required to watch two 20-minute films about the caves before taking shuttle buses to the site. There, guides lead groups of 25 people in tours of one to two hours through about eight caves, with a limit of 6,000 visitors a day.樊锦诗和同事们为一项控制游客数量的计划努力了多年,最近刚刚开始实施。研究院在洞窟北面10英里(约合16公里)处新建了一座游客中心。游客在那里换乘班车前往景区之前,需要观看两段时长20分钟的有关洞窟的影像资料。景区日接待游客总量控制在6000人内,旅游向导每次带25人入窟,一两小时内观看完八个洞窟。One of the films, in 3-D, is projected on the inside of a dome that brings the viewer into six caves, including one with an 85-foot-high sitting Buddha.其中一段是3D影像,在一个穹顶结构墙面上放映,可以让游客立体观看六座洞窟内的景象,其中一个洞窟里有一座高达85英尺(约合26米)的坐佛像。“The point is to have people look at the art but without going into the caves,” Ms. Fan said. “This is the first place in all of China to experiment with this method.”“这样做的目的是让游客不必进入洞窟就可以观赏洞窟艺术,”樊锦诗说到。“这里是全中国第一个尝试用这种方法的地方。”About 80 percent of the caves are less than 85 square feet and cannot accommodate many visitors, yet 1,187 people bought tickets for the tour one recent day.80%的洞窟面积不到85平英尺(约合8平方米),无法容纳太多游客,而最近一天就有1187人购买了门票。Their mere presence can be harmful, raising the temperature and levels of carbon dioxide and humidity. Sensors in the caves send ings to the academy’s control rooms. If those exceed recommended levels, the academy temporarily closes the cave.这些人哪怕什么也不做,只是出现在洞窟里,也会带来危害,他们会增加窟内温度、二氧化碳浓度和湿度。窟内安装的感应器会向研究院的控制室发送检测数据。如果数据超过了一定范围,研究院就会暂时关闭洞窟。“If there are too many tourists, the aly existing conditions will worsen,” Ms. Fan said. “If you develop just the tourism industry and sacrifice cultural relics protection, the profit will run out quickly.”“游客数量过多,情况会比现在的更糟,”樊锦诗说到。“如果只追求旅游开发,而牺牲文物保护,这种利润很快就会耗尽。” /201506/381520贵州不孕不育医院天伦不错

贵州医科大学附属医院输卵管检查费用贵州天伦不育不孕医院专家 Most people, and I was no exception, credit numerous stereotypes about introverts. Yes, they are reserved, sometimes strange and hard to understand, but they are people as well. Moreover, dating an introverted man can have many advantages. So, what should you remember when dating someone who’s more withdrawn than you? Here are 7 essential tips for dating an introvert.大多数人对内向的人抱有偏见,当然我也不例外。是的,他们比较沉默,有时候很奇怪让人捉摸不透,但其实他们和我们是一样的。而且,和内向的人约会也有许多好处。所以,如果你要和一个比你还沉默寡言的人交往,你应该要牢记什么呢?下面是七条与内向的人约会时的重要建议。1. Silence isn’t a sign of estrangement1.沉默不表示有隔阂存在A different style of communication is the most striking and significant thing about dating an introverted man. When your man isn’t asking you questions or isn’t joking, most probably he’s not interested in you as a woman. With introverted men, it’s absolutelydifferent. They talk less, but whenever they say something it’s really important to them. Introverts simply don’t waste time on silly talk.和一个内向的男人约会,最显著最重要的一点就是交流的风格不一样。当你的男朋友不问你问题或者不开玩笑,那么很可能他对身为异性的你不感兴趣。但如果对内向的人来说,情况就截然不同了。他们话少,但是他们说的话对他们而言都很重要。内向的人只是不会把时间浪费在说蠢话上。2. Less violent conflicts2.暴力冲突减少If you’re dating an introvert, you will rarely have severe conflicts and fights. Introverts never act and speak rashly. They need a lot of time to reflect on things; therefore their responds are deliberate. Chances are you’ll forget about the argument, but your sweetheart can start talking about it in several days. When you really want to settle a conflict, adopt a patient behavior. An excessive pressure will only lead to distrust andresentment.如果你和内向的人交往,你基本上不会和他们发生严重的冲突或者争吵。内向的人在言谈举止上从不鲁莽冲动。他们需要很多时间去反思事情;因此他们会做出小心谨慎的回应。你很有可能会忘记你们之间的争论,但你的心上人可能几天后又开始旧事重提。如果你真想要解决矛盾,那就耐心一点吧。压力过大只会导致彼此的不信任甚至是厌恶。3. Your social life will be different3.你会有一个不一样的社交生活Get y that your spouse will never be the center of attention at a party, during friend gatherings or a party with unknown people. In fact, introverts don’t lack communication skills and they aren’t anti-social; they just need less time socializing. You should also be y to spend a great amount of time at home watching films or ing. Spontaneous and unplanned events are highly stressful and unwelcome for introverted people. You won’t go out every day, but if your leisure time is properly planned, your guy will be more confident and comfortable.你得做好准备,因为无论是在朋友聚会或是陌生人参加的派对上,你的伴侣永远都不会是人们注意力的焦点。事实上,内向的人并不缺乏沟通技能,也不是反社会人士;他们只是不想要花太多的时间用来社交。你也要做好另一手准备——绝大多数时间你可能就呆在家中看电影或是读书。碰上自发或是他们事先没有计划好的事情,内向的人就会高度紧张并且产生抗拒的心理。你不会每天都出去但是如果你将空闲时间合理地安排好,你的男朋友就会感觉更加自信舒。4. Introvert can’t be converted into extrovert4.内向的人无法变得外向This is the most common mistake most people make when dealing with introverts. You can’t change their temperament and it’s no use struggling with their personality. Beingpushy is indeed the worst strategy you can choose. You won’t stir up your partner by asking him thousand questions or telling jokes. Most probably your man will retreat to save his sanity. You shouldn’t urge your partner to do anything or embarrass him, especially in public. It’s very hard to change yourself and it’s almost impossible to change another person. Remember it.这也是大多数人在和内向的人相处时最常犯的错误。你无法改变他们的性格,和他们的个性较真也是徒劳。一意孤行是最糟糕的策略。哪怕问他上千个问题或是讲笑话你也无法让他放得开。你的男朋友有可能为了不失去理智而逃避。你不应该强迫他做任何事或是让他尴尬,特别是在公共场合下。请记住:改变自己很难,而要改变另一个人几乎是不可能的。5. They need more me time5.他们需要更多自我空间It always made me frustrated, but I couldn’t accept this aspect of our relationship. It doesn’t mean I wanted to spend every second with him, but I suffer when I feel lack of attention. Introverts need more time to recharge their strength and energy. Stillness and solitude are essential things they will always need. Thus, don’t minimize the importance of me time and try not to take it personally. If you aren’t able to adjust to this need, your relationship would be rather disastrous.这一点总让我十分懊恼,恋爱关系的这方面让我无法接受。这并不意味着我想要每时每刻都和他呆一起,但是当我没有感受到足够的关注时就感觉难过。内向的人需要更多的时间来补充精力。他们总需要两样重要东西:安静和孤独。因此,不要忽略自我空间的重要性,尽量避免参杂个人感情色。如果你不能适应这种需要,你们的关系将会遭受重创。6. Honesty is a huge plus of being an introvert6.诚实是内向人士的一大亮点A great advantage of dating an introvert is that your man will always be honest with you about his feelings and thoughts. Introverts focus their attention on people they are interested in. While extroverts are often superficial and pretended, introverted people say and do exactly what they mean. Don’t be afraid that you partner is a player or that he might be cheating on you. If you’re dating an introvert, you can be sure you’re the only one in his life. Moreover, introverts tend to stay in long-lasting relationships since they’re very picky when choosing a girlfriend.和内向的人约会有一个最大的好处,那就是他总是会诚实地表明他的感受和想法。内向人士会关注他们感兴趣的人。外向的人经常表现得肤浅和做作,而内向人士通常言行一致。不要担心你的另一半是个或者劈腿。如果你和一个内向的人交往,你完全可以相信你就是他生命中的唯一。另外,内向的人的恋爱关系会维持得更久,因为他们选择女友的标准非常苛刻。7. You should show tolerance and indulgence7.你要学会宽容并迁就对方Sometimes it’s awfully hard to accept his strangeness and those special needs. It feels difficult to get along with an introvert when you have totally different desires. You want to go to a party, while he tends to stay at home. Or, you’re overflowed with emotions and your partner just can’t take it. An introvert will never belong to you 100 percent. Introverts seem moody at times because they are utterly introspective and sensitive to their feelings. You should give them a lot of time to process. Remember that acompromise is a pledge of any healthy and long-lasting relationship. Try to understand that your introverted man also makes efforts to handle your relationship, even if you don’t notice that.有时候他的一些古怪而特殊的需求让你难以接受。当你们的需求截然不同时,你会感觉很难和内向的人相处。你想要去参加晚会但他更愿意待在家。或者你情绪高涨而你的另一半却无动于衷。内向的人绝不会完完全全属于你。有时他们看上去有点忧郁,那是因为他们处于内省的情绪敏感状态。你应该给他们大量的时间去整理情绪。记住妥协是使恋爱关系健康且持久的保。试着理解你那个内向的他,虽然你并未察觉到,他也在努力经营你们的感情。It’s up to you to make your extrovert-introvert relationship comfortable and satisfying. Like any other relationships, it requires great work, common efforts and compromise. Just a little understanding and sacrifice will help your relationship flourish and work out. Remember that love is about accepting but not changing a person.在这段你外向而他内向的恋爱中,是否让它变得舒且令人满意取决于你。和其它恋爱关系一样,这需要很多精力,共同的努力和妥协。只要彼此多一点理解,多作一点牺牲,就有利于维持你们的关系,达到预期的效果。记住:爱是接纳一个人,而非改变一个人。 /201411/341981贵州天伦不孕不育医院电话

贵州省贵阳中山医院网上预约Chelsea Handler, the television host and best-selling author of “My Horizontal Life: A Collection of One-Night Stands,” and Geoff Dyer, the critically acclaimed British writer whose 15 books include “Out of Sheer Rage: Wrestling With D. H. Lawrence,” don’t have much in common on the surface, aside from both calling Los Angeles home. But neither has an interest in procreating.电视节目主持人切尔茜·汉德勒(Chelsea Handler)出版过畅销书《躺平人生:我那老是出槌的一夜情》(My Horizontal Life: A Collection of One-Night Stands)。广受好评的英国作家杰夫·戴尔(Geoff Dyer)则出版过15本书,包括《一怒之下:与D·H·劳伦斯搏斗》(Out of Sheer Rage: Wrestling With D. H. Lawrence)。除了都把洛杉矶称为家乡,俩人乍看上去似乎没有太多共同之处。不过,他们都没兴趣生育子女。“I definitely don’t want to have kids,” Ms. Handler, 40, said in a 2013 television interview. “I don’t think I’d be a great mother. I’m a great aunt or friend of a mother.”“我肯定不要孩子,”2013年,40岁的汉德勒在电视采访中说,“我觉得自己不会成为一个好妈妈。我是孩子们的好阿姨,妈妈们的好朋友。”Mr. Dyer, 56, contributed an essay to the anthology “Selfish, Shallow, and Self-Absorbed: Sixteen Writers on the Decision Not to Have Kids,” out last week (the title sardonically appropriates the traditional criticisms against childless couples).上周,一本名为《自私、肤浅、只顾自己:十六位作家谈论不要孩子的决定》(Selfish, Shallow, and Self-Absorbed: Sixteen Writers on the Decision Not to Have Kids,文集标题讽刺性地借用人们对无子女夫妇的传统批评)的文集出版,其中一篇来自56岁的戴尔。In it, he related an episode a few years back in which gamboling children kept interrupting his tennis game in London as their mothers did nothing, much to his displeasure. The incident was “a clear demonstration that the rights of parents and their children to do whatever they please have priority over everyone else’s,” he wrote.戴尔在文中提到几年前的一件事,当时他在伦敦打网球,几个玩闹的孩子不断打扰,孩子的妈妈们完全不加管束,这让他非常不快。他写道,这件事“清楚表明,父母和孩子比其他人更有随心所欲的优先权”。(The disruption of racket sports at the hands of youth seems to be a bête noire for Mr. Dyer. Two winters ago, I found myself playing table tennis with him in a Brooklyn establishment. Within 10 minutes, we were booted out for a child’s birthday party as dozens of children and their guardians swarmed the room. “The only thing I hate more than children,” he told me as we gathered our belongings, “are parents.”)(小孩扰乱戴尔打球似乎是他最讨厌的事。两年前,我在布鲁克林的一个体育馆和他打乒乓球。刚打了不到十分钟,几十个孩子和他们的监护人挤满房间,举办生日派对,我们被赶走了。我们收拾东西准备离开时,他对我说,“唯一一种比孩子更讨厌的人就是父母。”)Ms. Handler’s and Mr. Dyer’s desire to be childless — or child-free, as some prefer — syncs with nationwide shifts over the last several decades, and with a host of celebrities who have spoken publicly about their decisions, like George Clooney, Oprah and Ricky Gervais.汉德勒和戴尔不要孩子(有些人更喜欢说成“无子女拖累”)的愿望与过去几十年美国全国的趋势一致,一大堆名人公开表示不要孩子,比如乔治·克鲁尼(George Clooney)、奥普拉(Oprah)和里基·热维斯(Ricky Gervais)。The percentage of childless women ages 40 to 44 doubled from 1976 to 2006, when the figure stood at over one-fifth of women. Their ranks have increased enough that the first NotMom Summit will take place in Cleveland this October. (The numbers have tailed off slightly since 2006, to about 15 percent; some explanations may be more-flexible workplace cultures for women, advances in fertility treatments and increasing acceptance of unmarried women who conceive through sperm donors.)从1976年到2006年,40岁至44岁无子女女性占人口中的比例增长了一倍,2006年的比例超过五分之一。今年10月,这个人数不断增长的群体将在克利夫兰举办第一届“非妈妈峰会”(从2006年起,这个比例略微减少,降至约15%,原因可能包括工作场所文化对女性更为灵活;不治疗技术改进;人们更能接受通过捐精怀的未婚女人)。People’s reasons for not reproducing remain as varied as ever, encompassing the personal, political, financial, environmental or the anti-narcissistic, as in the case of John Warner, the author of the novel “The Funny Man,” who self-deprecatingly wrote in an email, “I’m not convinced my genes are anything to wish on anyone.”人们不想生育的原因和从前一样多种多样,包括个人、政治、经济和环境等因素以及反自恋。小说《有趣的人》(The Funny Man)的作者约翰·沃纳(John Warner)就是最后这种情况。他在电子邮件中谦虚地说,“我不确信自己的基因是任何人想要的。”But one particular strain may be resistance to the current atmosphere of overparenting and its attendant upper-middle-class signifiers.不过,对目前过度养育风气的抗拒,以及对与之相伴的中上层阶级意味的反感,也带来一种特别的压力。“If I had kids, I can’t see doing it in New York City,” said Kate Bolick, the author of the coming book “Spinster: Making a Life of One’s Own.” “Not just because I couldn’t afford it, but because I don’t like the idea of raising a child in this epicenter of class disparity and extreme wealth.”“假如我有孩子,我觉得自己没法在纽约市养活他们,”作家凯特·利克(Kate Bolick)说。她即将出版新书《不婚女子:自己过活》(Spinster: Making a Life of One’s Own)。“不只是因为我负担不起,而且因为我不喜欢在这个等级分明、极度富有的地方养孩子。”Meghan Daum, the editor of the anthology and a Los Angeles Times opinion columnist, said, “It’s undeniable that watching this culture play out — the helicopter parenting, the media fixation on baby bumps and celebrity childbearing and -rearing — is overwhelming, and it’s natural that people would react against it.”这本文集的编辑、《洛杉矶时报》(Los Angeles Times)专栏作家梅根·多姆(Meghan Daum)说,“不可否认,看着这种文化愈演愈烈——随时监护的家长,媒体对名人怀、产子、育子的过度关注——的确令人不安,人们对它产生抗拒心理也是自然的。”“I can’t tell you how many baby showers I’ve been to where the woman who’s having the child has this moment of ‘Oh, my God, what have I signed up for?’ ” Ms. Daum said. “I think there are people in the book who may have made a different decision if they’d been living in a different moment.”“我记不清有多少次在宝宝派对上听到即将当妈妈的女人说:‘哦,天哪,我这是选择了什么?’”多姆说,“我觉得,这本书中肯定会有人认为,如果他们换个生活的时代,就有可能做出不同的决定。”Still, she cautioned against attributing too much of the recent surge in childlessness by choice to societal trends. “Not to have a child is a very personal, visceral decision,” she said. “Ultimately, it comes from within, not from Park Slope.”不过,她告诫大家不要把最近主动选择不要孩子现象的激增过多归因于社会潮流。“决定不要孩子是非常个人的、发自内心的决定,”她说,“说到底,它取决于个人,而非公园坡(Park Slope,纽约布鲁克林名人住宅区——译注)的影响。”A few contributors to her anthology do, nevertheless, chalk up some of their misgivings to Park Slope-ish fads that seem intent on creating a generation of Stepford moms.不过,这本文集中的几位作者也把某些担忧归因于公园坡的风气,那里似乎想造就一代“复制妈妈”(Stepford moms,此语来自电影《复制娇妻》[The Stepford Wives]——译注)。Anna Holmes cataloged the “hoary ideas of womanhood” on display in her Brooklyn neighborhood, which has “overpriced boutiques filled with one-of-a-kind maternity clothes and hundred-dollar sets of receiving blankets made of ‘all-organic cotton.’ ”安娜·霍姆斯(Anna Holmes)讲述了她所在的布鲁克林区展示出来的“关于女人特质的陈旧观点”。她说,那个区有很多“过于昂贵的婴精品店,里面充满孤品妇装以及用‘纯有机棉’做成的上百美元一套的婴儿毯”。Laura Kipnis wrote about her “profound d of being conscripted into the community of other mothers — the sociality of the playground and day-care center, and at the endless activities and lessons that are de rigueur in today’s codes of upper-middle-class parenting.”劳拉·基普尼斯(Laura Kipnis)写道,她“特别害怕被拉入其他妈妈的团体,害怕游乐场和日托中心的交际,以及那些没完没了的活动和课程——如今这些活动和课程是中上层阶级养育子女的常规内容”。Both descriptions reflect a few of the ways parenting (at least in this rarefied socioeconomic milieu) has evolved since the 1980s into a competitive and consumerist sport. Partly as a result of this overextension, the culture has begun representing parenting as a less-than-satisfying occupation.她们的描述都反映出,自20世纪80年代以来,养育子女的某些方式(至少在这个特定的社会经济环境中)已演变成竞争性的消费主义活动。这种文化的过度发展在某些方面导致养育子女变成了一种不太令人满意的工作。The news media periodically trot out articles about how parents are unhappier than their childless counterparts. The debatable postulation is often traced back to an influential 2004 study in which working mothers ranked child care the second-most-negative activity on a list of 16 (rated less negatively were commuting and housework).新闻媒体偶尔高调抛出文章,声称有子女的人比无子女的人更不快乐。这个有争议的论断通常可以追溯到2004年一项有影响力的研究——在16项活动中,职业母亲们把照顾孩子列为第二个最不喜欢的活动(排在通勤和做家务之前)。Child care, of course, is just one aspect of parenthood, albeit a significant part, and the mothers were polled on workdays, which likely increased their exhaustion and hostility toward their children. Yet other research followed that has, if not debunked claims of the misery of parenting, then at least made them more nuanced.当然,照顾孩子只是为人父母的一个方面——虽然它是很重要的一个方面——而且那项调查是在工作日进行的,母亲们在工作日可能更疲惫,对孩子更有敌意。不过,之后的一些研究就算不能驳斥“养育子女很痛苦”这个观点,也至少表明实际情况更复杂。A study last year from the Santa Clara University Leavey School of Business found that “parents’ happiness increases over time relative to non-parents.” Another 2014 paper, from the London School of Economics and the University of Western Ontario, determined that the first two children boost short-term happiness (which later returns to pre-birth levels), but not a third.去年,圣克拉拉大学(Santa Clara University)利维商学院(Leavey School of Business)的一项研究发现,“随着时间流逝,与无子女人士相比,为人父母者的幸福感会慢慢增加”。去年,伦敦经济学院(London School of Economics)和安大略西部大学(University of Western Ontario)的另一项研究表明,前两个孩子能短暂增加幸福感(之后恢复到生孩子前的水平),但是第三个孩子不会产生这种效果。So while the long-held opinion that having children is the key to a fulfilling life may, indeed, be true for most people, contemporary popular culture habitually indicates otherwise.所以,虽然孩子是完满人生的关键这一传统观点可能的确符合大部分人的情况,但是当今流行文化总体来说表明了相反的情况。Novels like Jenny Offil’s “Dept. of Speculation,” Lionel Shriver’s “We Need to Talk About Kevin” (and the film version) and Elisa Albert’s “After Birth” all portray the ambivalence and agonies of motherhood; the runaway best-seller “Go the ____to Sleep” was a release valve for irritably fatigued parents; and a popular blog is a mocking backlash to “parent overshare on social networking sites.”有很多小说描绘了做母亲的矛盾和痛苦,比如珍妮·奥菲尔(Jenny Offil)的《猜测部》(Dept. of Speculation)、莱昂内尔·施赖弗(Lionel Shriver)的《凯文怎么了》(We Need to Talk About Kevin,以及它的电影版),以及埃莉莎·艾伯特(Elisa Albert)的《出生之后》(After Birth)。非常畅销的图书《快去睡觉》(Go the ____to Sleep)是暴躁疲惫父母的发泄口;还有个很受欢迎的客,它嘲弄性地抵制“在社交网络上过度分享孩子照片的父母”。With a few exceptions like N’s “Parenthood,” a paean to the titular vocation’s rewards (but which also didn’t shy away from the challenges of child rearing), TV parents are routinely sleep-deprived, harried, anxious, confused, cash-strapped, sexually frustrated or divorced, a far cry from the days of the comfortable and comforting stewards on “Family Ties,” “The Brady Bunch” and “Father Knows Best.”也有少数几个例外——比如N频道的《为人父母》(Parenthood),它称颂为人父母能带来的回报(不过它也没有回避育儿的挑战)——电视剧里的父母们往往睡眠不足,饱受折磨,焦虑困惑,囊中羞涩,没机会做爱或者已经离婚,与《亲情纽带》(Family Ties)、《脱线家族》(The Brady Bunch)和《父亲最清楚》(Father Knows Best)中舒欣慰的监护人们大相径庭。And the children in these offerings are repeatedly depicted as the bratty, tyrannical rulers of their enslaved progenitors. Perhaps this is one reason that Andrea Dickstein, 34, a director of e-business and marketing communications who lives on Long Island, doesn’t want children.这些电视剧中的孩子都被描绘成放肆专横、奴役父母的暴君。也许这是34岁的安德烈娅·迪克斯坦(Andrea Dickstein)不想要孩子的一个原因。她是一名电子商务和营销传播主管,住在长岛。“I think about having to attend or host children’s birthday parties, and it seems exhausting and unappealing,” she said. “Of course, the irony is I’m attending a colleague’s 2-year-old’s party this weekend. Maybe they’ll think I’m there to kidnap one.”“我想,要是生了孩子,就必须参加或举办孩子生日派对,这些事很累人,也没什么意思,”她说,“当然,讽刺的是,这个周末我要去参加一个同事两岁孩子的派对。也许他们会觉得我去那儿是想绑架一个孩子。”In a previous time, that statement would have been spoken in a whisper to evade censure. Now it’s anything but heretical, a standard line for people who not only see how difficult raising children can be, but for the generation that came of age as divorce rates spiked in the 1970s and ’80s (and which have since settled down some) and may be less optimistic about the classic nuclear family. For those who aren’t part of a cohesive familial unit that can provide different means of support, it’s far more daunting — emotionally and monetarily — to start a new clan.要是从前,这话只能悄悄说,以免遭到非难。如今,这话不再是异端邪说,而是有些人常说的话,他们不仅看到了养孩子的艰难,而且作为在20世纪七八十年代离婚率激增时(之后离婚率下降了一些)成年的一代,他们对标准核心家庭不太乐观。对那些不是在有凝聚力的家庭(这样的家庭能提供各种持)长大的人,组建一个新的小家庭会让人畏惧得多——不管是从心理上和财力上。Nonetheless, spouses without children are still frequently perceived as self-centered; the symbolic couple for this stereotype may be the Machiavellian Frank and Claire Underwood on “House of Cards,” for whom nothing gets in the way of political ambition.不过,不要孩子的夫妻依然经常被认为以自我为中心。这种固有思维的典型代表可能是《纸牌屋》(House of Cards)中不择手段的弗兰克和克莱尔·安德伍德(Frank and Claire Underwood)——任何事情都不能妨碍他们的政治野心。Frank’s marriage proposal included the romantic pledge that “I’m not going to give you a couple of kids. … I promise you freedom from that.” Claire’s Lady Macbeth has had three abortions, one during one of her husband’s campaigns, which she lied about, claiming the pregnancy was the product of a rape. (She’s also been less than nurturing about other women’s pregnancies.)弗兰克的求婚内容包括那句浪漫的誓言:“我不会让你生几个孩子……我保你不会受孩子拖累。”麦克白夫人般的克莱尔流产过三次,其中一次是在丈夫竞选期间,她撒谎说那次怀是强奸所致(她对其他妇也不是很关爱)。A less toxic on-screen duo would be the 40-something Brooklyn couple played by Ben Stiller and Naomi Watts in Noah Baumbach’s new film, “While We’re Young.” Having suffered through a few miscarriages, and noticeably ill-at-ease around babies and children, they have decided, or at least claim, that they like their lives as they are, which is to say career-focused, responsibility-free and self-absorbed.本·斯蒂勒(Ben Stiller)和娜奥米·沃茨(Naomi Watts)在诺亚·邦巴赫(Noah Baumbach)的新片《年轻时候》(While We’re Young)中饰演的一对40岁左右的布鲁克林夫妇,他俩可能还不那么恶毒。他们经历过几次流产,和婴儿或孩子在一起显然局促不安,所以,他们决定安于目前的生活状态——至少是声称如此——专注事业,没有责任,以自我为中心。But “it’s the parents who are selfish,” said Mr. Dyer, pointing to families typically own larger cars and use up more resources. Regarding “any environmental consciousness, the needs of their family get ahead of everything else,” he said in an interview. “In terms of behaving in a civic way, I feel my behavior is always exemplary.”不过,戴尔说,“真正自私的是那些做父母的”,他指出有孩子的家庭往往拥有更大的汽车,占用更多资源。他在采访中说,至于“环保意识,对于他们来说,自己家庭的需要高于其他一切”,“从文明行为的角度看,我感觉自己的行为一直堪称典范”。His assertion is backed up by some studies showing that childless adults volunteer more for their community. In addition, their interest in leaving behind a better world has nothing to do with their own genetic line but with humanity itself. (Ms. Daum said that after she decided not to have children, she believed she “had to compensate by volunteering, doing more work, being there more for my friends.”)他的论断得到了某些研究的持。这些研究表明,无子女的成年人更多为社区义务工作。另外,他们想留下一个更美好的世界不是为了自己的后代,而是为了全人类(多姆说,在她决定不要孩子后,她认为自己“必须通过多做义工、多工作、多陪伴朋友来进行补偿”)。One could also make the economic case that, with their taxes, childless couples are selflessly subsidizing the education and well-being of other people’s children (who provide tax breaks for their parents). Conversely, it is these parents’ descendants who will be taking care of the childless adults — and keeping society operational — when they are elderly.有人可能会说,从经济角度讲,无子女夫妇通过纳税无私地资助他人子女的教育和福利(父母们还可以享受税收减免)。反过来,这些父母的子女将在无子女者年老之后照顾他们,维持社会运转。“The fact is, everybody is selfish,” Ms. Daum said. “It’s like saying, ‘You breathe.’ Parents and non-parents need to think of themselves as partners. Kids need all sorts of role models, and not have every adult they know be somebody’s parent. We need to reframe the conversation, otherwise it just becomes, ‘Who’s more selfish?’ ”“实际上,每个人都是自私的,”多姆说,“这就像是说,‘你呼吸空气了。’为人父母者和无子女者需要视彼此为搭档。孩子需要各种各样的榜样,他们认识的所有成年人不必都是某个人的父母。我们需要重新组织对话,否则问题就变成了:‘谁更自私?’”Related to questions of egotism are those of class and reservations about participating in bourgeois child rearing, let alone their inability to meet its expenses.与自我中心问题相关的是阶级问题,以及用中产阶级方式养育子女的争议,更别提入不敷出的问题。Ms. Holmes’s essay touched upon “the creeping commodification of childhood in the form of must-have status symbols — baby carriages, sleeper clothing — and the economic inequalities and educational failures that find parents signing up their toddlers for placement in private elementary schools years in advance” as accounting “for some of the aversion I have for the demands of modern American parenthood.”霍姆斯的文章提到“不断发展的童年商品化问题——很多东西变成社会地位的象征,比如婴儿推车和婴儿睡袍——以及经济不平等和教育失败的问题,有些父母提前多年为尚在学步的孩子预订私立小学的位置”,这是“我厌恶现代美国养育子女要求”的原因之一。“From the outside, parenting today seems so harried and overwhelmed with Disney and plastic junk,” said Ms. Bolick, the author of “Spinster.” “Or you can be really rich and buy handmade Swedish wooden toys and curate your child’s life.”“从表面上看,如今,迪士尼乐园和塑料玩具等让养育孩子变得痛苦,令人不知所措,”《不婚女子:自己过活》的作者利克说,“或者,你非常富有,给孩子买瑞典手工制作的木头玩具,策划孩子的人生。”She compared today’s modern accouterments of childhood with the simpler time of “when I grew up in the ’70s, when you sat a kid down with a bowl and a wooden spoon,” she said. (Pressed for clarification as to exactly which century her recreation with kitchenware occurred in, she maintained it was the 1970s, not the 1870s.)她把如今孩子们的玩具与“自己70年代童年时的玩具”进行比较:在那个更纯朴的年代,“给孩子一个碗和一个木勺,让他们自己玩就行了”(当被要求说明到底她拿厨房用具玩耍是在哪个世纪时,她说是20世纪70年代,而不是19世纪70年代)。Even some of the staunchest anti-reproduction advocates, though, concede that they may eventually second-guess their decision.不过,甚至连有些坚决反对要孩子的人也承认,他们可能最终会质疑自己的决定。“There are regrets, but my entire life is an ocean of regret, and that’s just one drop in it,” Mr. Dyer said. “I would probably, in my 60s, be y to start having kids, as long as I was spared all the stuff about it that doesn’t appeal to me. By then I’d have lost interest in practically everything, so there’d be no opportunity cost involved.”“会有遗憾,不过我的一生充满遗憾,这只是沧海一粟,”戴尔说,“我很可能会在60多岁时准备好开始要孩子,只要我不用去做任何我不喜欢的事情就行。到那时,我会失去对任何事情的兴趣,所以应该不会有机会成本。”But to do that, he acknowledged, “I’d have to trade in my wife for a younger model,” before cheekily adding, “Younger — and also a model, I’d hope.”不过他承认,要想那时候要孩子,“我必须把妻子换成一个年轻点的模特”,后来他又厚脸皮地补充说,“年轻点的——我希望是个模特”。Mr. Dyer was recently awarded a Windham-Campbell Literature Prize, which comes with 0,000. When it was suggested to him that, after taxes, the money could have been used for almost two years of top-tier college tuition, Mr. Dyer had a less scholastic plan for his winnings.前不久,戴尔获得了温德姆-坎贝尔文学奖(Windham-Campbell Literature Prize),奖金是15万美元。有人对他说,扣完税后,这些钱差不多足以付顶级大学两年的学费,不过戴尔对奖金的计划与求学关系不大。“Instead it’s bought 20 years of beer drinking,” he said.“它够我买20年啤酒,”他说。 /201504/371235 安顺市医院取环要多少钱黔东南州妇幼保健院妇科医生咨询

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