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2020年01月30日 01:59:46来源:城市优惠

YOUR co-worker brought in brownies, your daughter made cookies for a holiday party and candy is arriving from far-flung relatives. Sugar is everywhere. It is celebration, it is festivity, it is love.同事带来了布朗尼,女儿为假期的聚会做了曲奇饼,八杆子打不着的亲戚也送来了糖果。到处都是糖。糖代表了庆祝,代表了节日,也代表了爱。It’s also dangerous. In a recent study, we showed that sugar, perhaps more than salt, contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease. Evidence is growing, too, that eating too much sugar can lead to fatty liver disease, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes, obesity and kidney disease.但糖也是一种危险。在最近的一项研究中,我们明了糖分对心血管疾病的发展有推动作用,而且其影响或许比盐分更大。也有越来越多的据表明,吃太多糖会引发脂肪肝、高血压、二型糖尿病、肥胖症和肾病。Yet people can’t resist. And the reason for that is pretty simple. Sugar is addictive. And we don’t mean addictive in that way that people talk about delicious foods. We mean addictive, literally, in the same way as drugs. And the food industry is doing everything it can to keep us hooked.然而人们无法抗拒。原因也相当简单,糖分是有成瘾性的。我们所说的「成瘾」并不是人们谈论美味时的那种意思,而是实实在在的,像毒品一样的成瘾性。而且食品工业正在竭尽所能,试图把我们勾住。Up until just a few hundred years ago, concentrated sugars were essentially absent from the human diet — besides, perhaps, the fortuitous find of small quantities of wild honey. Sugar would have been a rare source of energy in the environment, and strong cravings for it would have benefited human survival. Sugar cravings would have prompted searches for sweet foods, the kind that help us layer on fat and store energy for times of scarcity.直 到几百年前,浓缩糖实际上在人类的饮食中还不存在,除非偶然间找到少量野生蜂蜜。糖分在环境中是一种罕见的能量来源,对其产生强烈的渴望,对于人类的生存 是有利的。对糖分的渴求会促使我们寻找甜味的食物,也就是帮助我们堆积脂肪、积蓄能量,以备匮乏时期的那种食物。Today added sugar is everywhere, used in approximately 75 percent of packaged foods purchased in the ed States. The average American consumes anywhere from a quarter to a half pound of sugar a day. If you consider that the added sugar in a single can of soda might be more than most people would have consumed in an entire year, just a few hundred years ago, you get a sense of how dramatically our environment has changed. The sweet craving that once offered a survival advantage now works against us.今 天,添加的糖分随处可见,在美国买到的包装食品中,有大约75%含有添加糖分。普通的美国人平均每天消耗的糖分在四分之一磅到半磅(约合110克至220 克)之间。如果我们思考一下,今天一听碳酸饮料里含有的添加糖分,可能高于几百年前多数人一整年消耗的糖分,就能明白我们周围的环境发生了多么巨大的改 变。渴求糖分曾经是我们的生存优势,但现在却对我们不利。Whereas natural sugar sources like whole fruits and vegetables are generally not very concentrated because the sweetness is buffered by water, fiber and other constituents, modern industrial sugar sources are unnaturally potent and quickly provide a big hit. Natural whole foods like beets are stripped of their water, fiber, vitamins, minerals and all other beneficial components to produce purified sweetness. All that’s left are pure, white, sugary crystals.天 然的糖分来源,如完整的水果和蔬菜,糖分浓度通常并不高,因为其中的甜味有水分、纤维和其他成分来缓冲。然而现代工业生产的糖分来源,却浓重得不自然,很 快就能提供巨大的冲击。就说甜菜这样的天然完整食品,其水分、纤维、维生素、矿物质,乃至其他所有有益成分都被剥离,用来生产纯化的糖。剩下的就只有白色 的、纯粹的糖晶体。A comparison to drugs would not be misplaced here. Similar refinement processes transform other plants like poppies and coca into heroin and cocaine. Refined sugars also affect people’s bodies and brains.在这里与毒品相提并论并不过分。将其他植物,如罂粟和古柯转变为海洛因和可卡因的提纯过程,与上述程序是相似的。纯化的糖分也会影响人的身体和大脑。Substance use disorders, defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, exist when at least two to three symptoms from a list of 11 are present. In animal models, sugar produces at least three symptoms consistent with substance abuse and dependence: cravings, tolerance and withdrawal. Other druglike properties of sugar include (but are not limited to) cross-sensitization, cross-tolerance, cross-dependence, reward, opioid effects and other neurochemical changes in the brain. In animal studies, animals experience sugar like a drug and can become sugar-addicted. One study has shown that if given the choice, rats will choose sugar over cocaine in lab settings because the reward is greater; the “high” is more pleasurable.按 照《精神障碍诊断与统计手册》(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)的定 义,列明的11项症状中存在至少两到三种,就构成了物质使用障碍。在动物模型中,糖分至少产生了三种与物质滥用和依赖相吻合的症状:渴求感、耐受性、戒断 症状。糖分其他与毒品相似的特性还包括(但不限于)交叉敏化、交叉耐受性、交叉依赖性、奖赏效应、阿片效应,以及大脑中的其他神经化学变化。在动物实验 中,动物对糖的感受就像一种毒品,而且可能会对糖产生依赖。一项研究显示,如果提供了选择,大鼠在实验室的环境中会选择糖而不是可卡因,因为前者的奖赏效 应更强,即糖带来的「兴奋感」有着更高的愉悦度。In humans, the situation may not be very different. Sugar stimulates brain pathways just as an opioid would, and sugar has been found to be habit-forming in people. Cravings induced by sugar are comparable to those induced by addictive drugs like cocaine and nicotine. And although other food components may also be pleasurable, sugar may be uniquely addictive in the food world. For instance, functional M.R.I. tests involving milkshakes demonstrate that it’s the sugar, not the fat, that people crave. Sugar is added to foods by an industry whose goal is to engineer products to be as irresistible and addictive as possible. How can we kick this habit? One route is to make foods and drinks with added sugar more expensive, through higher taxes. Another would be to remove sugar-sweetened beverages from places like schools and hospitals or to regulate sugar-added products just as we do alcohol and tobacco, for instance, by putting restrictions on advertising and by slapping on warning labels.对 于人类,这些情况可能也并没有多大不同。就像鸦片类物质一样,糖分也会刺激大脑回路,而研究发现,糖分会影响人类习惯的形成。糖分产生的渴求感与可卡因和 尼古丁等成瘾性物质所产生的渴求感可以相提并论。而尽管其他的食品成分也会让人愉悦,但是在食品当中,糖分可能具有独一无二的成瘾性。例如,对饮用奶昔的 人进行的功能性磁共振成像(fMRI)检测显示,让人产生渴望的是糖分,而不是脂肪。食品企业在食品中加入糖分,目的是调整产品成分,使其尽可能地难以抗 拒、成瘾性尽可能地强。我们怎么才能戒除这个习惯?一种途径是通过提高税收,让含有添加糖分的食品或饮料更昂贵。另一种途径则是要求学校、医院等地,停止 提供加糖增甜饮品,或者像监管烟酒一样监管添加糖分的产品,例如对广告加以限制,或者加注警示提醒。But as we suggested in two academic papers, one on salt and sugar in the journal Open Heart and the other on sugar and calories in Public Health Nutrition, focusing narrowly on added sugar could have unintended consequences. It could prompt the food industry to inject something equally or more harmful into processed foods, as an alternative.但 就像我们在两篇论文——一篇发表在《开放心脏病学》(Open Heart)上,主题是盐和糖,另一篇发表在《公共健康营养学》 (Public Health Nutrition)上,主题是糖分和卡路里——里提出的,只是狭隘地关注添加糖分可能会产生始料未及的后果。这样做可能 会促使企业在加工食品中,加入同样有害,甚至危害更大的其他物质作为替代。A better approach to sugar rehab is to promote the consumption of whole, natural foods. Substituting whole foods for sweet industrial concoctions may be a hard sell, but in the face of an industry that is exploiting our biological nature to keep us addicted, it may be the best solution for those who need that sugar fix.摆脱糖分的更好途径是,推广食用未经加工的天然食品。用完整的天然食品替代工业生产的甜食,或许很难让人接受,然而面对这样一个利用我们的生物天性让我们成瘾的产业,这对那些渴求糖分摄入的人,或许是最好的方法。 /201412/351197。

  • Early morning is actually the worst time to drink coffee研究发现:早上是最不适宜喝咖啡的时段Every so often, science disproves the thinking behind a deeply embedded habit we have. The latest: drinking coffee in the morning.科学研究经常明,人类的某些根深蒂固的习惯其实是错误的。这一次遭遇挑战的习惯是:在清晨喝咖啡。It turns out, the morning is actually one of the worst times of the day to drink coffee, according to YouTube science channel ASAP Science. The reason? The high levels of cortisol in our bodies early in the morning.据YouTube科学频道ASAP Science披露,早晨是最不适合喝咖啡的几个时间段之一。原因在于,人体在清晨的皮质醇水平较高。You see, consuming caffeine when cortisol levels are high creates two problems. One is that caffeine interferes with the body’s production of cortisol, a hormone that’s released in response to stress and low blood glucose. The body ends up producing less cortisol, and relying more on caffeine to compensate.皮质醇水平较高时喝咖啡会产生两个问题。首先,咖啡因会干扰身体皮质醇的产生——每当承受压力和出现低血糖时,人体就会释放这种荷尔蒙。喝咖啡导致身体产生的皮质醇减少,更加依赖作为替代物的咖啡因。The other effect of drinking coffee in the morning is well-known to habitual morning drinkers: It increases the person’s tolerance to caffeine because it replaces the natural cortisol-induced boost instead of adding to it.另外一种影响,在习惯早上喝咖啡的人群中较为常见:这种习惯会提高人体对咖啡因的耐受性,因为咖啡因会取代皮质醇自然诱发的能量促进,而不是增添能量。Bear in mind that cortisol levels are high at three times of the day, not just early in the morning, according to a 2009 study. So the best times to drink coffee — or caffeine in general — is between 10 a.m. and noon, and between 2 p.m. and 5 p.m.我们要记住,2009年的一项研究显示,除了清晨外,人体在三个时间段的皮质醇水平较高。所以喝咖啡或摄入咖啡因的最佳时间是在上午10点至中午,以及下午2点至5点。Early morning coffee drinkers should consider adjusting their schedule to better optimize their caffeine intake. As pleasant as a cup o’ joe may be first thing in the morning, turns out it’s quite ineffective.习惯清晨喝咖啡的人应该考虑调整一下时间,以进一步优化咖啡因的摄入。早上醒来第一件事或许是美美地喝上一杯咖啡,但事实明,这种做法是不管用的。 /201506/384021。
  • GNC, the country’s largest specialty retailer of dietary supplements, has agreed to institute sweeping new testing procedures that far exceed quality controls mandated under federal law.全美最大的膳食补充剂专业零售商GNC已经同意采用全新的测试流程,其质量控制标准将远超联邦法律的强制要求。The action to be announced Monday comes after the New York state attorney general’s office accused GNC and three other major retailers of selling herbal supplements that were fraudulent or contaminated with unlisted ingredients that could pose health risks to consumers.该公司本周一宣布开展此项行动。之前纽约州总检察长办公室曾指控GNC以及其他三家主要的零售商售卖的草本保健品存在欺诈,或受到标签中未注明的成分的污染,可能会对消费者健康造成不利影响。Experts said the announcement marked an initial but significant step forward for the billion-a-year supplement industry, which is loosely regulated and plagued by accusations of adulteration and mislabeling.专家表示,该公司此举是一个初步行动,但对于每年330亿美元规模的保健品行业却意义重大。这个行业面临的监管颇为宽松,掺假和乱贴标签的指控令其声誉大受损失。“This should be a standard across the entire industry,” said Dr. Pieter Cohen, a professor at Harvard Medical School who studies tainted supplements. “Today we finally have one first step taken by one retailer, and only after the very aggressive intervention by the New York attorney general’s office.”“这应该成为整个行业的标准,”哈佛大学医学院教授彼得·科恩(Pieter Cohen)士说,他研究过受污染的膳食补充剂。“现在,在纽约总检察长办公室非常积极的干预之后,零售商总算才采取了第一步行动。”GNC, which has more than 6,500 stores nationwide and annual revenue of .6 billion, said that its herbal products had passed several rigorous quality-control tests and that it stood by their quality. But as part of its agreement with the attorney general, the company said it would in the next 18 months put in place additional quality-control measures to restore the trust of its customers and set new standards for the rest of the industry.GNC在全国拥有6500家门店,年营收逾26亿美元。该公司说其草本产品已通过多次的严格质量控制测试,其质量是可靠的。但鉴于和总检察长签署的一份协议,该公司表示它将在未来18个月采取额外的质量控制措施,重新获得顾客的信赖,为行业中的其他公司设定新的标准。The company said it would use advanced DNA testing to authenticate all of the plants that are used in its store-brand herbal supplements, and extensively test the products for common allergens like tree nuts, soy and wheat. In addition, GNC will submit semiannual reports proving that it is complying with the attorney general’s demands.该公司表示,它将利用先进的DNA测试技术,来鉴定其自有品牌的草本保健品中所用植物的真假,并且大量测试常见的过敏原,比如坚果、大豆和小麦等等。此外,GNC将每半年提交一次报告,以便明它在遵循总检察长的要求行事。The company said it would also display signs at all of its stores and post statements on its website explaining to customers how the ingredients in its supplements were processed and what, if any, chemical solvents were used to make them.该公司还表示将在所有商店里摆放标志,并在其网站上张贴声明,向消费者解释其补充剂的成分是怎样进行处理的,如果生产过程中使用了化学溶剂的话,又包括那些溶剂。Eric T. Schneiderman, the attorney general of New York, would not comment on whether he was in talks to reach similar agreements with the other retailers included in his investigation — Walgreens, Wal-Mart and Target. But, in a statement, Schneiderman said he had urged those retailers, “as well as all herbal supplements manufacturers, to join GNC in working with my office to increase transparency and safeguard the wellness of their customers.”对于是否正在与其他受调查零售商-——沃尔格林(Walgreens)、沃尔玛(Wal-Mart)和塔吉特(Target)——会谈,以便达成类似的协议,纽约州总检察长埃里克·T·施耐德曼(Eric T. Schneiderman) 不予置评。但是,在一份声明中,施耐德曼说,他曾敦促零售商“以及所有草本保健品生产商像GNC一样和我的办公室合作,增加透明度,保障顾客的健康。”The attorney general’s investigation was prompted by a 2013 article in The New York Times that referred to research suggesting that dietary supplements labeled medicinal herbs frequently contained little more than cheap fillers like powdered rice and weeds, or evidence of soybeans, tree nuts and other unlisted ingredients that can be hazardous to people with allergies.《纽约时报》2013年的一篇文章引发了总检察长的这项调查。该文章称,研究表明膳食补充剂虽然在标签上标明了草本药材,实际上只不过是粉状大米和杂草这样的廉价填充料,或是含有大豆、坚果以及其他未列明的成分,对于过敏人群来说这是很危险的。The attorney general’s office tested 78 bottles of popular, store-brand herbal supplements that it purchased at a dozen Wal-Mart, Target, Walgreens and GNC locations across New York state. Using an advanced DNA testing procedure, the investigators found that 4 out of 5 bottles contained no detectable genetic material from the plants advertised on their labels.总检察长办公室测试了78瓶现在热销的自有品牌草本保健品,分别在纽约州各处十几家沃尔玛、塔吉特、沃尔格林和GNC门店购得。研究人员使用先进手段进行了DNA测试,但在每五瓶中,就有四瓶检测不到标签注明的植物成分的DNA。But there was frequently evidence of unlisted plants and other ingredients. At GNC, for example, the investigators found bottles of ginseng pills, promoted for “vitality and overall well-being,” that tested negative for any DNA from the ginseng plant. But the tests did indicate the presence of powdered rice, wheat, pine and houseplants.而测试中还经常发现一些标签没有列出的植物和其他成分。例如,在GNC声称可以“提高活力和整体元气”的人参丸中,研究人员没有检测出任何人参DNA,但却发现了粉状大米、小麦、松树和某些室内植物的成分。Last month, the attorney general ordered the four retailers to pull the products from their shelves in New York, and a flood of lawsuits from consumers across the country followed.上个月,总检察长命令四家零售商从纽约货架上撤下产品,全美各地消费者随后发起的诉讼像洪水一般涌来。The industry has countered that many of the supplements examined by the attorney general were herbal extracts, and that they would not contain DNA from the plants advertised on their labels because DNA is damaged during manufacturing and extraction.该行业的业内人士反驳说,总检察长检查的很多膳食补充剂是草本精华,所以不会包含标签中注明的植物DNA,因为DNA已经在制造和提取过程中遭到破坏。For GNC, the settlement satisfies the attorney general’s concerns about consumer safety and brings his investigation of the company to a close. The company has maintained all along that its products were not adulterated, and in the agreement with the attorney general there is no admission or mention of wrongdoing.对于GNC来说,达成和解不仅满足了总检察长对于消费者安全的关注,而且也给他对该公司的调查画上了句号。该公司一直坚称其产品没有掺假,总检察长的协议中没有提到不法行为,该公司也未承认有不法行为。The company said that it had commissioned a series of tests that confirmed the quality of its products, and that it would continue to defend against the many lawsuits it is facing, which it said were without merit.该公司表示,它已经委托其他机构进行了一系列测试,实其产品的质量是可信的,它将继续迎战其面临的大量诉讼;该公司表示这些诉讼缺乏法律依据。“As our testing demonstrated, and this agreement affirms beyond any doubt, our products are not only safe and pure but are in full compliance with all regulatory requirements,” Michael G. Archbold, GNC’s chief executive officer, said in a statement.“我们的测试明,GNC的产品不仅安全纯净,而且完全符合所有监管要求,这个协议毫无疑问这实了这一点。”GNC公司首席执行官迈克尔·G·阿奇尔德(Michael G. Archbold)在一份声明中表示。 /201504/367524。
  • There is a very famous traditional Chinese story that has a close connection to the Dragon Boat Festival. Once upon a time on E-Mei mountain there lived two snake spirits, White Snake and Green Snake. These snakes, being magical, turned themselves into beautiful maidens and set off on a journey to the West Lake of Hang Zhou.有一个与端午节息息相关的中国传统故事是“白蛇传”。从前,在峨眉山上有两只蛇精,白蛇与青蛇。这两只蛇精运用法力将自己变成美丽的女子,并到杭州西湖游玩。When they arrived at West Lake they met a man named Xu Xian. White Snake quickly fell in love with Xu Xian and they were soon married. A Buddhist monk, named Fa Hai, warned Xu Xian of his wife#39;s deceptive appearance and suggested to him a plan.当她们在西湖游玩时,遇到一位名叫许仙的男子,白蛇与许仙很快的相恋并且随即结婚。当时一位名叫法海的和尚,曾经警告许仙注意他妻子惑人的外表,并建议他一个揭开真相的计划。On the day of the Dragon Boat Festival White Snake wished to stay home so as to avoid the Ay Tsao, used for protection from spirits, hanging on the doors of people#39;s houses.Her husband prepared, according to Fa Hai#39;s instruction, some realgar wine, as this was a tradition during the Dragon boat festival. White Snake, thinking her magic would protect her from the effects of the realgar wine accepted a cup. After she drank the wine she became very ill and was barely able to get to her bed.When her husband came to her side, he found not his wife but a huge white snake. So great was Xu Xian#39;s shock that he fell to the floor dead.端午节当天,白蛇待在家里以避开人们挂在门上驱邪的艾草,而许仙则依照法海的建议准备了大家在端午节时都会喝的雄黄酒。白蛇自认魔力可以抵挡雄黄酒对她的影响,因此喝了一杯。但是在她喝下那杯酒之后,她却变得精疲力竭,几乎走不到床上。当许仙回到白蛇身边,看到的不是自己美丽的妻子, 而是一只巨大的白蛇,许仙震惊不已,从楼梯上摔死了。After recovering from the realgar wine and regaining her human form, White Snake was grief-stricken to find her husband dead.She set off on a journey to obtain a potent medicinal herb, which could revive her husband. After returning and reviving her husband with the medicine, she explained to Xu Xian that the white snake he saw was actually a dragon and that this vision was indeed a very good omen. Xu Xian#39;s fears were put to rest for the moment by his wife#39;s fanciful story.当白蛇恢复精力及人形时,她才发现自己丈夫已经身亡,因此白蛇外出寻找能使许仙起死回生的强效药草。许仙在用药草,并起死回生之后,白蛇告诉许仙他看到的那条白蛇,其实是一只代表吉相的龙。而在此时,许仙也在白蛇引人入胜的故事中将恐惧抛诸脑后。 /201506/381355。
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