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2018年02月22日 22:44:43 | 作者:58社区 | 来源:新华社
The two-week UN climate change conferences held in a different city each year have a habit of being overshadowed by troubles elsewhere, from Afghan wars to EU financial crises.从阿富汗战争到欧EU)财政危机,每年在不同城市举行、每次为期两周的联合国气候变化会议总是因为其他地方的问题蒙上阴影。But the meeting that starts next Monday in Paris will be the first in a city that has itself just been thrown into a state of emergency.但本年度将于下周一在巴黎举行的会议,将首次在一个刚刚进入紧急状态的城市举行。In the wake of the November 13 terrorist attacks that killed at least 130 people, the French hosts of the climate conference have aly tightened security, cancelling public rallies that are a staple of such meetings.13日的恐怖袭击事件导致至30人身亡后,本次气候会议的主办方法国已经加强了安保,取消了原本是这类会议重要内容的公共集会。A march in Paris on the eve of the conference was expected to have been especially large because this climate meeting is supposed to produce the first new global climate accord in 18 years.因为本次气候会议有望产8年来首项新全球气候协议,人们原定于会议前夕在巴黎举行一次规模特别大的游行。That raises a larger question: could the terrorist attacks have any effect on the outcome of such a consequential climate meeting?这引出了一个更大的问题:恐怖主义袭击会不会影响这样一次可能产生重要结果的气候会议?Some experts think it is possible.一些专家认为这是有可能的。“I think, if anything, it stiffens the spine in terms of determination to really solve what is the greatest collective action problem in history,said Andrew Steer, president of the US-based World Resources Institute environmental group.“如果说有什么影响的话,我认为这会加强人们真正解决史上最大集体行动问题的决心,”位于美国的环境团体世界资源研究所(World Resources Institute)的总裁安德鲁斯蒂尔(Andrew Steer)说。Some 137 heads of state have confirmed their attendance for the first day of the talks, and they are likely to echo the outpouring of solidarity with France since the attacks. It is not going to be easy for them to then say “we are simply not in the mood to do a global deal now Mr Steer said last week.大约137个国家的首脑已经确认会在会谈第一天出席,他们可能会呼应巴黎恐袭后涌现的团结一致的情绪。因此,声称“我们现在根本没有心情达成一项全球性协议”对他们来说并不容易,斯蒂尔上周表示。Alden Meyer, a climate negotiations expert at the US Union of Concerned Scientists group who has attended all but one of the 20 previous UN climate conferences, agrees the attacks may encourage more unity at the Paris talks.位于美国的忧思科学家联盟(Union of Concerned Scientists)的气候谈判专家奥尔登迈Alden Meyer)参加了此0次联合国气候会议中9次,他认同袭击可能会促使巴黎气候谈判更为团结。But Mr Meyer, an adviser to the Danish government which hosted the last failed effort to strike a new climate accord, in Copenhagen, in adds a note of caution, too. “There remain several very tough issues to be resolved in order to reach a good agreement at the end of the last day or night in Paris,he told the Financial Times.但作为丹麦政府(年哥本哈根气候变化大会的东道主,那次会议未能达成新的气候协定)的顾问,迈耶也提出了一条警告。他告诉英国《金融时报》的记者:“要在巴黎的最后一天——或者最后一晚——达成一项好的协议,还有几个十分棘手的问题需要解决。”Others doubt the attacks will make much difference at all to negotiations as complex as the UN climate talks, riven by years of deadlock between rich and poor countries over sharing the burden of tackling climate change.其他人则怀疑,恐怖袭击根本不会对像联合国气候谈判这样复杂的谈判产生很大影响。多年来富国和穷国就分担应对气候变化的负担的僵局,已经让联合国气候谈判四分五裂。“Of course what happened in Paris should not have happened and nobody wants the loss of innocent lives,said Meena Raman of the Malaysia-based Third World Network, a developing country non-profit group that monitors the climate negotiations.“当然,巴黎发生了本不应该发生的事情,没人希望看到无辜的人丧命,”一直关注气候谈判、位于马来西亚的发展中国家非营利性组织“第三世界网络Third World Network)的米纳拉Meena Raman)表示。But thousands of people have been displaced or killed during past UN climate conferences as a result of typhoons and other events more directly linked to global warming, she said. “And yet you didn’t see developed countries being much more sympathetic about issues like loss and damage,she told the FT, referring to one of several stumbling blocks that have to be resolved in Paris.但是,拉曼表示,在过去一次次联合国气候会议无果而终的同时,已有成千上万人因为台风和其他一些与全球变暖有较直接关系的事件而流离失所或者丧呀?提及巴黎气候谈判需要解决的几个障碍之一时,她这样告诉英囀?金融时报》,“不过发达国家此前并未对损失和损害这样的问题表露出太多同情。”The draft text of the accord to be negotiated in Paris includes support for developing countries facing loss and damage from global warming, including a “climate change displacement co- ordination facility巴黎气候大会上要讨论的协议草案包括帮助发展中国家应对全球变暖造成的损失和损害,“气候变化所致流离失所问题协同应对机制”就是其中的措施之一。Wealthy countries, who would have to foot the bill, are opposed to such measures being included in the final agreement.那些将为此买单的富裕国家反对将这样的措施写入最终的协议中。Even without the terror threat, the challenge of hosting one of France’s biggest diplomatic events in decades would be formidable. Some 40,000 people are expected to attend the climate conference, which the French government has been planning for nearly two years.即使没有恐怖袭击的威胁,要举办这样一场法国几十年来最大的外交盛会,挑战也十分艰巨。预计将有大万人参加此次气候会议,法国政府已为此筹备了近两年。The event will be held in a convention centre at the Le Bourget airfield in the north of Paris, not far from the Stade de France sports arena targeted in the November 13 attacks.会议将在巴黎北郊布尔Le Bourget)机场的一个会议中心举行,这里13日巴黎恐怖袭击的一处目标,法兰西体育场(Stade de France)不远。Le Bourget is a short drive from the street in the suburb of Saint-Denis where police last week stormed a building and killed the suspected ringleader of the attacks, Abdelhamid Abaaoud.布尔歇距离巴黎北郊圣-德尼(Saint-Denis)警方上周突袭的街道只有一段短短的车程。警察上周冲进了那里的一栋建筑,击毙了疑为此次袭击头目的阿卜杜勒哈米德·阿巴伍Abdelhamid Abaaoud)。As well as the dozens of world leaders due at next week’s meeting, a large group of prominent business executives are expected, along with official delegates from 195 countries, at least 3,000 journalists, and thousands of environmental campaigners and observers.上百名世界各国领导人将出席下周的会议,预计参加会议的还有195个国家的官方代表、一大批知名企业高管、至000名记者,以及成千上万的环保活动人士和观察员。Several side events are due to go ahead near the main conference site, but the cancellation of the Paris rally that had been expected to attract up to 200,000 people, has been a blow for climate campaigners.在主会场附近还会举办几场相关活动。但是法国政府取消了原本预计将吸引多0万人参加的巴黎集会,这对气候活动人士来说是一个打击。“This is a source of huge regret, but we must respect the decision,said Jean Fran漀椀猀 Julliard, executive director of Greenpeace France.“虽然这非常遗憾,但是我们必须尊重这一决定,”绿色和Greenpeace)法国的执行董事让-弗朗索瓦ㄠ利亚尔(Jean-Francois Julliard)表示。来 /201511/412271

For those whose knowledge of the Islamic State is limited to televised beheadings, “The Rise of ISIS,on PBS’s “Frontlineon Tuesday, is required viewing.那些对伊斯兰国的了解仅限于电视上斩首画面的人,一定要看看周二PBS频道“前线Fronline)栏目的《ISIS的崛起The Rise of ISIS)。Reported by Martin Smith, the hourlong program takes the story of this brutal, ever-growing militant group back to the final departure of American troops from Iraq in 2011. It’s a dense, fast-moving narrative focused on the failure of the Shiite-led Iraqi government to share power with the Sunni minority and the inaction of the ed States while Sunni militants exploited the situation for their own gain. Blame is placed, quite directly, on the former Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri Kamal al-Maliki and on President Obama.这个时长一小时的节目由马丁·史密Martin Smith)报道,他011年美国终于从伊拉克撤军开始,讲述这个不断壮大的残暴军事组织的故事。这个片子情节紧凑,快速推进,重点讲述什叶派领导的伊拉克政府未能与逊尼派少数族群共享政权,以及在逊尼派激进分子利用局势谋取自身利益时美国的迟钝。该片直接对伊拉克前总理努里·卡迈勒·马利基(Nuri Kamal al-Maliki)总理和奥巴马总统进行了指责。You have to trust, to some extent, the way in which Mr. Smith and his producing team have shaped their account, because they don’t make much room for dissenting voices. Mr. Maliki does not appear, though several of the prominent Sunni politicians he sidelined do. Among the reporters, analysts and American officials who are interviewed including two former ambassadors to Iraq; the former Defense Secretary Leon E. Panetta; and Gen. Martin E. Dempsey, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff only one, Ben Rhodes, a deputy national security adviser, speaks in full defense of the Obama administration’s policies.从某种程度上讲,你不得不信任史密斯和他的制作团队的讲述方式,因为他们没有留出太多可供争议空间。马利基没有在节目中出现,但受其冷落的几位著名的逊尼派政客出现了。在接受采访的记者、分析家和美国官员中,包括两位前驻伊拉克大使、前国防部长利昂·E·帕内Leon E. Panetta)和参谋长联席会议主席马丁·E·邓普西上Martin E. Dempsey)等。只有一位受访者完全持奥巴马政府的政策,那就是副国家安全顾问本·罗Ben Rhodes)。Just about everything in “The Rise of ISISis aly a matter of public record, though the Islamic State had been thoroughly reported on by publications before it burst into the public consciousness. The program’s value is as a primer, intelligently and compellingly elucidating the Shiite-Sunni divide and telling the story of Iraq, primarily, and Syria since the American military’s exit.《ISIS的崛起》中的内容几乎都是公共记录,很多媒体在伊斯兰国突然引起公众注意之前已经对其做过充分报道。这个节目的价值在于,作为基本介绍,它聪明而引人入胜地阐述了什叶派和逊尼派的分歧,讲述了美军撤出后伊拉克(主要是伊拉克)和叙利亚的情况。The interviews are surrounded by a flood of imagery that will have a mesmerizing or numbing effect, depending on your disposition a steady montage of protests, bombings, battle footage and very disturbing militant s of serial executions. (The beheadings of Western captives are not shown.)除了采访,其他部分的蒙太奇画面让你着迷或者让你麻木(这取决于你的倾向)——抗议、轰炸、战斗画面,以及非常令人不安的、激进的系列处决视频(没有播放西方俘虏的斩首画面)。Mr. Smith, working a few weeks or months behind events, can refer only glancingly to the current siege of Kobani, Syria. He ends with a grim suggestion that Baghdad will be next and with the question of whether American troops will eventually need to return to the region. Mr. Rhodes fields that one in his best bureaucratese: “The president is very confident and comfortable with a limiting principle as it relates to combat forces on the ground.”史密斯的叙述近涵盖了这些事件所发生的那几周或几个月的时间,仅粗略提及目前ISIS对叙利亚科巴Kobani)的围攻。在节目尾声,他冷酷地暗示巴格达将是下一个围攻目标,并且还提出一个问题——美军是否最终需要回到该区域。罗兹用他最擅长的官腔回答说:“总统对地面作战部队采取克制原则很有信心,也很放心。”来 /201411/340799

Burundis electoral commission has recommended pushing back national elections, after unrest sparked by President Pierre Nkurunzizas decision to seek a third term.布隆迪的选举委员会建议推迟举行大选之前布隆迪总统恩库仑齐扎决定寻求第三个任期,引起动乱。The National Independent Election Commission said Monday it has proposed legislative polls to take place on June 26, followed by the presidential election on July 15 and a senatorial vote on July 24.全国独立选举委员会星期一建议66日进行国民议会选举5日举行总统选举4日举行参议院选举。The presidential election originally was set for June 26, but there has been no campaigning in the wake of violent protests and a failed coup attempt last month in the capital, Bujumbura.总统选举原定66日举行,但在发生暴力抗议和上个月发生未遂政变之后,候选人没有展开竞选活动。Some opposition officials said the electoral commission lacks the legal authority to make any pronouncements because two of its five commissioners are believed to have fled the country.一些反对派人士说,选举委员会没有法定权力来宣布推迟大选,因为该委员会名成员中已有两人逃到国外。More than 100,000 Burundians have fled the country since the protests began.布隆迪爆发抗议示威以来已0万人出逃。The presidents supporters say he is eligible for a third term because he was elected by parliament, not voters, for his first five-year term in 2005. The constitutional court has ruled in favor of the president.恩库仑齐扎总统的持者说,他寻求第三个任期是合法的,因为005年第一次出任总统是由议会、而不是由选民选举的。布隆迪宪法法院持总统寻求连任。But his critics say that by running for a third term, he is violating term limits in the constitution and the accords that ended Burundis civil war.但批评者说,恩库仑齐扎的做法违法了宪法有关总统任期的规定和布隆迪内战结束时签署的阿鲁巴协议。The ed States has called on Mr. Nkurunziza not to run for a third term, saying the decision could destabilize Burundi.美国呼吁恩库仑齐扎不要竞选第三次连任,称这样做会破坏布隆迪稳定。来 /201506/379787

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