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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年10月18日 13:29:30
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Nobody likes being monitored. But even if you suspected your company is following your activities on the iPhone, would you know where to check?没有人喜欢被监控。但即使你怀疑你的公司正在监控你在iPhone上的操作,你知道该去哪里检查吗?In the next iteration of its smartphone operating system, iOS 9.3, Apple is looking to make this an easier task. According to Reddit user MaGNeTiX, the latest beta of iOS 9.3 has a message telling users their iPhone is being supervised. The message is as prominent as can be, both on the device#39;s lock screen and in the About section.苹果iPhone的下一代操作系统iOS 9.3将会让这件事变得简单。根据Reddit网站上的MaGNeTiX透露,最新的iOS 9.3测试版能够推送消息,告知用户他们的iPhone正被监控中。该消息提示会尽可能的醒目,在设备的锁屏界面和行程上都能显示。;This iPhone is managed by your organisation,; the message on the lock screen says. And in the About screen, you get a little more detail, with a message saying your iPhone#39;s supervisor can monitor your Internet traffic and locate your device.锁屏上的消息是这样显示的:;这台iPhone由您的公司管理。;而在行程界面上,你会看到更多的细节。消息会这样显示:监控你手机的人能够监控你的网络流量、定位你的设备。To be clear: It doesn#39;t look like this feature will let you turn off company supervision or increase your privacy in any way. It#39;s merely there as a warning, providing more transparency to users, some of which might not even be aware their employer is monitoring their iPhone.需要明确的是,这个消息推送功能并不能让你关闭公司的监控或者加强隐私保护。这仅仅是一种警告,向用户透露更多信息。毕竟一些人也许根本没有意识到雇主正在监控他们的iPhone。The news comes amidst a legal battle between Apple and the FBI, which seeks Apple#39;s help in decrypting the iPhone of one of the terrorists responsible for last year#39;s attack in San Bernardino, Calif. More precisely, the FBI wants Apple to create a new version of iOS that would be used specifically on the shooter#39;s iPhone, disabling some of its security features. So far, Apple stood firm in its decision not to yield to the government#39;s demands, claiming it would affect ;everyone who owns an iPhone.;在这些新消息释出之际,苹果公司和FBI正有法律上的纠纷。FBI希望苹果能够帮助破解参与去年圣贝纳迪诺袭击案的恐怖分子的iPhone。更准确地说,FBI希望苹果能够为该射击者的手机特地开发一个新的iOS版本,从而使其中的一些安全功能失效。截止目前为止,苹果坚持不从政府的要求,他们表示如果这么做,会给;每一位拥有iPhone的人;带来负面影响。 /201603/430321Have you heard the term Gafa yet? It hasn’t caught on here in the ed States — and I’m guessing it won’t — but in France, it has become so common that the newspapers hardly need to spell out its meaning. Everyone there aly knows what Gafa stands for: Google-Apple-Facebook-Amazon.你听说过Gafa这个词吗?它还没有在美国这边流行起来——我猜它不会流行——但在法国,这个词已经变得如此常见,以致于报纸几乎不需要阐明它的含义,每个人都知道Gafa代表什么:谷歌-苹果-Facebook-亚马逊。In America, we tend to think of these companies as four distinct entities that compete fiercely with each other. But, in Europe, which lacks a single Internet company of comparable size and stature, they “encapsulate America’s evil Internet empire,” as Gideon Rachman put it in The Financial Times on Monday. Nine out of 10 Internet searches in Europe use Google — a more commanding percentage than in the ed States — to cite but one example of their utter dominance in the countries that make up the European Union.在美国,我们通常认为这些公司是四个不同的实体,相互之间竞争激烈。但是在欧洲,没有规模和地位可以与它们相提并论的互联网公司,所以就像《金融时报》吉迪恩·拉赫曼(Gideon Rachman)本周一所说的,它们“代表了邪恶的美国互联网帝国”。欧洲每10个互联网搜索中就有九个使用了谷歌,这个比例比美国本土还更甚,而这只是Gafa在欧盟成员国中占据绝对主导地位的一个例子而已。Not surprisingly, this dominance breeds worry in Europe, however fairly it was achieved. The French fear (as the French always do) the imposition of American culture. The Germans fear the rise of an industry more efficient — and more profitable — than their own. Industry leaders, especially in publishing, telecommunications and even autos fear that the American Internet companies will disrupt their businesses and siphon away their profits. Europeans worry about the use of their private data by American companies, a worry that was only exacerbated by the Edward Snowden spying revelations. There is a palpable sense among many politicians, regulators and businesspeople in Europe that the Continent needs to develop its own Internet platforms — or, at the least, clip the wings of the big American Internet companies while there’s still time.毫不奇怪,无论这种取得主导地位的过程有多么公平,它都引起了欧洲人的担心。法国(一如既往地)担心美国文化的入侵。德国人担心一个比本国产业更加利润更高的产业的崛起。行业领导者,特别是出版、电信,甚至汽车行业的领导者,担心美国的互联网公司会颠覆他们的业务,吸走他们的利润。欧洲人担心美国公司使用自己的私人数据,而爱德华·斯诺登(Edward Snowden)对监听活动的曝光更是加剧了这种担忧。欧洲大陆有很多政界、商界人士和监管者都觉得有必要开发自己的互联网平台,或者,至少趁现在还有时间,要捆住美国大型互联网公司的手脚。I bring this up in the wake of the decision by Margrethe Vestager, the European Union’s relatively new (she took office in November) commissioner in charge of competition policy, to bring antitrust charges against Google, the culmination of a five-year investigation. The case revolves around whether Google took advantage of its dominance in search to favor its own comparison-shopping service over those of its rivals. Vestager also opened an inquiry into Google’s Android mobile operating system — and said the European Union would investigate other potential violations if need be.我提起这些,是因为欧盟新一任(她去年11月上任)的竞争事务专员玛格丽特·韦斯塔格尔(Margrethe Vestager)在五年的调查之后对谷歌提起了反垄断诉讼。该案的核心在于,谷歌是否利用其在搜索领域的霸主地位,让自身的比较购物务受益,令竞争对手处于不利境地。韦斯塔格尔还启动了一个针对谷歌Android移动操作系统的调查,并表示如有需要,欧盟还将调查其他潜在的违规行为。Not long after announcing the charges, Vestager made a speech in Washington. “We have no grudge; we have no fight with Google,” she said. “In all our cases, we are indifferent to the nationality of the companies involved. Our responsibility is to make sure that any company with operations in the territory of the E.U. complies with our treaty rules.”宣布了针对谷歌的指控后不久,韦斯塔格尔在华盛顿发表讲话。“我们不是嫉妒;我们与谷歌之间没有宿怨,”她说。“在所有的案子中,我们都不关心所涉及的公司的国籍。我们的责任是确保在欧盟境内运营的所有公司都遵守了我们的规则。”Well, maybe. But it is also true that, to an unusual degree, this investigation, especially in its latter stages, has been driven by politics. The political rhetoric around Google in Europe has been so heated that had Vestager decided not to bring a case, her political standing might have been weakened, “probably compromising her ability to pursue effectively other high-profile antitrust cases,” wrote Carlos Kirjner, an analyst with Sanford C. Bernstein amp; Co.也许吧。这次调查,特别是在后期,其背后的政治推动力已经到达了一种不寻常的程度,这也是事实。欧洲各地关于谷歌的政治言论极其强烈,以至于如果韦斯塔格尔不提起诉讼,她的政治地位就可能遭到削弱。“可能会危及她调查其他高调反垄断案件的能力,”桑福德·伯恩斯坦公司(Sanford C. Bernstein)分析师卡洛斯·基里纳尔(Carlos Kirjner)说。Consider, for instance, what happened last year when Google was close to settling the case with Vestager’s predecessor, Joaquín Almunia. Google had agreed to make changes that it found cumbersome and intrusive, but it wanted to get the case behind it and move on. Instead, European politicians, especially in France and Germany, and prodded by Google’s competitors, complained that Almunía was being too accommodating to the company. “The offers by Google aren’t worthless, but they’re not nearly enough,” one such politician, Günther Oettinger of Germany, told The Wall Street Journal.比如,想想去年谷歌快要与韦斯塔格尔的前任华金·阿尔穆尼亚(Joaquín Almunia)就这个案子达成和解的时候,发生了什么事吧。谷歌当时已经同意进行一些改动,虽然它觉得这些改动既繁琐,又具有侵入性,但它希望了结这个案子,把精力放在别的事上。结果欧洲的政界人士,尤其是法国和德国的,在谷歌的竞争对手的怂恿下,抱怨阿尔穆尼亚太纵容谷歌了。“谷歌的提议并非一无是处,但这还远远不够,”来自德国的政界人士金特·厄廷格(Günther Oettinger)对《华尔街日报》说。At the time, Oettinger was serving as the European Union’s energy commissioner, making him one of the 28 commissioners who would have to approve any settlement. By September, he had been nominated for a new job: commissioner for digital economy and society. At a hearing before a European Parliament committee, he took credit for blowing up the Google settlement.当时厄廷格是欧盟能源专员,任何解决办法都必须得到他和其他27名专员的批准。到了9月,他被提名担任欧盟数字经济与社会专员。在欧洲议会委员会的一个听会上,他因阻止了谷歌的和解而得到赞许。As the digital commissioner, Oettinger has continued to advocate for what has become the German position on Google — namely that Google’s power must be reined in. In a speech two weeks ago, he essentially said that Europe should begin regulating Internet platforms in such a way as to allow homegrown companies to overtake the American Internet giants. And on Thursday, a document leaked from his office to The Wall Street Journal that outlined just such a plan, claiming that if nothing was done, the entire economy of Europe was “at risk” because of its dependency on American Internet companies. There have even been calls in Europe to break up Google.作为数字经济专员,厄廷格一再倡导德国对谷歌的立场——谷歌的权力必须受到限制。在两周前的一个演讲中,他表达了这样的意思:从现在开始,欧洲调整互联网平台的方式,应该有助于欧洲本土企业赶超美国的互联网巨头。上周四,他办公室的一份文件被《华尔街日报》曝光,文件中概述的计划声称,如果不采取行动,整个欧洲经济就会因为对美国互联网公司的依赖而面临“风险”。欧洲甚至还有人呼吁要分拆谷歌。Europe has every right to regulate any company and any sector it wants. And it can bring antitrust charges as it sees fit. But given the rhetoric surrounding Google and the other American Internet giants, suspicion of Europe’s real motives is justified.欧洲完全有权来监管他们想监管的任何公司、任何部门。只要他们认为合适,也可以提起任何反垄断指控。但考虑到围绕谷歌和其他美国互联网巨头的论调,欧洲的真实动机还是值得怀疑的。From here, the European charges against Google look a lot like protectionism.从这个角度而言,欧洲对谷歌的指控看起来很像是保护主义行径。 /201505/372937

  Apple has struck a long-awaited deal with UnionPay and 15 Chinese banks to launch its mobile payments service in China.苹果(Apple)与中国银联(UnionPay)及15家中国达成了一项人们期待已久的协议,将在中国推出其移动付业务。The tie-up will allow Apple to tap UnionPay’s 5bn issued cards, which are accepted across China and in more than 150 countries. Agricultural Bank of China, Bank of China, China Construction Bank and IC are among the lenders lined up to support Apple Pay.银联的发卡量达50亿张,银联卡可在中国各地及150多个国家使用。苹果可借助这一合作搭上银联的便车。中国农业(A)、中国(BOC)、中国建设(CCB)和中国工商(IC)等多家将为Apple Pay提供持。However, the mainland rollout of Apple Pay is still awaiting regulatory clearance. Apple said it hoped UnionPay customers would be able to add their cards to the service “as soon as early 2016 after relevant tests and certification required by Chinese regulators”.不过,Apple Pay在中国内地的推出仍有待监管部门批准。苹果表示,Apple Pay“将按照中国监管部门要求完成相关检测和认,之后正式向中国地区的银联卡持卡人开放此项务,预计最快2016年初”。The app, powered by a secure chip inside the device, allows customers to pay at participating retailers by holding their thumb on the iPhone’s home button and tapping it at the checkout.用户可使用Apple Pay在签约零售商处进行付,他们只需将拇指放在iPhone的主屏幕键上,然后用手机贴一下收银设备就可结账。这款应用由设备内的安全芯片提供撑。China is a vital market for Apple at a time when growth has slowed in other parts of the world. Sales from the Greater China region doubled last year to .5bn, as the iPhone retains its cache among Chinese consumers.中国是苹果的一个重要市场,目前,该公司在全球其他地区的增长已经放缓。由于iPhone对中国消费者依然具有吸引力,去年大中华区的销售额翻番至125亿美元。“China is an extremely important market for Apple and with China UnionPay and support from 15 of China’s leading banks, users will soon have a convenient, private and secure payment experience,” said Eddy Cue, Apple’s senior vice-president of internet software and services.苹果互联网软件与务高级副总裁艾迪錠埃(Eddy Cue)表示:“对于苹果而言,中国市场的重要性不言而喻。通过携手中国银联以及15家中国主要的持,中国的用户即将可以享受便捷、安全和私密的付体验。”Chai Hongfeng, executive vice-president of China UnionPay, said: “China UnionPay is dedicated to promoting payment innovations and providing secure, convenient mobile payment experiences for its hundreds of millions of cardholders.”中国银联执行副总裁柴洪峰表示:“中国银联致力于推动付创新,联合产业各方为数亿银联卡持卡人提供安全、便捷的移动付体验。”UnionPay’s QuickPass technology aly allows many cardholders to pay by tapping their credit cards. Last week, UnionPay said more than 20 banks were backing a new mobile payment service. Chinese consumers used their smartphones to make .5tn worth of transactions last year but the market is dominated by Alibaba’s Alipay and Tencent’s Tenpay.银联的闪付(QuickPass)技术已经让许多持卡人可以“闪一下”他们的信用卡就完成付。上周,银联表示已有20多家持新的移动付务。去年中国消费者用他们的智能手机完成了价值3.5万亿美元的交易,不过,该市场占主导地位的是阿里巴巴(Alibaba)的付宝(Alipay)和腾讯(Tencent)的财付通(Tenpay)。 /201512/417801

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  Uber will acquire a portion of Microsoft’s maps technology and extend employment offers to around 100 engineers on Microsoft’s mapping team, the ride-hailing company said on Monday.优步(Uber)于周一宣布,将收购一部分微软(Microsoft)的地图技术,并向微软地图团队的大约100名工程师提供工作机会。Uber would not discuss the terms of the acquisition, which will bring it a data site outside Boulder, Colo., as well as cameras, image-analysis software and a license to the intellectual property.收购将为其带来一个在科罗拉多州尔德城外的数据中心,以及摄像头、图像分析软件和知识产权许可。优步不会讨论收购的具体条款。“Mapping is at the heart of what makes Uber great,” Kristin Carvell, a company spokeswoman, said in a statement. “We’ll continue to work with partners, as well as invest in our own technology, to build the best possible experience for riders and drivers.”“地图对于优步的成功来说至关重要,”公司发言人克里丝汀·卡维尔(Kristin Carvell)在一份声明中说。“我们将继续与合作伙伴合作,同时投资我们自己的技术,为乘客和司机带来可能的最佳体验。”The deal, which was first reported by the technology blog TechCrunch, is the latest move in Uber’s quest to strengthen its mapping research efforts.这一协议最早由科技客TechCrunch报道,是优步在增强其地图技术研究成果方面的最新进展。Although most Uber services rely on digital maps, much of its interest in mapping is focused on how to improve its carpooling service, UberPool. While Uber relies heavily on mapping technology from Apple, Baidu and especially Google, the company has taken strides to bring as much mapping expertise in-house as possible.尽管大部分优步的务依赖数字地图,但它在地图方面的主要兴趣集中在如何提升其拼车务——UberPool。尽管优步严重依赖苹果、百度,尤其是谷歌的地图技术,但这家公司已在尽可能多地在发展自己的地图专业技术。In March, Uber acquired deCarta, a mapping technology start-up. Uber has also aggressively pursued mapping engineering talent throughout Silicon Valley.3月,优步收购了一家地图技术创业公司deCarta。同时,还在硅谷寻找地图工程方面的人才。And for months, Uber has been avidly competing to buy Nokia Here, the mapping division of the Finnish technology giant, in a deal that could be valued at up to billion, according to several people with direct knowledge of the matter. A small number of bidders are still circling Nokia’s business, according to these people, who spoke on condition of anonymity because the negotiations were not public.数月以来,优步十分积极地竞购芬兰科技巨头诺基亚(Nokia)的地图部门诺基亚Here。据几位对此事有第一手消息的人士透露,协议金额可能高达40亿美元。据这几位人士透露,为数不多的竞标者仍在觊觎诺基亚的业务。他们不愿意透露姓名,因为谈判并不是公开的。Despite interest from tech companies like Uber and a number of private equity firms, however, a consortium of German automakers — which rely on the mapping unit’s technology for their in-car services — are believed to be in the pole position to land the Nokia division, the people added.这几位人士补充称,尽管有优步这样的科技公司和一众私募股权公司对这一项目感兴趣,一个由德国汽车制造商组成的财团据信将在收购诺基亚地图部门的竞争中处于有利位置,这些厂商的车载系统依赖地图公司的技术。In a statement, Microsoft said the deal on Monday was part of a broader strategy to focus on its core products.在一份声明中,微软称周一的协议符合其将重点转移至核心产品的大战略。“In keeping with these efforts, we will no longer collect mapping imagery ourselves,” the company said, “and instead will continue to partner with premium content and imagery providers for underlying data while concentrating our resources on the core user experience. With this decision, we will transfer many of our imagery-acquisition operations to Uber.”“为了与这些努力保持一致,我们将不再自主收集地图影像,”公司称,“作为替代,我们将继续与优质内容和影像提供商合作以获得底层数据,并将资源集中到核心用户体验上。基于这一决定,我们将把我们大量的影像获取业务转让给优步。” /201507/383854By this time next year, we may have become disillusioned with the internet of things. The idea that every object — from toasters to street lights — could be connected to the internet and be communicating with us has been hyped for several years.等到明年这个时候,我们或许就会对物联网彻底幻灭。一切物品——从烤面包机到路灯——都可以连接到互联网与我们沟通的概念已经炒作了数年。It reached a peak this month at the International Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, where more than 900 companies exhibited connected products. Samsung, makers of products from fridges to phones, said that within five years all of its appliances would be able to connect to the internet.今年1月在举行的国际消费类电子产品展(CES)上,物联网的概念更是被渲染到极致,900多家公司展示了联网产品。制造商三星(Samsung)表示5年内旗下所有电器都将能联网,其产品涵盖了从电冰箱到手机等多种类别。The predictions for the number of objects that will be connected are big — from technology research company Gartner’s forecast of 25bn connected physical objects by 2020 to tech company Cisco’s more bullish 50bn forecast.据预测可联网物品的数量将非常庞大,技术研究公司高德纳(Gartner)预测至2020年将有250亿种联网物品,高科技公司思科(Cisco)更加乐观,给出了500亿的预测值。Cue the ennui. Just as the internet hype of 2000 led to disillusionment, the internet of things will struggle to live up to expectations in the short term.这开始令人觉得有点厌烦了。正如2000年对互联网的炒作导致了幻灭,物联网也难在短期内达到人们的期望。Companies, certainly, remain unconvinced by the business case. A survey by Gartner of 1,500 chief information officers last August found that only 22 per cent had deployed or were experimenting with the internet of things.当然,企业对物联网的商业应用前景仍表怀疑。去年8月高德纳对1500名首席信息官进行调查后发现,仅22%的人表示所在企业已经涉足或正在尝试涉足物联网。The remaining 78 per cent either thought it irrelevant or at the too-early stage.其余78%的人或认为物联网并不重要,或认为它还处于过早阶段。One problem is that the technology is still a little expensive, says Maurizio Pilu, partnerships director at Digital Catapult, a UK government organisation that helps support new projects.Digital Catapult主管合作事宜的毛里齐奥#8226;皮卢(Maurizio Pilu)表示,问题之一在于物联网技术还是有点贵。Digital Catapult是一家为新项目提供持的英国政府机构。The price of a simple wireless sensor will soon be as low as #163;1, a price point at which this could become a mass-market proposition. But other parts of the kit, including communications and battery modules, might still come in at #163;20 to #163;40, which, Mr Pilu says, is too high.一个简单的无线传感器的价格可能很快就会降至1英镑左右,在这一价位上该商品有可能进入大众市场。但包括通讯和电池模块在内的其余配套产品可能仍将维持在20英镑至40英镑的价位,皮卢表示这一价格仍然过高。“It needs to become closer to #163;3 to #163;4, [then] the business case begins to make sense,” he says.他说:“它的价位要接近3英镑到4英镑,(那时)应用到商业上才开始具有合理性。”Telecoms networks have to change to meet the requirements of billions of low-power devices that need to connect constantly to the internet to transmit small amounts of data. The cost of sending such data over the network will have to come down.电信网络必须作出改变,以满足数十亿个低功率设备的需求,它们需要持续联网发送少量数据。因此在网上发送这类数据的费用必须降下来。“It is not scalable for a low-cost device to pay several dollars a month just to have connectivity,” says Zach Shelby, director of technical marketing for the internet of things at Arm, the chip designer.芯片设计公司Arm的物联网技术营销总监扎克#8226;谢尔比(Zach Shelby)说:“每月光为了让一个低成本设备联网就要付好几美元,这是无法推广的。”Security will need to be improved to ensure that internet-connected objects cannot be hacked and hijacked. Physical attacks over the internet are happening. At the end of last year the German federal office of information security revealed thatmachinery at a German steelworks was severely damaged when hackers gained access to control systems via the internet.电信网络还需要提高安全性,确保联网设备不能被黑客攻击和劫持。现在已经发生了通过互联网发动物理攻击的事件。去年年底德国联邦信息安全办公室透露,黑客通过网络进入德国一家钢厂的控制系统,使该厂机器遭到严重破坏。When everything from traffic lights and cars to home heating systems are linked online, the potential for harmful hacks increases further. However, the simple, low-power devices used for the internet of things might not be able to handle heavy encryption, or may not be patched and updated if a security flaw is discovered.等到从交通指示灯、汽车到家庭供暖系统的一切都连接上网,遭到破坏性攻击的可能性将进一步增加。然而,用于物联网的简单、低功率设备或许无法处理高度加密,或当发现安全漏洞时,可能无法打补丁或更新。“There are big security holes and quite a lot of work needs to be done to fix them,” says Jim Tully, analyst at Gartner.高德纳的分析师吉姆#8226;塔利(Jim Tully)说:“电信网络存在很大安全漏洞,还需要做大量工作来解决这些问题。”Interconnectivity of devices is an issue that needs resolving. If your toaster cannot talk to your TV, or if the street lights are not on the same system as the rubbish bins, the networks will be less useful. Persuading all manufacturers to agree looks tricky, as a number of competing industry groups are each pushing their own standard.还有一个要解决的问题是设备之间的互联。如果烤面包机不能跟电视交流,或者路灯跟垃圾箱不在同一个系统里,物联网的用处就没那么大了。说所有制造商都同意互联似乎是个棘手难题,因为许多相互竞争的行业团体都在各自力推自己的标准。“Everyone says ‘yes, lets ensure interoperability — as long as it is my version of interoperability’,” says Mr Pilu.皮卢说:“人人都说‘好啊,让我们确保产品可以协同工作——只要按我的互操作标准来。’”The internet of things will raise privacy concerns, as it makes a fresh level of tracking and data collection possible. In the same way that companies and governments can follow what people do online — the websites they visit, what links they click — it will become possible to track almost everything an individual does in the physical world.物联网将引发隐私问题,因为它可能将跟踪和数据收集推上新的高度。同样地,企业和政府可以密切注意人们在网上做什么,比如他们浏览的网站,他们点击的链接,届时人们在现实世界中的所有行踪几乎都可以被掌握。Companies are interested in the marketing possibilities this presents. Yet public opinion will have to decide whether there should be limits on what can be monitored.企业对物联网呈现的营销前景很有兴趣。然而公众舆论将决定是否该对可监控对象设限。While these issues are being resolved, large-scale internet of things projects are rolling out slowly. The projects with the clearest business case have to do with saving money on municipal street lighting and bin collection. General Electric says San Diego will save 4,000 a year by replacing some 3,000 street lamps with an intelligent lighting grid where each individual lamp can be remotely monitored and adjusted. The system makes it easy to pinpoint lamps that need changing and switch off those not in use.随着这些问题一步一步得到解决,大规模物联网项目也在慢慢推出。具有清晰商业意义的项目涉及城市街道照明和垃圾收集的成本节约。通用电气(General Electric)表示圣迭戈通过将大约3000盏路灯换成智能照明网,每年将节省25.4万美元。智能照明网里的每盏路灯可以远程监控和调节。该系统方便准确找出需要换灯泡的路灯,以及关闭不使用的路灯。Philadelphia, meanwhile, was able to reduce its rubbish collection costs from .3m to 0,000 in part by fitting rubbish bins with sensors that were triggered when the container was full, eliminating unnecessary collection trips to half-empty bins.费城则可以将收集垃圾的成本从230万美元减少到72万美元,方案之一是给垃圾桶安装传感器,垃圾箱装满时即触发传感器,这样可以不用在垃圾箱半满时去收垃圾,减少不必要的往返。More complex projects are still in a development phase. Milton Keynes in the UK will this year fit parking spots with sensors that tell drivers when the space is free. Mr Pilu, who is helping to launch the project, admits that it will be difficult to measure the return on an investment like this.更复杂的项目仍处于开发阶段。英国的米尔顿凯恩斯(Milton Keynes)今年将在停车场安装传感器,当停车场有空位时传感器会通知驾驶员。皮卢正在协助开展这项计划,他承认像这样的投资很难衡量回报。Medical and research uses are being explored. Research from ATamp;T, the US telecoms multinational, for example, has partnered with 24eight, which makes pressure sensors that can be embedded into shoe inner soles. They have distributed slippers with an internet-connected chip to elderly people at a care centre in Texas, and are using the foot movement data they receive to diagnose health problems, such as the initial stages of Alzheimer’s disease.物联网的医疗和科研用途正在探索中。比如美国跨国电信公司ATamp;T的研发部门与压力传感器(可嵌入鞋内底)制造商24eight达成合作。他们将内置联网芯片的拖鞋发放给德克萨斯州一家护理中心的老年人,利用所收到的足部运动数据诊断健康问题,比如阿尔茨海默氏病的初期阶段。“In the early stages of Alzheimer’s you might get up to make a cup of tea but for a moment forget where you were going. That small wandering pattern, which others might not initially notice, could be an early warning sign,” says Mr Tully.塔利说:“在阿尔茨海默氏症早期阶段,你可能起身泡了杯茶,但过一会儿就忘了自己要干什么。这种轻微的精神恍惚状态有可能是早期预警信号,但其他人可能一开始注意不到。”He believes some of the “wacky” personal items on display at CES may evolve into industrial-scale applications. Vessyl, a cup that identifies any liquid poured into it, might sound like a toy for those wanting to keep tabs on their drinks intake. But what about applying the concept to a car and monitoring that the right fuel is in the tank?他认为CES展上一些“稀奇古怪”的个人物品有可能发展成工业级的应用。Vessyl是一款能识别出倒入液体的杯子,听起来像是适合那些想监督自己饮料摄入情况的人使用的玩意儿。但假设将这一概念应用到汽车上,检测油箱里的汽油加得对不对呢?“We will see hundreds of little applications that will be eventually woven together to make a smart city,” says Mr Pilu. “I believe this will develop in an evolutionary way.”皮卢说:“我们将看到成百上千个小应用,它们最终将交织在一起,编织出一座智能城市。我相信这将以循序渐进的方式发展。”But do not expect the internet of things to do spectacular things just yet. For the time being, expect more internet-connected bins and street lighting, while businesses work out just what else these ecosystems can do.但是不要指望物联网马上就大放异。目前只能期待更多联网垃圾箱和路灯,然后等着企业想出这些生态系统还能做到什么。 /201504/369443

  What#39;s going to happen to the tech world in 2016? While of course no one really knows for sure, it#39;s possible to make a few semieducated guesses. Here are 10 predictions for the biggest tech trends for the coming year — from the blindingly obvious to the wildly speculative.2016年科技界会有什么样的新发现?没有人可以给出肯定的答复,但这并不妨碍我们作出一些简单猜测。以下是2016年十大科技动向,其中有的是板上钉钉,有的只是大胆推测。1. Apple will unveil a new Watch and a new iPhone苹果公司将发布新一代Apple Watch和iPhoneThis is the easiest prediction in the world, which is why we started with it (guaranteeing that at least one of these will be right).这是铁定的事实,也是我们之所以把它放在开头的原因(至少能保这十大预测有一个是真的)。Apple is expected to release Apple Watch 2.0 sometime this spring, we hope with an improved interface and a lot more apps. And next fall will see the release of the iPhone 7, which (if rumors are to be believed) will include a fingerprint sensor on the screen, wireless charging, multiple cameras, and a USB-C port instead of power or headphone jacks.苹果有望在明年春发布Apple Watch 2.0,届时其界面或许能有所改进,应用数量也能有所增加。iPhone 7将在明天秋发布,据传其在屏幕上增加了指纹传感器,还具备无线充电功能,配有多摄像头,并用USB-C接口取代了原有的电源和耳机接口。2. Apple#39;s dominance of tech culture will decline苹果的统治力将有所下降Since the Second Coming of Jobs in 1997, interest in all things Apple has been climbing at a steady rate, going into hyperdrive with the release of the iPhone (2007) and then the iPad (2010). Lately, though, the products coming out of Cupertino have been less than magical and life-changing.1997年乔布斯重回苹果公司后,苹果渐渐开始吸引大众的目光,后分别于2007年和2010年推出iPhone和iPad,引起了巨大轰动。而如今虽然苹果产品层出不穷,其创意和影响力却不比当年。And for all of Tim Cook#39;s many fine qualities, he can#39;t generate a reality distortion field the way his predecessor could. Until Cook manages to pull another rabbit out of his iHat — an Apple Car? a fully integrated smart home? — the Apple mystique has clearly peaked. Nowhere to go but down.尽管库克也推出了许多优秀产品,但他却不具备前任乔布斯那样的“现实扭曲力场”,除非他也能变戏法般地弄出个Apple Car或是一体化自能家居什么的来。苹果的创意已经达到上限,现在只能走下坡路了。 /201601/419630It wasn’t his first broken condom, so Rafael didn’t worry. But three weeks later, the man he’d met in a bar called to say that he had “probably been exposed” to H.I.V.拉斐尔不是头一回碰上保险套破了这种事,所以一点儿也没放在心上。但三个礼拜后,他在酒吧遇到的那人打电话来说,他“可能接触到了”艾滋病病毒。Rafael, a muscular, affable 43-year-old, went to a clinic and within 45 minutes learned he was infected. Although it was aly closing time, a counselor saw him immediately and offered him a doctor’s appointment the next day.43岁的拉斐尔是为人友善的肌肉猛男。他去了一家诊所,过了45分钟得知自己确实被感染了。尽管当时已经是下班时间,一名顾问立即跟他碰面,并马上为其预约了第二天的医生看诊。At Ward 86, the famous H.I.V. unit at San Francisco General Hospital, the doctor handed him pills for five days and a prescription for more. Because he was between jobs, she introduced him to a counselor who helped him file for public health insurance covering his ,000-a-year treatment.在旧金山市综合医院(San Francisco General Hospital)著名的86号H.I.V.病区(Ward 86),医生给了他五天的药量,又为他开了处方好让他可以买到更多药。因为他暂时赋闲在家,这名大夫将他介绍给了一名顾问,后者帮助他申请了一份公共医疗保险,每年报销3万美元的治疗费。“They were very reassuring and very helpful,” said Rafael, who, like several other men interviewed for this article, spoke on condition that only his first name be used to protect his privacy. “They gave me the beautiful opportunity to just concentrate on my health.”“他们很帮忙,这让我感到宽慰,”拉斐尔说。出于隐私考量,他与本文其他几位接受采访的男性都坚持仅以姓氏相称。“他们提供给我一个很好的机会,让我能够全心专注于自己的健康。”Despite bad luck in sex-with-strangers roulette, Rafael did have some good fortune: He lives in San Francisco, which is turning the tide against H.I.V. and serving as a model for other cities. The city that was once the epidemic’s ground zero now has only a few hundred new cases a year, the result of a raft of creative programs that have sent infection rates plummeting.尽管在一夜情的轮盘赌中撞上霉运,但拉斐尔也有幸运之处:他住在旧金山,这是一座扭转了防治艾滋病颓势、堪为其他城市效仿的楷模城市。这里曾经是艾滋病的重灾区,多亏实施了一系列富有创意的方案,感染率急剧降低,现在这里每年只有几百例新病例。“I love the San Francisco model,” said Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. “If it keeps doing what it is doing, I have a strong feeling that they will be successful at ending the epidemic as we know it. Not every last case — we’ll never get there — but the overall epidemic. And then there’s no excuse for everyone not doing it.”“我大爱旧金山市的这个模式,”美国国家过敏症及传染病研究所(National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)所长安东尼·S·福西(Anthony S. Fauci)士说。“如果坚持目前的做法,我坚信他们一定能成功地终结现在的疫情。我不是说这样就能消除所有的病例——恐怕我们永远也做不到这一点,但大体上消灭疫情是完全可能做到的。没有理由不这么做。”Last week, the World Health Organization essentially agreed. Issuing new guidelines for the treatment and prevention of H.I.V., the agency called on the rest of the world to do much of what San Francisco is aly doing: Every H.I.V. patient should start antiretroviral drugs as soon as they test positive rather than waiting for measures of immune system strength to drop, the agency said, and everyone at risk of infection should be offered preventive drugs. San Francisco adopted the first practice — “test and treat” — five years ago and the second in 2013. It has bolstered those efforts with others, like the rapid-doctor’s-appointment program that swept Rafael in, and another to track difficult patients.上周,世界卫生组织(World Health Organization, W.H.O.)对旧金山模式表示了基本的赞同。该机构印发了新的H.I.V.防治指南,呼吁世界其他地区以旧金山为榜样:一旦H.I.V.检测呈阳性,患者就应该尽快开始用抗逆转录病毒药物,而不是等到免疫系统功能指标衰退后再治疗;此外,该机构还指出,应该向所有高危人群提供预防性药物。5年前,旧金山市已经率先实践了上面的第一条——“检测即治疗”,2013年又实施了第二条。这又带动了其他的一些措施,比如预约医生的快速通道、跟踪比较麻烦的患者等,拉斐尔正是受益于前者。The results have been striking. Last year, San Francisco had only 302 new H.I.V. diagnoses, the lowest recorded number. In 1992, at the epidemic’s peak, there were 2,332.这些举措成效惊人。去年,旧金山市仅新增了302例H.I.V.确诊病历,创历史新低。而在疫情最严重的1992年,曾达2332例。In 1992, the city had 1,641 deaths from AIDS. Last year, just 177 San Franciscans with H.I.V. died, and most of them actually succumbed to heart disease, cancer or other old-age ills, said Dr. Susan Buchbinder, the head of H.I.V. prevention research for the city health department.1992年,该市有1641人死于艾滋病。到了去年,只有177名艾滋病病毒感染者死亡,而且其中大多数实际上是死于心脏病、癌症或其他老年病,旧金山市卫生部H.I.V.预防研究的负责人苏珊·布赫宾德(Susan Buchbinder)士如是说。By other measures, too, San Francisco is ahead. According to a 2012 estimate by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, only 39 percent of all infected Americans had seen an H.I.V. doctor, and only 30 percent were taking their pills consistently enough to be “virally suppressed,” meaning they were not infectious. By contrast, in San Francisco, 82 percent of residents with H.I.V. were in care, and 72 percent were suppressed. In Ward 86 — all of whose patients are uninsured or on public assistance — suppression has reached 84 percent.用其他指标衡量,旧金山市同样居于领先地位。美国疾病控制和预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, C.D.C.)2012年估计,在所有受到H.I.V.感染的美国人中,只有39%曾到专科医生处就诊,只有30%能坚持药直至达到“病毒抑制”(此时他们不再具有传染性)。相比之下,在旧金山的居民中,82%的H.I.V.感染者都接受了治疗,72%达到了“病毒抑制”状态。86号病区中的患者要么没有医疗保险,要么依靠公共救济过活,但他们中的抑制率也已达到了84%。San Francisco has some natural advantages: wealth, political leaders who consistently back the fight — in part because the gay vote is so big — and a close-knit medical community in which many of the top officials in the fight against H.I.V. have studied together, trained each other and done research projects together through the University of California, San Francisco.旧金山市具备一些天然的优势:有钱、一贯力挺抗H.I.V.斗争的政治领导人(他们这么做的部分原因是因为同性恋人群是一大票仓)、密切合作的医学界。许多抗艾领域的高官都曾在加州大学旧金山分校(University of California, San Francisco)一起学习、培训,并共同完成研究项目。Because of the tech boom, City Hall’s budget grew from billion to nearly billion in 10 years. For patients not eligible for federal or state aid, the city has its own health insurance: Healthy San Francisco. And it has been able to counter every cut in federal AIDS funds.借助科技繁荣的东风,10年之内,市政厅的财政预算从50亿美元增长到了近90亿美元。对于无法获得联邦或州府医保救助的患者,该市提供了自己的医保计划:健康旧金山(Healthy San Francisco)计划。目前它已足以应对联邦政府AIDS基金的削减。“One of my first budget questions is always, ‘Are they cutting our Ryan White money again?’ ” Mayor Edwin M. Lee said in an interview, referring to the 1990 law that pays for AIDS drugs. “Since 2011, we’ve backfilled more than million — with very little debate.”“我面临的最重要的预算问题始终是:‘按照瑞安·怀特法案(Ryan White,瑞安·怀特是美国抗击艾滋病和消除艾滋病歧视的标志性人物,1990年他去世之后,美国国会通过了美国最大的针对艾滋病患者及携带者的免费治疗法案——译注)我们应该得到的拨款是不是又被砍了?’ ”市长李孟贤(Edwin M. Lee)在接受采访时说。“2011年以来,我们补上了2000多万美元的资金空缺——几乎没有引发什么争议。”Wealth also eases the burden in a harsher way: Soaring rents have driven out many poor residents. Two-thirds of San Francisco’s infected are white or Asian; nationally, 63 percent are black or Hispanic. Older, wealthier, openly gay white men are more likely to be insured and well-informed about risks than young black and Hispanic men, the epidemic’s fastest-growing subgroup.与此同时,金钱也在以一种更为残酷的方式减轻该市的负担:飙升的房租令许多贫困居民不得不离开此地。旧金山三分之二的H.I.V.感染者是白人或亚洲人。而纵观整个美国,63%的感染者是黑人或西裔美国人。与年轻黑人和西裔男性这个疫情增长最快的人口亚群相比,年龄较大、较为富裕、且已经出柜的白人同性恋男性拥有保险的可能性更高,对各种风险了解得也更加充分。But the city’s chief strength has been a willingness to go first, to rapidly adopt tactics that work in pilot projects or clinical trials, before they are endorsed by public health organizations like the C.D.C. and the W.H.O.但该市最大的优势之源是愿意先行一步,在C.D.C.和W.H.O.这样的公共卫生机构认可之前,就迅速应用那些在试点项目或临床试验中有效的策略。In 1983, the city opened the first dedicated AIDS ward. In 1987, it tested the first antiretroviral drug, AZT. In 1992, it began distributing clean needles to drug addicts.1983年,该市开设了第一个艾滋病专用病房。1987年,它试用了第一种抗逆转录病毒药物AZT(叠氮胸苷)。1992年,它开始向瘾君子们分发洁净的针头。In 2010, it adopted “test-and-treat” — antiretroviral drugs given as soon as a patient tested positive. In 2013, it started the preventive drug program, PrEP — pre-exposure prophylaxis with Truvada, a two-drug pill — at no charge to the uninsured. By some estimates, 15 percent of the city’s gay men are now taking Truvada.2010年,该市推行了“检测即治疗(test-and-treat)”策略,只要患者的检测呈阳性即尽快给予抗逆转录病毒药物治疗。2013年,它开始实施预防用药方案,即使用特鲁瓦达(Truvada,一种抗逆转录病毒药物,主要成分为恩去他滨和提诺福韦——译注)为无医保人群免费提供暴露前预防(PrEP)。据估计,该市的男同性恋中有15%正在用特鲁瓦达。Numerous recent studies have shown that people taking antiretroviral therapy every day not only live longer, but also have so little circulating virus that they are highly unlikely to infect others even through unprotected sex.近期的众多研究显示,每天接受抗逆转录病毒治疗者不仅寿命更长,其循环系统中的病毒也极少,即使发生了无保护的性行为,传染他人的可能性也很小。But the shift to immediate drug treatment was a struggle. Dr. Grant Colfax, who was then the city’s director of H.I.V. prevention, met resistance from doctors arguing that drug side effects were too harsh to begin immediately and that patients not yet motivated by brushes with death might take medicines carelessly and develop resistant strains.然而,将防治策略转变为立即上药仍然困难重重。该市H.I.V.预防部门的负责人格兰特·科尔法克斯(Grant Colfax)士遇到了来自医生们的阻力,他们反对的理由是:药物的副作用太厉害,不适合推行发现后立即治疗的原则;一部分未感到死亡威胁的患者治疗的积极性不高,很可能不好好药,以致因此产生耐药性病毒株。Community groups were also angry. Many had lucrative city contracts to hand out condoms and advice, which the city rewrote to require they do tests and provide medical care.社区团体也不高兴。之前许多社团都跟市政签订了利润丰厚的合同,负责分发安全套和宣传抗艾指南。根据该市重新起草的新指南,他们还需要协助进行检测,并提供医疗务。“We were accused of ‘medicalizing H.I.V.,’ ” Dr. Colfax said. “Which I found ironic.” But the new-infection rate had not budged for 11 years. “We couldn’t keep doing the same old thing,” he said.“别人指责我们‘对H.I.V.过度医疗化’,#39;“科尔法克斯士说。“这让我觉得很有讽刺意味。”新发感染率11年未变过。“我们不能再继续过去的做法了,”他说。He persisted, and won.他坚持了下来,并取得了胜利。To identify infected people, the city increased testing and created a program called Rapid, the one that helped Rafael: It guarantees a quick doctor’s visit, with cab fare to get there if necessary, and help finding insurance.为了甄别感染者,该市增强了检测力度,并创建了快速通道(Rapid program),确保受感染者可以尽快得到医生的看诊(如有必要,甚至还报销去医院的出租车费),并帮助他们获得医疗保险。拉斐尔就是该方案的受益者之一。The Magnet Clinic, where Rafael was diagnosed, did 9,600 H.I.V. tests last year. It lies in the heart of the Castro, the city’s rainbow-flag-bedecked gay mecca, and resembles a cheery cellphone store: The waiting room has couches, flowers, disco music and photographs of the Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence, a campy drag troupe. A mobile of smiling penis toys dangled over one examination table.为拉斐尔诊断的磁铁诊所(Magnet Clinic)去年进行了9600例H.I.V.检测。这家诊所坐落在旧金山市挂满了虹旗的同性恋者圣地——卡斯特罗街区(Castro)的中心地带,外观就像一个明快的手机店:候诊区里设有沙发、鲜花、迪斯科音乐和“无尽耽溺”(Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence,一个男扮女装的同性恋者剧团——译注)的照片。在检查台上方,还悬挂着一些带有微笑表情的阴茎玩具。“We didn’t want it to feel like a jail cell,” said the nursing director, Pierre-Cedric Crouch, wearing the clinic’s signature “No Blame/No Shame” T-shirt. “And we have no stigma. You can come in saying you just slept with 20 guys and don’t know what a condom is, and we don’t criticize you. We help you out.”“我们不想让人觉得这里像是牢房,”护理部主任皮埃尔-塞德里克·克劳奇(Pierre-Cedric Crouch)身着诊所标志性的“不责备/不羞愧(No Blame/No Shame)”T恤说道。“我们这里不做评判。你走进来说你跟20个男人上过床,而且从不知安全套为何物,我们也不会责难你。我们只提供帮助。”Magnet’s social workers will enroll patients in insurance or, if they have coverage, fight to make sure it covers what they need.磁铁诊所的社工会动员患者参加保险,如果他们已经参保,则会争取确保它可以报销他们的所需开销。Jayne Gagliano, the benefits manager, said she regularly had to explain to out-of-state insurers that using Truvada to prevent infection was, in fact, F.D.A.-approved.福利经理杰恩·加利亚诺(Jayne Gagliano)说自己经常需要向外州的保险公司解释使用特鲁瓦达预防H.I.V.感染实际上已经经过了美国食品和药品监督(Food and Drug Administration, F.D.A.)的审批。“The fragmented American insurance system is one of our biggest obstacles,” said Dr. Diane V. Havlir, the chief of the H.I.V. division at San Francisco General, who has seen patients stop taking their pills because of coverage lapses.“离破碎的美国保险体制是我们最大的障碍之一,”旧金山市综合医院H.I.V.部门的负责人黛安娜·V·哈夫利尔(Diane V. Havlir)士说道,她曾目睹一些患者因为医保报销问题而被迫停药。East of the Castro is the Tenderloin — a grim neighborhood peppered with single-room-occupancy hotels, homeless shelters and liquor stores. More than a quarter of the city’s homeless are gay or transgender, and many are found here. Some trade sex for drugs or a place to sleep, and end up infected.卡斯特罗区的东面是田德隆,一个充斥着单身公寓旅馆、无家可归者收容所和酒类专卖店的可怕街区。这个城市中超过四分之一的无家可归者是同性恋者或变性人,其中许多人都生活在这里。有的人用性来交换毒品或落脚地,结果感染了H.I.V.。Four years ago, San Francisco created Linkage into Care teams — Lincs for short — to track such patients.四年前,旧金山市创建了联动护理团队(Linkage into Care teams,简称Lincs)来追踪这类患者。In 2012-13, Lincs “navigators” searched for 315 missing H.I.V. patients and enrolled 116 of them — the rest were not found, or were jailed, dead or refused help. Navigators call and text patients, visit them and even escort them to doctors.2012-13年间,Lincs的“领航员”对315名失踪的H.I.V.患者展开了搜寻,并将其中116人纳入了医护项目,其余的人要么是没找到,要么是已经死亡或被关进了监狱,也有的拒绝接受帮助。“领航员”们给患者们打电话、发短信、看望他们,甚至陪他们去看医生。Some 73 percent of the Lincs patients stayed in care, and they were twice as likely to be virally suppressed as similar patients who were not in Lincs.在Lincs的患者中有约73%坚持了治疗,且达到病毒抑制状态的可能性是出于类似状况的非Lincs患者的两倍。Recently, Erin Antunez, a Lincs navigator, spent her day focused on three: a young man released from jail that morning, a drug injector living in a Market Street hotel, and a 36-year-old mother staying in a former AIDS hospice.不久前的一天,Lincs的一名“领航员”埃琳·安图内斯(Erin Antunez)在当天的工作主要围绕着三个人展开:一名当天上午刚从监狱释放出来的年轻男子,一个住在市场街旅馆里的瘾君子,还有一个是生活在曾经的AIDS安养院的一位36岁母亲。The former prisoner “was not a big red flag,” she said. He usually took his pills and had a clinic appointment that afternoon.那个刑满释放人员“不是什么大问题”,安图内斯女士说。他经常领取药物,而且还预约在当天下午接受诊疗。The drug user often disappeared. He recently had texted her: “Where can I get an abscess drained without all the red tape?” but then had not answered several messages.瘾君子经常玩失踪。前一阵子他还发短信问她:“在哪儿做脓肿引流可以不用忍受那些麻烦的繁文缛节?”她给他发了若干消息,但之后就杳无回音了。“A lot of this work is ‘Where’s Waldo?’ ” Ms. Antunez said.安图内斯女士说:“我的工作有很多时候都像是在玩《沃尔多在哪里?》(‘Where’s Waldo?’,由英国插画家Martin Handford创作的一套儿童书籍,读者需要在人山人海的图片中找出沃尔多——译注)”Her first visit was to the Maitri Hospice, a haven on a residential block. Founded, according to its website, by a “drug-addled drag queen turned Zen master,” it has a Buddha and origami cranes for décor, and separate smoking porches for tobacco and medical marijuana.这一天,她首先前往某住宅区一家名为Maitri 临终关怀中心(Maitri Hospice)的安养院。网站介绍其创办者“原先是个吸毒成瘾的男扮女装者,后来成为禅宗大师”。安养院里装饰着佛像和纸鹤,还设有独立的吸烟门廊以供吸烟和医用大麻。The young mother was not dying, although she had survived two types of AIDS-related pneumonia.她要探视的这位年轻母亲并无性命之忧,不过之前熬过了两种不同的AIDS相关肺炎。Rather, she “just needed a break,” Ms. Antunez said, from methamphetamine binges in her housing project, during which she slept on any free couch and neglected her pills.更确切地说,她“只是需要从她住处的甲基苯丙胺狂欢节中脱身,好好休息一下”,因为她只能随便找张空沙发睡觉,完全忽略了吃药这件事。Today, she was waiting in a turquoise tank top, floral shorts and a white Tilley hat, y to ride a city bus to Ward 86.她今天穿上了绿松石色的背心和印花短裤,还戴了一顶白色的Tilley帽子,正等着乘坐城市公交车前往86号病区。Ms. Antunez asked about her new tattoos. Deeply shy, the woman focused on her phone and mumbled childlike answers — until she mistakenly thought a reporter was a supervisor assessing Ms. Antunez, and leapt to her defense: “Erin is great! You can tell some people don’t want much to do with you, but she knocks on doors, she calls me, we play phone tag.”安图内斯女士问起她的新纹身。她很害羞,一直看着手机,喃喃地述说着孩子般天真的,直到她误以为记者是来评估安图内斯女士工作的主管,一下子跳了起来,为她辩护道:“埃琳很棒!你看得出来有些人其实并不心甘情愿想跟你扯上关系。但她来敲我的门,打电话给我,我们还一起玩电话捉迷藏的游戏。”Ms. Antunez’s afternoon client was not in his room at the Donnelly Hotel although she knocked loudly in case he was in a stupor.然而,安图内斯女士下午要拜访的客户却没待在唐纳利酒店(Donnelly Hotel)他的房间里。她大声地敲他的房门,怕他是昏过去了。A manager said he had “shown everyone his abscess” and then left.酒店经理说他“向所有人展示他身上的脓肿”,然后就走了。Worried that he would lance his own abscess, she checked restricted databases that Lincs has access to, including all public clinic visitors and all H.I.V. tests ordered.安图内斯女士很担心他会自己去挑脓肿,于是她利用Lincs的权限访问了数个数据库,查看了公共门诊的所有就诊者和已安排好的所有H.I.V.检测。They revealed that her ex-prisoner and the drug user had seen doctors that afternoon. “Yeah!” she cried, waving her fists and doing a dance in her chair. “That’s a good navigation day.”结果显示,她负责的那个刑满释放者和瘾君子在那天下午都接受过医生诊查。“好极了!”她挥舞着拳头喊道,在椅子上手舞足蹈。“真是顺利的一天”。In 2013, shortly after the Food and Drug Administration approved the use of Truvada to prevent H.I.V. infection San Francisco started offering it to everyone at risk. Some gay men called others “Truvada whores” for avoiding condoms.2013年,就在F.D.A.批准使用特鲁瓦达预防H.I.V.感染后不久,旧金山市开始向整个高危人群提供这种药物。有些男同性恋者管用了特鲁瓦达就不使用安全套的人叫“特鲁瓦达男娼(Truvada whores)”。The backlash has mostly faded, said Dr. Bradley C. Hare, the director of H.I.V. for Kaiser, which also offered PrEP early. The first adopters, he said, “were the equivalent of the people who camp outside the Apple store for the latest iPhones.” Now a “second wave” has emerged, he said. “It’s people who needed a little more education but now say, ‘My friend is using it, and I’m doing the same things he’s doing, so ...’ ”凯萨医疗机构(Kaiser)也是最早提供预防药物的组织之一,其H.I.V.部门的负责人布拉德利·C·黑尔(Bradley C. Hare)士说:抵触情绪基本已经消退了。他将首先尝试预防药物者“比作在苹果零售店外面彻夜排队等着买最新款iPhone手机的人”。如今,“第二次浪潮”已经出现,他说。“这些人需要更多的教育,现在他们终于意识到:‘我的朋友正在使用它,既然我们总是在做同样的事情,那么……’ ”Dr. Lisa Capaldini, a popular doctor in the Castro, said she was “still ambivalent” about PrEP. Avoiding condoms, she said “makes it a Trojan horse for syphilis and gonorrhea, so if I had an 18-year-old gay son, I’d say, ‘I’d rather you used condoms.’ ”在卡斯特罗区颇受欢迎的医生莉莎·卡帕尔迪尼(Lisa Capaldini)士说自己对预防药的态度“仍摇摆不定”。因为很多人用预防药后就不使用安全套了,她认为“这就像特洛伊木马一样给了梅毒和淋病可趁之机。所以如果我有一个18岁的同性恋儿子,我会对他说:‘我宁愿你使用安全套’。”Dr. Buchbinder, of the health department, disagreed, saying, “Denying PrEP to patients because they might have unsafe sex makes about as much sense as our colleagues who treat high cholesterol denying statins to theirs because they might eat more ice cream.”卫生部的布赫宾德士表示了不同意见,她说:“因为担心患者会发生不安全的性行为就拒绝对其应用预防药,就像治疗高胆固醇症的同行因为怕患者有了他汀类药物后会使劲吃冰淇淋而不肯给他们开药一样。”A recent study of the first 657 Kaiser patients on PrEP found that their condom use had indeed gone down and more had caught venereal diseases — but in two years, not one had caught H.I.V.最近的一项研究考察了Kaiser的前657名接受预防药物的患者,发现他们的安全套使用率确有下降,且更容易患上性病——但两年内这些人中无一感染H.I.V.。Stephen, a slim, soft-spoken 24-year-old Chicago native, just got on Truvada. He delayed for a year, he said, until he found a job with health insurance. He had been on his parents’ policy and feared their seeing the prescription. They are conservative Roman Catholics who know he is gay but dislike it. “My father offered to buy me hookers,” he said, shaking his head.斯蒂芬(Stephen)是一个24岁的芝加哥小伙子,身型单薄,说话轻声细语,他刚刚开始用特鲁瓦达。他不得不推迟一年用药是因为他需要先找到一份带医疗保险的工作。之前,他的保险附带在他父母的保单上,他生怕他们会发现特鲁瓦达的处方。他的父母都是保守的天主教徒,知道他是同性恋后非常不满。“我的父亲甚至给我钱让我去招妓,”他摇着头说。Stephen first heard of the drug through a gay student group at his Catholic college. “But my friend said it means you’re super-slutty, that it’s for people who bareback, or go into dark rooms for sex,” he said. “I didn’t want to associate with it.”斯蒂芬第一次听说这种药是在他所在的天主教学院的同性恋学生社团里。“我的朋友说,这种药是给那些超级放荡、做爱不戴套或者一有机会就钻进小黑屋做爱的人用的,”他说。“我一点儿也不想跟它扯上关系。”Now, he said, he considers it another form of protection, “something I definitely want to add to my bag of goods.”但现在他知道这是另一种形式的保护,“是应该毫不犹豫照单全收的东西。”If he had grown up in San Francisco, he probably would have learned of it earlier. Discussion of PrEP is now mandatory in public school ninth-grade sex-ed classes.如果他从小在旧金山长大,很可能早就明白了这一点。如今,围绕预防药物的讨论是公立学校九年级性教育课程的必修内容。The city’s success is not only shrinking the epidemic. It is changing the psychology of gay sex here in unexpected ways. The fear of death — so long a part of being gay in America — appears to be receding.旧金山的成功不仅在于它控制并缩小了疫情,还在于它以一种出人意料的方式改变着这里的同性恋者对性行为的心态。长期以来,美国的同性恋者已经习惯于生活在死亡的阴影之下,如今,这种恐惧正在逐渐消散。Take Bradley and Paul, a couple visiting the Magnet clinic for gonorrhea tests. Paul, 53, a ruddy and weather-beaten Hawaii resident who called himself “one of the dinosaurs,” said he had probably been infected with H.I.V. as a teenager. Many friends died decades ago. “It’s crazy I’m still alive,” he said.就拿布拉德利和保罗(Paul)这一对前往磁铁诊所接受淋病检测的恋人来说吧。保罗现年53岁,是个面色红润、皮肤黝黑的夏威夷人,自称“大恐龙”。他说自己大概在十几岁时就感染了H.I.V.。很多朋友在数十年前就已经去世了。“我居然还活着,这简直太好了,”他说。Bradley, who resembled a prep-school athlete about 20 years younger, was from Atlanta and uninfected. They felt safe together, Paul explained, because he takes Complera, a triple-therapy pill, while Bradley takes Truvada.布拉德利来自亚特兰大,他看起来就像是一名年轻20来岁的在读预科学校的运动员;他未受感染。保罗解释道,因为他自己在用三联制剂Complera,而布拉德利在接受特鲁瓦达,所以他们在一起感觉很安全。“PrEP has really changed the game,” he said. “Bradley was the first guy I knew who was on it. He’d prefer to be with someone with an undetectable viral load than with someone who says, ‘Well, I assume I’m still negative.’ It blows my mind to be positive and not feel like a pariah.”“是预防药改变了一切,”他说。“布拉德利是我认识的第一个在使用它的人。他说自己宁愿选择一个检测不出病毒载量的人,也不要跟一个自称‘哦,我猜我应该还没被感染’的人在一起。这让我心态积极,不会感觉自己像一个社会弃儿。”“It’s really nice to still be around now and see a younger generation go through what we did,” he added. “I grew up in the ’70s with no fear. The guys in the ’90s were full of fear. Now guys are growing up with no fear at all.”“现在还能活蹦乱跳地看着年轻一辈重温我们的经历,感觉真不赖,”他补充道。“我成长于20世纪70年代,当时人们并不知道有什么需要害怕。到了90年代,人们满心恐惧。现在,年轻人又可以无所畏惧地安心长大了。” /201510/405823

  

  He only had himself to blame, Mike Weston thought ruefully as he strapped a Fitbit to his wrist one cold February morning. His company was about to start tracking him 24 hours a day, gathering data on everything from his sleep quality and heart rate to his location and web browsing habits.在今年2月的一个寒冷的早上,迈克#8226;韦斯顿(Mike Weston)把一个Fitbit手环套在手腕上,沮丧地想这只能怪自己。他将受到自己公司全天候的追踪,并被采集从睡眠质量和心率到所处位置和上网习惯等各种数据。“I was really quite grumpy about it, I didn’t want to put myself on display like that,” he says. But as chief executive of Profusion, a data science consultancy, he had been urging his team of number crunchers to plan more ambitious internal projects — and this was the one they had come up with.韦斯顿说道:“我真的感到非常不爽,我不想这么展示自己。”但作为数据科学咨询公司Profusion的首席执行官,他一直在敦促自己的数据分析团队策划一些更具雄心的内部项目,于是他们就提出了这个项目。For 10 days, Profusion’s data scientists used Fitbits and other apps to track 171 personal metrics for 31 staff who volunteered (including the somewhat reluctant Mr Weston). Combing through the data, the analysts found they could group the staff into clusters, based on shared patterns of behaviour. They labelled one group “Busy and Coping”; another “Irritated and Unsettled”.在十天时间里,Profusion的数据科学家们使用Fitbit和其他应用来追踪31名员工志愿者(包括有些不情愿的韦斯顿)的171项个人指标。分析师们通过整理这些数据发现,可以按照一些共同的行为模式对这些员工分组。他们把一组员工称为“忙于应对型”,将另一组称为“烦躁不安型”。Technology has made it possible for employers to monitor employees more closely than ever, from GPS trackers for delivery drivers to software that tracks which websites office workers visit. Companies such as Profusion think wearable gadgets could open a new frontier in workplace analytics, albeit one that would further blur the lines between our work and private lives.从跟踪送货司机的GPS定位仪到追踪办公室员工浏览网站习惯的软件,技术让雇主能够比以往更严密地监控员工。Profusion等公司认为,可穿戴设备可能为办公场所分析开辟了新的前沿阵地,虽然它将会进一步模糊工作和私人生活之间的界限。“I think there’s an inevitability that it will gain ground, and there’s a backlash risk that will follow if the data get abused,” says Mr Weston.韦斯顿表示:“我认为,可穿戴设备普及开来是势所必然的,而如果数据被滥用,就有引起强烈反弹的风险。”For employers, the simplest way to use wearable gadgets (and so far the most common) is to give them to staff and try to nudge them into healthier lifestyles — a financially worthwhile goal if the company is on the hook for their health insurance. BP, for example, gives Fitbits to workers in North America and offers them rewards if they meet activity targets. Indeed, one of Fitbit’s five strategic goals is to “further penetrate the corporate wellness market”, according to its IPO prospectus. Wearables could also be straightforward tools.对雇主来说,使用可穿戴设备最简便(也是迄今最常见)的方法是,把它们发给员工,设法让他们选择更健康的生活方式——如果公司负责员工医疗保险的话,这个目标从财务上来说是有价值的。例如,英国石油公司(BP)向北美员工发放Fitbit可穿戴设备,如果他们完成了活动目标,还会给予他们奖励。实际上,按照Fitbit的IPO招股说明书所示,该公司的5个战略目标之一是“进一步渗透企业福利市场”。可穿戴设备也可能是直接的工具。But the bigger prize is to use the data from such devices to make the workforce safer or more productive. Some warehouse workers aly wear wristbands or headsets that measure their productivity and location in real-time.但更大的作用是利用此类设备获得的数据来让工作场所变得更安全或者提高生产效率。一些货仓工人已经戴上腕带或耳机来衡量他们的工作效率和进行实时定位。Kronos, the “workforce management” company whose customers include Apple, Starbucks and Ikea, makes annual revenues of more than bn by selling scheduling and real-time data tools that minimise salary bills and maximise productivity. Brenda Morris, who runs Kronos’s UK business, says the company sees applications for wearables in blue and white collar work.Kronos是一家“工作场所管理”公司,它的客户包括苹果(Apple)、星巴克(Starbucks)和宜家(Ikea),销售可以最小化薪资成本和最大化生产效率的排班和实时数据工具,年收入超过10亿美元。Kronos英国业务主管布伦达#8226;莫里斯(Brenda Morris)表示,该公司看到在蓝领和白领职员身上应用可穿戴设备很有效。“If you’re monitoring where people are, what their stress levels are, what their fatigue levels are#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.[that’s] really important when operating machinery#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;Or [in an office] you can see that person’s getting stressed because they’ve been working on that legal contract for too many hours and they don’t have enough support.”“如果你在监控人们所处位置、他们的压力水平,以及他们的疲劳程度……在操作机器时,(这)真的非常重要……或者(在办公室),你可以看到某个人因长时间研究法律合同,而且没有获得足够持而变得焦虑不堪”。Chris Brauer, a senior lecturer at Goldsmiths, University of London, who runs experiments with workplace wearables, predicts a future in which managers have dashboards showing real-time employee biometrics such as sleep quality that are leading indicators for performance. “It becomes a predictive tool and possibly also a prescriptive one.”伦敦大学金史密斯学院(Goldsmiths, University of London)高级讲师克里斯#8226;布劳尔(Chris Brauer)负责有关工作场所可穿戴设备的试验,他预计未来经理们将会用仪表盘显示员工睡眠质量等实时生物指标,这些是预示业绩表现的先行指标。“它会成为一种预测性工具,可能也会成为一种规定性的工具”。But that vision is a long way off — and there are a number of practical, legal and ethical hurdles in the way.但这一设想距离实现还有很长的路要走,面临着许多实践、法律和道德方面的障碍。First, no one seems to have worked out yet how to analyse or draw useful conclusions from wearables data. Profusion plans to do more trials in larger companies, overlaying the personal metrics with workplace performance data. But so far, the experience of Rob Symes, co-founder of a London start-up called The Outside View, is typical. He tracked all his employees with wearables last year, only to realise: “Right, I’ve got all this data, what the hell does it mean?”首先,似乎还没有人研究出,如何对可穿戴设备产生的数据进行分析,或者如何从中得出有用的结论。Profusion计划在较大型公司开展更多试验,将个人指标和整体工作场所业绩表现数据叠加起来。但到目前为止,通常会看到的情况是伦敦初创公司The Outside View的联合创始人罗布#8226;赛姆斯(Rob Symes)的经历。去年他利用可穿戴设备追踪了所有员工,最后意识到:“好吧,我掌握了所有数据,但这些数据到底意味着什么?”Meanwhile, wearable devices crossing over corporate “digital perimeters” every day are an obvious target for hackers, says Dave Palmer, who spent 13 years at GCHQ and MI5 before joining cyber security company Darktrace as head of technology. “You might think that’s a bit alarmist — what are the chances of my watch or heartrate monitor getting hacked — but this idea of the ‘internet of things’ is racing farther ahead in terms of functionality than in terms of security.”另一方面,每天穿越企业“数据边界”的可穿戴设备明显会成为黑客的目标,在英国政府通信总部(GCHQ)和军情五处(MI5)工作13年后加入网络安全公司Darktrace担任技术主管的戴夫#8226;帕尔马(Dave Palmer)表示。“你可能会认为这有点危言耸听——我的手表或者心率监测器被黑客入侵的几率能有多大呢——但‘物联网’这个概念在功能性方面已经走在了安全性的前面。”The gadgets are also easy to game. Adam Miller’s employer gives him cash rewards if his Fitbit shows he has taken a certain number of steps a day. But it registers “steps” when jolted, so if he has not met his daily target, “I might watch TV and wave my arm around#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;or my kids will grab it and start shaking it to see what the numbers get to.”这些小玩意也很容易糊弄。对于亚当#8226;米勒(Adam Miller)来说,如果Fitbit显示他一天走到了一定的步数,他的雇主就会给予他现金奖励。但Fitbit是在摇晃的情况下记录“步数”的。因此如果米勒没有完成每日的目标,“我可能一边看电视一边挥舞我的手臂……或者我的孩子们会抓着它摇晃,看上面的数字会到多少。”For Dane Atkinson, chief executive of tech company Sumall, this highlights a serious problem with workplace metrics. “It has a law of physics — as soon as people know it’s being observed it changes the outcome.” His solution as a young CEO was to come up with a secret metric his employees did not know about: he tracked the volume and length of their work emails, which he found a surprisingly good indicator of who was in “professional distress”.科技公司Sumall的首席执行官戴恩#8226;阿特金森(Dane Atkinson)认为,这凸显了工作场所指标存在的一个严重问题。“这其中存在物理法则——一旦人们知道一个指标在被观测,结果就会改变。”作为一名年轻的首席执行官,阿特金森的解决方案是提出一个他的员工不知道的秘密指标:追踪员工工作邮件的数量和长度,他发现在显示谁处于“职业困难期”方面,这种指标效果好得惊人。“I was struggling with empathy#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;the data really helped me catch up,” he says. “In watching those patterns I could start a conversation and say, hey, what’s going on, and there was almost always a huge unload.”“我之前难以对员工感同身受……数据的确帮助我弥补了这一点,”他说,“看到那些情况后,我就可以与员工交谈,并且对员工说,嗨,怎么了,几乎总是会听到大量倾诉的话语。”He thinks it is reasonable for an employer to monitor work emails, “but there’s a moral line that’s not been navigated by public conversation yet”.他认为雇主监视工作邮件是合理的,“但这其中有一条道德的界线,公共舆论还没有找到这条线的位置。”The legal line has not been navigated yet, either. Lawyers say companies would have to gain the explicit informed consent of employees before gathering personal data from wearables — and further consent to correlate it with other data, such as performance metrics.法律的界线也还没有确定。律师们表示,企业通过可穿戴设备收集个人数据前,应该在员工知情的情况下取得员工的明确同意——在将这些数据与工作表现指标等其他数据进行关联前,还要进一步取得员工的同意。Even then, there is a risk employees would feel implicit pressure to agree, says Daniel Cooper, head of the data privacy team at the law firm Covington.科文顿#8226;柏灵律师事务所(Covington and Burling)数据隐私小组主管丹尼尔#8226;库珀(Daniel Cooper)表示,即使如此,还存在员工因感到隐性压力而勉强同意的可能性。“Historically European regulators in the data protection area have been very sceptical you can ever get a valid employee consent — they feel that for existing employees, [the relationship] is almost inherently coercive.”“欧洲在数据保护领域的监管机构历来对此抱着非常怀疑的态度,认为你根本得不到切实的员工同意——他们觉得对于现有员工来说,(雇佣关系)几乎有一种固有的强制性。”How many workers would say yes, uncoerced, and under what conditions? PwC asked 2,000 people recently: 40 per cent said they would wear a workplace wearable, rising to just over half if they knew it would be used to improve their wellbeing at work.在不强制的情况下,有多少员工会同意,又需要什么条件呢?普华永道(PwC)最近询问了2000人:有40%的人表示他们会佩戴工作场所可穿戴设备。如果他们知道这将用于改善他们的工作状况,这个比例会提高到略高于一半。Employers and employees might share the same goals (less stress in the workplace, say) but then again, they might not. Many of those who said “no way” did not trust their employer not to use the data against them. A promise to anonymise the data and only analyse them in aggregated form would help win people over, PwC found.雇主和员工或许有一些相同的目标(比如降低工作压力),但他们也可能意见相左。许多回答“不行”的人不相信雇主不会用这些数据来针对他们。普华永道发现,匿名收集数据,只从整体上分析数据的承诺有助于争取人们的持。For Mike Weston of Profusion, the reaction of his staff to their wearables experiment was as interesting as the data it produced. Some found it enlightening and useful, while others found it “quite disturbing.” One ended up “the most stressed I’ve ever seen her”.对于Profusion公司的迈克#8226;韦斯顿来说,员工对可穿戴设备试验的反应和试验产生的数据一样有趣。一些人觉得可穿戴设备很有用,富有启发性,另一些人则认为这些设备“相当令人烦恼”。其中有一个人到最后变成一副“我认识她以来最焦虑的样子”。As for him? “I still don’t know if I love it, but I haven’t taken it off.”他本人怎么看?“我还不知道自己是否喜欢可穿戴设备,不过我没把它脱下来。” /201506/381521。

  

  I ended 2013 by compiling something slightly unusual: a list of some of the good news you might have missed. I thought it was a pretty good note to end the year on, and people seemed to like ing about some of the ways the world is becoming a better place. This year, I thought I’d do it again。2013年我编辑了一些有点不同寻常的东西来作为年终总结:一张你可能错过了的好消息清单。我觉得作为年终总结,这是一份相当不错的笔记,而且人们似乎喜欢读一些世界在哪些方面变得更好的故事。今年,我想我又要这么干了。Of course, we can’t ignore the fact that it’s been a turbulent year, in the ed States and many other countries. But it’s worth taking a moment to celebrate some of the good news too. More children are surviving than ever before. We’re making progress against some of the world’s deadliest diseases. These are some of the most fundamental ways to measure the world’s progress—and by that measure, 2014 was definitely another good year。当然了,在美国和其他很多国家,我们不能忽略这是充满骚乱动荡不安的一年。但是花点时间为些好消息庆祝也是很值的。同从前相比,更多的孩子存活了下来。和世界上的一些致命的疾病作斗争,我们正在进步。这些是衡量世界进步的最根本的方法——而且通过以下的估量,2014绝对又是让人欢喜的一年。1.More Fifth Birthdays Than Ever Before和从前相比,更多孩子过上了5岁的生日。To me, one of the best ways to measure progress is to look at how many children are dying of preventable causes。对我而言,衡量进步最好的方法之一就是看看,有多少孩子的死亡可以避免。And today, more kids are living to see their fifth birthday than ever before. This year, for at least the 42nd year in a row, the child mortality rate has fallen. And it’s not just moving in the right direction—it’s falling faster than anyone expected。同过去相比的今天,更多的孩子活着过上了5岁的生日。在今年,至少是连续第42年儿童的死亡率有所下降。而且不仅仅是朝正确的方向——它比任何人期望的都下降的快。The Economist ran a great article about this in September, where it estimated that just since 2001, the world has saved 13.6 million children’s lives. It’s hard to think of a better sign the world is improving。《经济学人》在9月写了一篇关于这个问题的长文,自从2001年开始,预计全世界已拯救了1360万儿童的生命。不难想象,这就是世界正在变好的标志。2.We Hit a Big Milestone in Fighting AIDS我们在对抗艾滋病上取得了里程碑式的进步The world has done an impressive job of providing treatment to people living with HIV. But for years we were falling behind, because for all the people who started getting treatment, even more would become infected。对于艾滋病病毒感染者的治疗,全世界已经取得了令人钦佩的进步。但是这些年来,我们一直很落后,因为算上所有开始接受治疗的人,也及不上更多的人受感染的速率。Not anymore, though. New data released this month show that 2013 was the first year when more people started getting treatment than became infected with HIV. Why does that matter? Because treating people not only keeps them alive, it also dramatically reduces the odds that they will pass the virus on to anyone else. As the epidemiologists say, we can start to bend the curve of the disease。今非昔比。这个月的新数据显示,2013年是第一年接受治疗的人比感染艾滋病病毒的人多了。这为何显得意义非凡?因为病人的治疗不仅仅是延续他们的生命,还急剧减少了将病毒传染给别人的几率。正如流行病专家所说的那样,这是一个转折点。We still have a long way to go before we can declare the end of AIDS, but this is a big milestone。在能宣告艾滋病已经无所可畏之前,我们还有很长的路要走,但是这确实是里程碑式的一步。3.Rotavirus Vaccine is Reaching More Kids Than Ever比起以往更多的孩子接受了轮状病毒疫苗接种When I an article in the late 1990s that mentioned a diarrheal disease called rotavirus killed hundreds of thousands of kids a year, I couldn’t believe something I’d never even heard of was killing that many children。当我在20世纪90年代阅读一篇提到名为轮状病毒引发的腹泻病,一年里能导致成千上万的儿童死亡,我不敢相信这种我从来没听过的病毒杀死了那么多孩子。But rotavirus doesn’t get much press because it’s almost never deadly in rich countries—and the world tends to ignore diseases that only affect the world’s poorest people。但是轮状病毒没受多大重视,因为在发达国家几乎从不会致死——所以全世界都倾向对这个只影响贫穷国家人民的疾病视而不见。In many ways, rotavirus was a catalyst for my commitment to global health—in fact, one of our foundation’s first grants supported efforts against rotavirus. Since then, the number of kids dying from this illness has been cut nearly in half thanks to a cheap and effective vaccine. And today, that vaccine is reaching more kids than ever before。从很多方面来看,轮状病毒是我致力委身于全球健康的催化剂——事实上,我们基金会的第一笔补助就是帮助对抗轮状病毒。从那以后,多亏了廉价又高效的疫苗,死于这种疾病的儿童就减少了近乎一半。同过去相比的今天,更多孩子接受了疫苗接种。For example in India, where rota kills nearly 80,000 children a year, the government decided this year to deliver the vaccine for free to poor children. And manufacturers there are working on a more affordable vaccine that could reach even more children in the coming years。举个例子,在印度,该病毒一年杀死了几乎8万儿童,政府决定在今年为贫穷的孩子发放免费疫苗。而那里的厂家致力于生产更多价格实惠的疫苗,以便让更多孩子在接下来的几年里负担的起这种疫苗接种。4.A Tuberculosis Breakthrough—Finally肺结核终于有了突破性进展The world is way overdue for a better tuberculosis treatment。全世界在更好的治疗肺结核上所做的已经远远超出预期。TB is one of the world’s leading causes of death, and our existing treatments are inadequate—especially for drug resistant forms of the disease. But efforts to improve them have been stalled for decades. So it’s a big deal that earlier this year, scientists announced that a new TB treatment regimen has proven effective in early-phase research。肺结核是全世界第一大致死疾病。而我们现有的治疗十分匮乏——尤其是该疾病的耐药性上。但是几十年来改进的努力一直止步不前。所以今年早些时候,科学家宣布一种新型肺结核治疗方案在早期研究方案中被明有效,成为了大事件。From here, the drug regimen goes on to a large clinical trial to confirm the results. If this new treatment regimen pans out, it could dramatically reduce the time it takes to cure drug-resistant TB and save poor countries billions of dollars in health-care costs。从现在开始,用药法将继续大型临床试验区来明这个结论。如果这种新型治疗方法成功了,它就能迅速减少治疗肺结核耐药性的时间,并且为贫穷国家的卫生保健开省下一大笔。5.Nigeria’s Fight Against Polio Helped Its Fight Against Ebola尼日利亚对抗小儿麻痹症的经验帮助了其对抗埃拉A lot of the media coverage about Nigeria this year focused on two things: Ebola and terrorism。很多媒体报道了今年尼日利亚专注的两件事情:埃拉和恐怖主义。Both are frightening, and they masked the fact that from a global health perspective, Nigeria actually had a pretty good year. Although it’s one of only three countries that have never been free from polio (Pakistan and Afghanistan are the other two), I don’t think it will be on that list for long。但是这两件恐怖的事从全球健康的角度掩盖了一个事实:尼日利亚实际上度过了很棒的一年。虽然它是全世界仅有的三个还在遭受小儿麻痹症的国家(还有两个是巴基斯坦和阿富汗),我认为他们很长时间不会上榜了。Nigeria has reported only six cases of polio this year, compared to more than 50 last year. What’s more, the infrastructure Nigeria has built to fight polio actually made it easier for them to swiftly contain Ebola. The fact that Nigeria is now Ebola free is a great example of how doing the work to fight things like fighting polio also leaves countries better prepared to deal with outbreaks of other diseases。尼日利亚今年据报道只有6例小儿麻痹症,而去年有50多个病例。而且,尼日利亚建的用于对抗小儿麻痹症的基础设施,实际上让他们对抗埃拉的工作更容易了。尼日利亚如今不再遭受埃拉侵袭,就是一个很好的例子:像对抗小儿麻痹症这样疾病的经验也能让国家更好的准备其他疾病暴发时的应对。6.Looking Ahead展望未来One more thing: this January, Melinda and I will publish our annual letter. This year, we’re looking ahead to 2030. We’ll be writing about a few areas—from health to farming and banking—where life will really change, especially for people in some of the world’s poorest places。还有一件事:今年1月,梅琳达和我将会出版我们每一年的信件。今年,我们展望至2030年。我们书写着尤其是世界上最贫穷地方人们的生活,在一些领域——从健康到农业到——生活的改变。 /201503/363728

  A solar-powered Swiss airplane took off from Abu Dhabi early Monday on the first leg of what its creators hope will be the first around-the-world journey without any fuel.瑞士制造的一架太阳能飞机星期一清晨从阿布扎比起飞。制造者们希望这架飞机能够首次完成无燃料环球飞行。The carbon fiber single-seater Solar Impulse 2 aircraft has a 72-meter wingspan, which is longer than the wingspan of a Boeing 747, and weighs about as much as a car. The 17,000 solar cells built into the wings harness the sun#39;s energy, allowing it to fly through the night.用碳纤维材料制造的单人座“太阳能动力2号”翼展为72米,超过波音747,重量则仅相当于一辆汽车。安装在机翼上的1万7千个太阳能电池储存能量,以供夜间飞行。The Si2 took 12 years to build and is the brainchild of two Swiss scientists - Bertrand Piccard and Andre Borschberg.制造“太阳能动力2号”费时12年。设计者是瑞士科学家皮卡德和奇伯格。 /201503/363715

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