吉林/市男科最好的医院99卫生

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原标题: 吉林/市男科最好的医院最新活动
Don: Hey Yaeuml;l, I was wondering–why dont we hear much about the moon anymore? 嘿,Yaeuml;l,我在想——为什么我们现在没什么跟月球相关的消息了呢?Yaeuml;l: Whadya mean, Don? Don,你是什么意思?D: Its just that back in the 1960s and 70s, sending astronauts to the moon was a big deal, but nobody talks much about it anymore. 早在二十世纪六七十年代的时候,送宇航员上月球是个天大的事儿,但却没什么人再谈论这件事儿。Y: Well, actually NASA is planning to send astronauts back to the moon. 事实上,NASA正计划送宇航员重返月球。D: Really? 真的吗?Y: Yep. And this time theres talk of building a lunar base where astronauts can stay for weeks and months at a time to conduct experiments in low gravity. 对呀。这次他们说要建立一个月球基地,宇航员一次可以停留几周或几个月在低重力的条件下进行实验。D: Cool. 很棒啊。Y: But there are a few kinks to work out–like what to do about moon dust. 但还存在几个问题要解决——比如说月球尘埃怎么办。D: Wait. Why is moon dust a problem? 等等。为什么月球尘埃会是个问题?Y: Well, for one thing, it has chemical properties that resemble fresh fractured quartz, which is pretty toxic. 嗯,一方面,它的化学性质,像断裂的石英,那是有剧毒的。And moon dust is clingy; it gets all over spacesuits and inside space capsules.而且月球尘埃很有依附性,太空太空舱里面都会有。Astronauts from the 60s and 70s used to complain that there was so much dust inside the capsule that they could smell it. 二十世纪六七十年代的宇航员们曾经抱怨,太空舱里面有太多的灰尘,甚至他们都能闻得到。D: So is the dust actually dangerous? What happens if it gets in the lungs? 那么灰尘对身体有害吗?如果它进入肺里会怎样?Y: Thats what scientists are studying now. 那就是科学家们现在正在研究的。One issue is that the moons weak gravity could allow dust particles to float around in an astronauts airway, which could let moon dust penetrate deeper into the lungs. 一个问题就是,月球的低重力会让尘埃粒子飘进宇航员的导气管,这可能让月球尘埃更深地穿透进人的肺部。D: Which increases the health risks.这就增加了健康风险。So what can astronauts do to breath in less dust? High-tech feather dusters? 那么怎么做才可以让宇航员吸入较少的粉尘?高科技的鸡毛掸子吗?Y: Funny. But its a good question–one that scientists are busy looking into before sending astronauts up there to set up house on our very dusty moon. 太逗了。不过这确实是个好问题。这是科学家们正在忙于调查的问题,要在将宇航员们送上太空造房生活之前解决的问题。201308/251148

The wall is very interesting.城墙很有趣。Its built of stone whereby most of the other buildings were built primarily of rammed earth or mud brick.这是石头造的,而其他大部分建筑物主要是夯土或泥砖建造。It doesnt have any obvious habitational function.没有任何明显的居住功能。It doesnt have any obvious defensive function.没有任何明显的防御功能。So whys that wall there?为什么那堵墙会矗立在那里?If storming the citadel through the tunnels was impossible,如果通过隧道进攻是不可能的,then the only other option would be to build a siege tower.那么唯一的解释就是建立一个攻城塔。And by the most ruthless means, on the backs of captured Guge prisoners.而这是捕获古格囚犯最残忍的手段。The royal precinct was virtually unassailable.皇家区实际上是不容置疑的。The Ladahki army reached the shelf beneath the sheer summit.拉达哈尼斯军队通过下面到达。They were stuck here for sometime around one month,他们被困一个月左右,so they began to build a siege tower with pressed Guge labor.所以他们借助古格劳动力开始建造一个攻城塔。They had to bring stones from a black mountain on the far side of the River.他们不得不搬运河另一边一座黑色山上的石头。201403/281289

Finance and economics财经商业Free exchange自由交易One of the giants巨人Ronald Coase, the economist who explained why firms exist, died on September 2nd, aged 102罗纳德科斯,著名经济学家,于9月2日逝世,享年102岁。他向世人阐明了企业存在原因。I HAVE made no innovations in high theory, was how Ronald Coase modestly summed up his lifes work.罗纳德科斯如是总结他一生的事业:在高层理论研究中,我并没有创新。My contribution to economics has been to urge the inclusion…of features of the economic system so obvious that…they have tended to be overlooked.我对经济领域的贡献在于,将甄选经济指标这一步骤引入人们视野,而之前,人们对此并不重视。Attention to the overlooked helped Mr Coase transform both law and economics.而正是他对这一被忽视的步骤的注意使得他改变了法律与经济。Born in the London suburb of Willesden in 1910 to working-class parents,1910年,罗纳德科斯出生在伦敦威尔斯登的一个工人家庭,Mr Coase had an academic temperament and an interest in science but lacked a taste for mathematics, a flaw that might have kept him out of economics in later decades.他很有学术天赋,对于科学也很有兴趣,遗憾的是他缺少对数学的尝试,也许这就是使得他在接下来的十年中无缘经济的原因。He studied commerce at the London School of Economics, a course tailored to those destined for middle management.科斯在伦敦经济学院学习贸易,这一学科是给将来的中层管理者量身定做的。The degree included instruction in economics, and he quickly fell for the dismal science.该学科包含了经济介绍,科斯很快便迷上了政治经济。A one-year travelling scholarship gave him the chance to apply what he had learned.一年的旅行奖金给予了科斯将所学应用于实践的机会,He chose to tour Americas industrial cities in the hope of answering a question that troubled him:他来到美国工业城市,希望能在这找到一直困扰他的问题:why did companies exist?企业为何存在。Economists of the time were enthralled by the special magic of the price mechanism.时下的经济学家都被价格机制的神奇魔力吸引。In a free market, prices should adjust to allocate resources where they are most valued.在自由市场,通过价格的变动来分配资源,使尽其用。A certain price for wool, for example, encourages farmers to raise sheep and bring wool to market to meet consumer demand.例如,如果羊毛价格高,农民就会更多的喂养羊群,将羊毛销往市场以满足需求。As more is produced and demand is sated the price falls, discouraging farmers from wasting time and resources producing unwanted goods.当生产的羊毛越来越多,需求被不断满足,价格就会下降,这就使农民减少生产,避免将时间跟精力浪费在非需商品上。Yet whereas some parts of the economy rely on prices to guide materials and labour to their best uses, others do not.经济在某些方面依靠价格来引导资源和劳力发挥最大作用,而其他方面又并非如此。Within firms tasks are doled out by fiat and strategies are set by the Politburo of the corporate board. Mr Coase wanted to know why.在企业里,高层向下布置任务,企业董事会制定政策。科斯想知道为什么是这样的模式。As he watched American car plants in action, he realised that the existence of the firm compensated for a critical flaw in the price-setting mechanism.就在科斯观察美国汽车工厂运行时,他意识到企业的存在正好弥补了价格生成机制中最严重的漏洞。In the real world it is often costly for buyer and seller to arrive at a final price.现实生活中,让买家跟商家达成最后的交易价格很费力。Transaction costs, like the need to negotiate or draw up contracts, prevent the price mechanism from working smoothly.交易成本,例如协商,签合同,这些都会使价格机制无法平稳运行。Firms would exist, he reckoned, when it was cheaper and easier to co-ordinate activity within a centrally planned organisation than to spell out contract details for every step in the production process.科斯猜想,当在一个有中心规划的机构里,协调各部门行动比在生产过程中为每一步都签订详细合同的成本更低更便捷,企业就出现了。Mr Coase first presented his proposition in a lecture in Dundee in 1932, at the tender age of 21.科斯首次提出这样的主张是他1932年在英国敦堤的一次演讲中,当时他才21岁。In 1937 he published The Nature of the Firm, an article based on the Dundee lecture.1937年,他以在敦堤的演讲为基础出版了《企业的性质》。An entire field of research would eventually be built on this paper, but it garnered scant attention at first.后来整个领域的研究都是以科斯在敦堤的演讲内容为基础,只是一开始并未引起很多人的注意。Mr Coase bounced around British academia in the 1930s and 1940s, from Dundee to Liverpool and back to the LSE, researching the workings of public utilities as he went.上个世纪30跟40年代,科斯在英国学术界十分活跃,从敦堤到利物浦,然后又回到伦敦经济学院,科斯一路研究公共事业公司的运行机制。In 1951 he migrated to America and proved similarly itinerant, until an article on radio-spectrum property rights caught the eye of scholars at the University of Chicago.1951年,他移民到美国,并不断地继续明类似的理论,直到射频频谱的知识产权一文的发表才吸引了芝加哥大学学者们的眼球。In 1959 he was invited to Chicago to air his views.1959年,科斯受邀到芝加哥去阐明他的观点,His audience included future Nobel prizewinners like George Stigler and Milton Friedman:底下的观众包括像未来诺贝尔得奖者乔治·施蒂格勒,弥尔顿·弗里德曼。confident, room-commanding men sceptical of Mr Coases conclusions.他们自信对科斯的结论表示怀疑。Over the course of a two-hour discussion the measured Mr Coase won them around.在两个小时的讨论之后,科斯终于得到他们的认可。He was asked to write up his arguments and in 1961 produced The Problem of Social Cost, another landmark text.科斯尽数写下他的观点,并于1961年出版了另一代表作《社会成本问题》。By 1964 Mr Coase was on the University of Chicagos faculty.从1964年起,科斯一直在芝加哥大学任教。His debates with the Chicago academics centred on market externalities:科斯与芝加哥的学者们围绕市场外部性进行了讨论:economic choices that impose social costs or benefits on others.经济选择会带来利益或需要社会成本。Factory pollution may disturb or poison nearby residents, for example.例如,工厂污染会影响或者危害周围的居民。Earlier generations of economists diagnosed a market failure that governments could set to rights.以往的经济学家得出政府能调整市场失败的结论。The polluting factory does not face any costs from spouting black smoke over a town: the costs are external from its perspective.污染性工厂对于向城镇释放黑烟的成本表示无压力,因为这个成本在他们的估算外。A tax on pollution would internalise the cost, however.但是征收污染税能将这个成本内部化,The price mechanism would work once more, as the tax encouraged the factorys managers to reduce pollution to socially optimal levels.于是价格机制再一次生效,因为税收能迫使工厂管理者将污染物的排放减少到社会最优水平。Mr Coases work suggested another answer.科斯的成果又暗示了另一个结论。In the world of theory, without transaction costs, no government intervention would be needed to address externalities.理论上说,如果没有交易成本,就不需要政府干预来强调外部性。The factory owners and the residents could work out side-payments on their own.工厂拥有者跟居民他们自己就能达成赔偿协议,Residents might pay the factory to emit less or the factory might pay the town for leeway to pollute more.居民能弥补工厂,让他们少排放,工厂也能赔偿给居民,使自己多排放,Either way an efficient outcome should result without government help. This Panglossian view became known as the Coase Theorem.其中任一有效的办法都不需要政府的帮助。这种趋于至善的观点就变成了科斯理论。Yet Mr Coase himself recognised life is more complex than theory.但是科斯本人也意识到现实远比理论复杂。Neither private bargaining nor a pollution tax can make a market perfectly efficient given transaction costs like the expense of monitoring a factorys emissions.如果考虑到像监控工厂排放这样的交易成本,不管是私下解决或者立法征税,都不能使市场最有效。Mr Coase reckoned the law had a critical economic responsibility: to minimise the disruptive effect of these costs on markets.于是科斯想到法律负很大的经济责任:法律能最小化交易成本对市场的负面影响。A system of clear and easily transferable property rights can play a role like that of the firm, allowing useful economic activity to take place that might otherwise be gummed up by the hassle of negotiating and enforcing contracts.一个清晰并且容易转让的产权体系能扮演一个类似企业这样的角色,它可以保那些可能被协商跟强加协议弄砸但其实有利可寻的经济活动的正常进行。His insight revolutionised policy.科斯这般的洞察力使政策发生了变革。Tradable emissions permits, which helped eliminate acid rain as an environmental problem in America, are a direct application of his work.可议的排放许可就是科斯理论成果最直接的应用,这项应用帮助降低了美国酸雨这样的环境问题。Almost 70 years after that first Dundee lecture Mr Coase won the Nobel prize for economics.大概在科斯第一次敦堤演讲70年后,他获得了诺贝尔经济学奖。A scholar must be content with the knowledge that what is false in what he says will soon be exposed, he noted in his speech.他在他的演讲中提到:一个学者应该有他话语里的错误会很快被揭露的意识,并且要对此感到满意,As for what is true, he can count on ultimately seeing it accepted, if only he lives long enough.因为只要他活得够长,他就能寄希望于看见那些正确的道理被人们接受。 /201309/258154

Is animal cloning for real? I want to have my cat cloned.动物真的可以克隆吗?我想克隆家里的猫。Well, animal cloning technology exists, but pet cloning isnt quitethere yet. And it may never be.动物克隆确实存在,但是,宠物克隆现在还没有。估计以后也不会有。Why not? I could think lots of people could want to have copiesof their pets.为什么不呢?我觉得有不少人想克隆宠物吧?Thats just a problem. A clone isnt a copy. Its a separate, individual organism.因为你得考虑这样一个问题:克隆并非复制。克隆是独立的生物个体。The only thingclone of Mr. Wolfs and Mr. Wolfs of themselves have in common is their genetic sequence.沃夫先生的克隆产物和生物体本身唯一的共同点在于基因序列。The only thing? Isnt that everything?只是基因序列吗?不是所有的都相同?Apparently not! As cloning technology has improved, more and more evidence has come out ofclones that dont look alike or act alike.当然不是!随着克隆科技的不断发展,越来越多的明显示克隆并非看起来一样或行为一样。For example, Ted Friend and Greg Archer, both at Texas Aamp; M, have cloned piglets.比如,德州农工大学的Ted Friend 和Greg Archer教授克隆了一批小猪。They report that there is just as much variation in appearance among the clones as among thenon-clones.报告显示在克隆猪和正常繁殖的猪并无二致,都存在生物变异。Some have bristly coats, others not; some have more teeth, some fewer.有的鬓毛较多,有的没有鬓毛。有的有的牙齿更多;有的牙齿更少。But wouldnt a clone of Mr. Wolf at least have its charming personality?克隆的宠物猫至少保留了讨人喜欢的个性吧?Maybe not. The worlds first cloned cat was made by Duane Kraemer, also at Texas A amp; M.也许不会哦!同是德州农工大学的Duane Kraemer研究出了世界上第一只克隆猫。Hereports that the clone has a different personality altogether than its clone mother-its much morefriendly, in fact.克隆猫的性情和原来那只猫的性情大不同—友善了不少。 201404/293153Yaeuml;l: [OVER THE DRUMS] Don! Hey, Don! Hey!咚!嘿!咚!嘿!D: Did somebody say something? 有人在说话吗?Y: Yes, over here, hello!?! 是的,在这里。你好?D: Oh, hi Yaeuml;l. What a sec, let my take my earplugs out. Man, drums are loud. 哦,嗨Yaeuml;l. 等我一下,我把耳塞拿出来。鼓声实在是太大了。Y: Tell me about it! What are you doing? Starting a rock band? 告诉我,你敲鼓干什么?开摇滚乐队吗?D: Nope. Im working out. 没,我在锻炼身体。Y: Uh, OK. It looked to me like you were nurturing your inner John Bonham. 呃,好吧。据我看,你就是在模仿John Bonham.D: Well, maybe I was living out my rock star fantasies, but Im also working up a sweat. 嗯,也许我是要活出我的摇滚明星梦,但我也出了一身的汗。Did you know that during a rock show the drummers heart rate can get as high as 179 beats per minute? 你知道吗?摇滚演出的时候鼓手的心率能达到每分钟179下。Y: Wow! Thats like professional athlete range. 哇!那就好比职业运动员的心率范围。D: Yep. Rock drummers burn something like six-hundred calories per hour. 是的。摇滚鼓手每小时要燃烧六百卡路里。Y: How do you know all this? 你是怎么知道这些的?D: Im a big fan of the rock group Blondie. Remember them from the 1970s and early 80s? 我是摇滚乐队Blondie的忠实粉丝。70年代末80年代初就知道他们了。Anyhow, the groups drummer, Clem Burke, has been working with scientists to study what drumming does for the body. Turns out it could be a great form of exercise. 总之,他们的鼓手,Clem Burke,一直在与科学家研究打鼓对身体的好处。事实明这可能会是一种很棒的健身形式。Y: I can see that. Youre using both arms and legs at the same time, and if youre playing a fast song, that really takes a lot of energy. 我知道。你要同时动用双臂和双腿,而且如果你在演奏快歌,那确实是要耗很大能量的。D: Exactly. And its more fun than running on a tmill like a hamster on a wheel. 的确。但那会比在跑步机上跑步有意思,后者就像是绕着转轮跑的仓鼠。Y: So are we going to see drumming fitness centers in the near future? 所以在不久的将来我们会看到击鼓健身俱乐部吗?D: Maybe. Theres still more research to be done on drumming as exercise. But drumming could very well emerge as a new fitness trend. 也许吧。但还需要做些深入研究。但是打鼓很可能成为一个新的健身趋势。201308/251325

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