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2019年07月18日 09:17:16 | 作者:好乐园 | 来源:新华社
Science and technology科学技术Psychology心理Tall, dark and stable Wobbly furniture leads to a desire for emotional stability摇摇晃晃的家具让人在情绪上追求稳定CLEARLY, a person’s decisions are determined by circumstances.显然,任何人在做决策的时候都受决策时的周遭环境所影响。Just how closely they are determined, however, has only recently become apparent.但具体来说会造成多大的影响直到最近才有了一个较为清晰的解释。Experiments conducted over the past few years have revealed that giving someone an icy drink at a party leads him to believe he is getting the cold shoulder from fellow guests, that handing over a warm drink gives people a sense of warmth from others,在过去几年进行的一系列实验中,有一个实验发现在聚会中,给客人提供冷饮会让他有不受旁边人待见的感觉倾向,相反,提供温水等有温度的饮料会让他们感觉到周围人的温暖。and—most astonishingly—that putting potential voters in chairs which lean slightly to the left causes them to become more agreeable towards policies associated with the left of the political spectrum.最让人惊奇的是,在另外一个关于潜在选民的实验中,让一个没有立场的潜在选民,坐在椅子上并微微向左边靠,他会更加认同与左派相似的政治立场。The latest of these studies also looks at the effect of furniture.这一系列实验最近将他们的目标转向了家具,研究家具对人的影响。It suggests that something as trivial as the stability of chairs and tables has an effect on perceptions and desires.他们假设许多不被人注意到的细节例如桌椅的稳定性会影响到人们对于其他事物的看法和愿望。The study was conducted by David Kille, Amanda Forest and Joanne Wood at the University of Waterloo, in Canada, and will be published soon in Psychological Science.这份研究是由David Kille,Amanda Forest以及滑铁卢大学的Joanne Wood一同完成的,即将在《心理科学》杂志上发表。Mr Kille and his collaborators asked half of their volunteers to sit in a slightly wobbly chair next to a slightly wobbly table while engaged in the task assigned.在实验中,他们选取了47个处于单身的大学本科生,将他们分为两组,一半学生在实验中坐在一张会摇晃的桌子旁一张会摇的椅子上,The others were asked to sit in chairs next to tables that looked physically identical, but were not wobbly.另外一半则是坐在外表相似却非常稳的椅子上。Once in their chairs, participants were asked to judge the stability of the relationships of four celebrity couples:研究人员给两组学生展示四组夫妇的照片:Barack and Michelle Obama, David and Victoria Beckham, Jay-Z and Beyoncé, and Johnny Depp and Vanessa Paradis.奥巴马和米歇尔,维多利亚和贝克汉姆,Jay-Z和碧昂斯,强尼戴普和vanessa paradis,They did this by rating how likely they thought it was, on a scale of one to seven, that a couple would break up in the next five years.然后让学生们给四对夫妇的情感稳定性打分—从一分到七分,他们未来五年离婚/分手的几率,A score of one meant extremely unlikely to dissolve.一分代表几乎不可能分开,A score of seven meant extremely likely to dissolve.七分代表十分可能分手。After they had done this, they were asked to rate their preferences for various traits in a potential romantic partner.接下来,调查者让两组学生分别对一系列理想配偶的特征进行打分—量表上给出一系列特征,Traits on offer included some which a pilot study indicated people associate with a sense of psychological stability, some that are associated with psychological instability and some with no real relevance to instability or stability.依旧是一分到七分,一分代表一点也不喜欢这样子的七分代表大爱。量表上设置的特征,有些与追求稳定相关联,有些与追求不稳定相关联,有一些是随机挑选的特质,三类特征交错放置。Participants rated the various traits on another one-to-seven scale, with one indicating not at all desirable and seven meaning extremely desirable.其中关于追求稳定的一些特质包括是否值得信赖,是否可靠。而追求不稳定的特质包括是否自发性强,或是具有探险精神。The results reveal that just as cold drinks lead to perceptions of social conditions being cold, tinkering with feelings of physical stability leads to perceptions of social instability.调查结果就像之前那个聚会不要请人喝冷饮的调查一样,在身体感受到不稳定状态的时候会使得心理上更加倾向于感受到社交中的不稳定因子。Participants who sat in wobbly chairs at wobbly tables gave the celebrity couples an average stability score of 3.2 while those whose furniture did not wobble gave them 2.5.摇椅上的人给那四对夫妇打得分数是3.2,比另外一组高出0.7,越高分数代表越可能分开。What was particularly intriguing, though, was that those sitting at wonky furniture not only saw instability in the relationships of others but also said that they valued stability in their own relationships more highly.最有趣的还不是这里,最有趣的是这些坐在摇晃家具上的人不仅更倾向于看见他人关系中不稳定的因素,也倾向于更加重视追求自己与他人关系中的稳定因子。They gave stability-promoting traits in potential romantic partners an average desirability score of 5.0, whereas those whose tables and chairs were stable gave these same traits a score of 4.5.他们在后一个实验中对理想配偶的稳定特质重视程度的打分平均是5.0,比另外一组高出0.5,The difference is not huge, but it is statistically significant.虽然数字上的差异不是很大,但是就数据分析来说,已经很能说明问题了。Even a small amount of environmental wobbliness seems to promote a desire for an emotional rock to cling to.即使只是环境中存在一点点的不稳定因素似乎都会让人们产生赶快抓住一根感情稻草的冲动。 /201402/277473Ivy League grade inflation常春藤联盟分数贬值Grade expectations分数期望An “A” is not what it used to beA等分数今非昔比,光芒褪色“WE DO not release statistics on grade-point averages so we cant speak to the accuracy of the information you have.” That was a flack for Yale, but other Ivy League colleges—with the partial exception of Princeton—were equally reluctant to discuss their grading practices with The Economist.“我们并不发布有关平均绩点的统计数据因此无法回应你所持有的信息的准确性。”这是耶鲁大学的宣传手段,但是其他的常春藤联盟高校,除了普林斯顿大学之外,都不愿与《经济学人》讨论他们的打分详情。Are they trying to hide something? Perhaps. Stuart Rojstaczer, a critic of grade inflation, has estimated average grades over time by combining dozens of unofficial and official sources. The results are startling (see chart). In 1950, Mr Rojstaczer estimates, Harvards average grade was a C-plus. An article from 2013 in the Harvard Crimson, a student newspaper, revealed that the median grade had soared to A-minus: the most commonly awarded grade is an A. The students may be much cleverer than before: the Ivies are no longer gentlemens clubs for rich knuckleheads. But most probably, their marks mean less.他们是不是试图逃避什么?也许是吧!斯科特·罗伊斯塔柴尔这个对分数贬值进行批判的学者通过综合各种非官方和官方资源估计了平均分。结果令人震惊。1950年,罗伊斯塔柴尔估计哈佛的平均分是C+。来自《哈佛深红报》学生报纸的一篇文章透露该校的平均成绩已经遽升至A-;最常见的打分是A。或许现在的学生要比从前的聪明很多,常春藤联盟高校不再是富裕的笨孩子的绅士俱乐部。但更可能的是,他们的分数的含金量不如从前高。Universities pump up grades because many students like it. Administrators claim that tough grading leads to rivalry and stress for students. But if that is true, why have grades at all? Brilliant students complain that, thanks to grade inflation, little distinguishes them from their so-so classmates. Employers agree. When so many students get As, it is hard to figure out who is clever and who is not.高校提高分数是因为许多学生喜欢高分数。管理者声称严格的打分制会激化学生们的竞争意识会增加他们的压力。但是倘若这一假设属实,那我们干嘛还要分数?成绩优异的学生抱怨感谢分数贬值,他们不再能够在那些资质平平的学生中脱颖而出。招聘方也同意这种说法。当所有的学生都拿A时,实在是难以区分谁更聪明。 /201409/327772Science and technology科学技术A novel coronavirus一种新型的冠状病毒Fingers crossed祈求好运A new virus worries a twitchy world一个新病毒令焦躁的世界惶惶不安MOST of the time, for most people, respiratory diseases such as influenza and the common cold are little more than a snotty inconvenience.对于大多数人来说,诸如流感和普通感冒这样的呼吸系统疾病在大多数时候带给他们的不便不过是不时流出来的鼻涕罢了。Occasionally, though, the viruses that cause them mutate into something truly nasty.不过引起这些疾病的病毒偶尔也会变异成异常凶险的东西。The Spanish flu of 1918 may have killed more people than the first world war.死于1918年西班牙流感的人数可能比死于第一次世界大战的人数还要多。More recently, there have been worries about Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 and a strain of flu known as H5N1 in 2008, though neither created the pandemic researchers feared they might.近几年,人们曾经担心过2003爆发的严重急性呼吸综合症和2008年爆发的H5N1流感,不过最终两者都未发展为研究人员担心的大规模流行疾病。Now such viruses are in the news again.现在新闻里又出现了此类病毒的报道。Over the past few months two men have been ill with a previously unrecorded type.在过去的几个月中,已有两名男子因未曾记录过的病毒类型而致病。One, in Saudi Arabia, has died.其中,在沙特阿拉伯的一名病人已死亡。The other, who had recently been there, is seriously ill in a London hospital.另一名病人此前刚去过那里,现正在一家伦敦医院,情况危重。According to the World Health Organisation, the culprit is a sort of coronavirus, the same family as the bug that causes SARS.根据世界卫生组织的消息,罪魁祸首是一种冠状病毒,与造成SARS的病毒属于同一类。Having had close calls with both SARS and H5N1, the world is watching and waiting to see if this new virus possesses the combination of infectiousness and lethality that made those two diseases such a worry.在侥幸逃过SARS和H5N1后,全世界正在密切注视着这种新病毒是否结合了之前两种病毒的高传染性和致命性,正是这两种特性使得这两个疾病令人们担心不已。With a sample size that so far stands at just two, it is hard to know much for certain, although the new bug seems to cause rapid kidney failure in those it infects.由于迄今为止样本量只有2例,所知有限,虽然已有据表面这种新的传染病似乎会让其感染者的肾脏快速衰竭。The WHO is looking for other cases, but for now most bug-watchers seem cautiously relaxed.WHO正在寻找其他病例,但至少现在大多数的病毒专家似乎持谨慎乐观态度。Indeed, it may be that its discovery shows how well the worlds health-monitoring system is working.事实上,该病毒被世人发现可能正说明了世界健康监视系统正运转正常。Andrew Easton, a virologist at the University of Warwick, reckons the new bug may have come to doctors attention only because of the surveillance systems set up in the wake of SARS and H5N1.Warwick大学的病毒专家Andrew Easton估计这种新病毒能吸引医生的注意正是因为在SARS和H5N1后建立起来的监视系统。 /201402/275159

The portraits of Edouard Manet爱德华·马内的肖像画Bold and strange勇辟蹊径,立异标新He worked to imbue his paintings with life as no photograph could马内画笔下的人物生动形象,照片难以匹敌THREE portraits share a wall. In one a dark-eyed, forthright beauty stares at the viewer; another features a scarlet-lipped, tormented woman ringed by an inky sea of grief. The final image is of a wary creature with a pert nose who shivers in her furs. Each is so different in mood and technique that it is remarkable that they were all painted by Edouard Manet between 1868 and 1874. More remarkable still, the sitters are the same woman: Berthe Morisot, a fellow painter. These paintings and others make a show of Manets portraits at the Royal Academy in London one not to be missed.面墙,三幅肖像画。第一幅,一位黑眼睛美人凝视前方,神情真挚,仿佛盯着观众;另一幅中,一位女子唇如烈焰,神情痛苦,四周弥漫着浓浓的悲伤。最后一幅,画中人鼻子小巧笔挺,一副小心谨慎的样子,在皮草里瑟瑟发抖。这三幅作品的基调与技巧迥然相异,却都是爱德华·马内在1868年至1874年间所创作的,实在了不起。更厉害的是,画中的模特儿是同一位女子:马内的同行—画家贝尔特·莫里索。这三幅画还有其他一些作品正在伦敦皇家艺术院的一个马内肖像画展览中展出,实在不容错过。On view are some 50 paintings and works on paper. Inspired by the dramatic masterpieces of Francisco Goya and Diego Velázquez (all those luscious blacks), and Frans Halss genius for portraying people with a gusto for life, these works trace Manets influences and his efforts to master a vision of his own. Grouped by theme, the portraits are spotlit against dark walls as if each was a jewel. Many are, though the curators could have exercised more discretion. A stronger show would have been a smaller one; arranged chronologically, it could have revealed more about the artist.展览有大约50幅油画及素描。这些作品是马内被弗朗西斯科·戈雅、迭戈·委拉兹开斯出色的大作所感染,又受佛兰斯·哈尔斯画人物栩栩如生的本领所启发而创作的,从中可以看出马内受到哪些前辈的影响以及他为追求个人风格所做的努力。这些肖像画按主题展出,挂在黑暗的墙上用聚光灯照亮,仿佛每幅画都是一件珠宝。其中很多确实被视为珠宝,不过馆长考虑得还不够周到。如果规模小些,展览会更有感染力,如果作品按时间顺序展出,人们就可以更加了解马内。Seductive, witty and intelligent, Manet was also financially independent. Few of these portraits were commissions. His pianist wife can be seen in several glowing, affectionate works, and Manet painted some arresting portraits of his friends. The canvasses of Victorine Meurent, a professional model, radiate a sexual charge. This is as true when she is wearing a simple shirt as when she is seen naked at a picnic in the company of fashionably dressed men in his famous painting “Le dejeuner sur lherbe”. Meurent inspired haunting and unforgettable works, including Manets greatest one, “Olympia”, which is unfortunately not in this show.马内本人迷人、诙谐、睿智,经济也比较宽裕。这些肖像画往往不是受人委托而画的。好几幅色鲜艳、充满深情的作品里,都可以看见马内那位钢琴家妻子的身影,马内还为朋友们画了一些出的肖像画。有些油画画的是职业模特维多利安·莫涵,在画中她散发着一种性感的魅力。这种魅力不论莫涵只穿一件简单的衬衣,还是像马内另一幅著作《草地上的野餐》那样一丝不挂地与衣着入时的男子们野餐,你都能感受得到。莫涵激发了马内的灵感,使他画出了许多深入人心的作品,其中包括最著名的《奥林匹亚》,可惜这幅画不在本次展览中。Manet hated the thought that his paintings would be seen jammed together. Here the hanging could not be more generous; a cynic might say stretched out. One gallery is devoted to a map of Paris. “Music in the Tuileries Gardens”, a freely painted park scene from 1862, has a room to itself. This crowded vision of men in top hats and women in fashionable bonnets is not actually a portrait, but viewers can make out the figures of Manet and Charles Baudelaire, a poet. Unstaged and exuberant, his evocation of the bourgeoisie at play has been called “the first truly modern picture”. It was brutally attacked at the time.马内不喜欢自己的作品被挂得密密麻麻地展出。而这次,展览场地可谓宽敞至极,有人可能会挖苦说简直是空旷。有个展厅专门用来展览一幅巴黎地图。《杜乐丽花园中的音乐》也有一个专门的展厅,画中人山人海,男士们戴着大礼帽,女士们戴着时尚软帽。其实这幅不算肖像画,不过观众可以从中认出马内和诗人查尔斯·波德莱尔。这幅活泼随性的资产阶级玩乐图如今被尊为“第一幅真正的现代画”,但在当时却遭到猛烈抨击。The critics shredded Manet. They mocked his inconsistent style; his refusal to respect conventions. Their vicious words were like “lashes of a whip”, Manet once wrote. Yet he had contemporary champions, including Baudelaire, Stephane Mallarme, a symbolist poet, and Emile Zola, a novelist. Younger artists, such as the nascent Impressionists, also admired him. Pierre-Auguste Renoir observed that Manet was as important to them “as Cimabue or Giotto were to the Italians of the Quattrocento.” His influence continues. Rineke Dijkstra, a photographer, credits Manet with helping inspire contemporary large-format portraits.那时,人士将马内批得体无完肤。他们讥讽马内的画风前后矛盾,笑话他不尊重传统。他们的毒舌就像“鞭子的抽打”,马内曾写道。但也有一些同时代的人拥护马内,包括波德莱尔、象征主义诗人斯忒法·马拉美及小说家埃米尔·左拉。年轻一代的画家也很崇拜他,如早期的印象派画家。皮埃尔-奥古斯特·雷阿诺说,马内之于其拥护者,就如契马布埃或乔托之于十五世纪的意大利那样重要。时至今日,马内的影响力依然未减。摄影师日尼科·迪克斯特拉认为,马内是现代大幅肖像画发展的功臣。As it happens, Manets own style was in part a response to the rise of portrait photography. By the time he was in his 30s it seemed “everybody” wanted such a photograph, himself included. He understood this presented a challenge for painters, and so he set out to make his portraits “boldly strange”, argues Carol Armstrong, an art historian. This show may not be without disappointments, but it offers ample evidence of why Manet is revered.当时恰逢人物摄影兴起,马内自己的画风多少受此影响。在马内三十多岁那个年代,似乎“每个人”都想要一张自己的照片,马内也不例外。美术史家卡罗·阿姆斯特朗认为,马内深知摄影给画家带来了挑战,于是他打算创作出“大胆而新奇”的肖像画。这次展览可能会有不尽人意之处,但也能充分说明为什么马内如此备受推崇。 /201406/302916

Science and technology科学技术Marine ecology海洋生态学Welcome to the plastisphere欢迎来到塑料圈What is pollution to some is opportunity to others对有些生物是污染物的塑料对另一些生物却是机会SINCE 2008 geologists have been mulling over the idea of the Anthropocene,自2008年起,地质学家便一直在琢磨人类世这个概念。a proposed new epoch in the history of the Earth that would encompass the years in which people have had profound effects on the planets workings.人类世是新近提出的一个地球纪元,囊括了人类的改造对地球产生深刻影响的时期。Most often, discussion of the Anthropocene revolves around how atmospheric chemistry has changed since the beginning of the industrial revolution.大多时候,对人类世的探讨以工业革命开始后大气的化学性质如何变化为主。Sometimes the effects of new terrestrial ecosystems, in the form of fields, pastures and plantations, are also considered.间或还会考虑对田地,牧场及种植园等形式的新型陆地生态系统产生的影像。To date, though, how the Anthropocene has created new ecosystems in the oceans as well as on land has not been much examined.然而人类世是如何与在陆地上一样在海洋中创造新生态系统的问题迄今为止还未有深入研究。Such ecosystems are, nevertheless, emerging—as Tracy Mincer of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, in Massachusetts, and Linda Amaral-Zettler of the Marine Biological Laboratory, also in Woods Hole, describe in Environmental Science and Technology.然而正如马萨诸塞州的伍兹霍尔海洋学研究所的特雷西·明瑟以及伍兹霍尔海洋生物学实验室的琳达·阿马拉尔-赛特勒在《环境科学技术》上所说的,这类生态系统正在慢慢浮出水面。The malign effect of floating plastic debris on seabirds, turtles and other sea creatures is well known.漂浮在海洋中的碎片对于海鸟,海龟以及其它海洋生物的有害作用已经广为人知。But, as Dr Mincer and Dr Amaral-Zettler have discovered, plastic debris also provides a new habitat for organisms small enough to take advantage of it.但是,明瑟和阿马拉尔-赛特勒两位士发现,塑料碎片还为小到足以栖身其上的微生物提供了一块新的栖息地。The two researchers collected pieces of plastic from various sites in the North Atlantic.这两位研究人员在北大西洋上的多个区域搜集了许多塑料片。They then examined each using DNA analysis, and also an electron microscope, to see what was living on it.然后使用DNA分析及电子显微镜对每一块碎片进行了检测,来观查上面有什么生物。Lots of things were. Altogether, they discovered about 50 species of single-celled plant, animal and bacterial life.上面确实有很多生物,他们一共发现了大约50种单细胞植物,动物及细菌生命体。Each bit of debris was, in effect, a tiny ecosystem.实际上,每块碎片都是一个微型生态系统。As with many ecosystems, the bottom of the food chain was occupied by things that photosynthesise.与许多生态系统一样,位于生物链底层的是进行光合作用的生物,These included unicellular algae called diatoms and dinoflagellates, and photosynthetic bacteria known as cyanobacteria.包括叫做硅藻及鞭毛藻的单细胞藻类以及被称为蓝藻细菌的光合细菌。Usually, such creatures swim freely in the ocean.通常情况下,这些生物在海洋中随波逐流,They therefore have to work hard to stay near the surface, where light for photosynthesis is abundant.然而它们必须努力停留在海面附近,以获得充足的阳光进行光合作用。By hitching a ride on a piece of floating plastic, they can stay near the surface without effort.要是能搭上一块浮在水面上的塑料片,它们就能毫不费力地停留在海面附近。Where plants abound, herbivores will not be far behind.植物丰沛之地,食草动物也不会少。These, Dr Mincer and Dr Amaral-Zettler found in the form of dinoflagellates, some of which like to snack on smaller creatures to supplement their photosynthesis.明瑟和阿马拉尔·赛特勒两位士发现的食草动物的形式是鞭毛藻类,其中有些会将更小的生物当成点心,作为自己光合作用外的加餐。They also found predators on the herbivores, in the form of ciliates and predator bacteria, which feed on other bacteria.两位士还发现了以这些食草动物为食的捕食者,存在形式是纤毛虫和以其他细菌为食的捕食性细菌。Except for top predators—the type that themselves prey on predators—the two researchers thus discovered a classic web of food chains of the sort familiar from ecology text books.要不是没发现顶层捕食者-捕食其他捕食者的捕食者-两位研究人员便会发现一张那种经常在生态学教科书中见到的典型食物网。And they also, and perhaps most pertinently from the human point of view, found evidence for one other part of such a food web: the decomposers.他们还发现了这种食物网中另一个部分-分解者-的存在迹象,这或许是最为符合人类立场发现。Plastics are energy-rich substances, which is why many of them burn so ily.塑料是富含能量的物质,这正是许多塑料都极易燃烧的原因。Any organism that could unlock and use that energy would do well in the Anthropocene.所有可以将其中的能量取出食用的微生物都能在人类世中过得不错。Terrestrial bacteria and fungi which can manage this trick are aly familiar to experts in the field.该领域的专家已经对能做到这点的陆生细菌及真菌如数家珍。Dr Mincer and Dr Amaral-Zettler found evidence of them on their marine plastic, too.明瑟和阿马拉尔·赛特勒两位士也在他们的海中塑料上发现了这类微生物的迹象。They noticed many of their pieces of debris sported surface pits around two microns across.他们注意到许多自己手上的塑料片表面上都生有许多约两微米宽的凹点。Such pits are about the size of a bacterial cell.这种凹点差不多和细菌细胞一样大。Closer examination showed that some of these pits did, indeed, contain bacteria, and that in several cases these bacteria were dividing and thus, by the perverse arithmetic of biological terminology, multiplying.进一步的检测发现这些凹点中有一部分确实含有细菌,并且在一些样本中,这些细菌还在不断分裂,按照与算术上的称法相反的生物学术语来说,即正在增殖。Though the two researchers have not yet proved the bugs in the pits are actually eating the plastic, that hypothesis seems a good bet.虽然这两位研究人员还未明这些凹点中的细菌确实在以塑料为食,但这一假设似乎颇有成立的可能。And if they are, it suggests plastic pollution in the ocean may not hang around as long as has often been feared.如果这些细菌确实以塑料为食,这说明海洋中的塑料污染物有可能并不会像人们通常担忧的那样一直在海中飘来荡去。Less encouragingly, Dr Mincer and Dr Amaral-Zettler also found cholera-like bacteria in their tiny floating ecosystems.遗憾的是,明瑟和阿马拉尔-赛特勒两位士还在他们的微型漂浮生态系统里发现了类霍乱细菌。Both fish and seabirds act as vectors for cholera, so anywhere that such creatures might pick up cholera bugs is something worth keeping an eye on.鱼和海鸟都会成为霍乱的携带者,所以任何可能会让这类生物带上霍乱菌的地点都值得密切关注。The researchers paint an intriguing picture of the adaptability of nature, and provide another piece of the jigsaw that is the Anthropocene.这两位研究人员为自然适应性描绘了一幅引人入胜的图画,又在人类世的拼图上添上了一块。Conservationists intent on preserving charismatic megafauna have reason to lament the sp of plastics through the ocean.致力于保护受人喜爱的大型动物的环境保护主义者有理由为塑料在海洋散布而痛心疾首。But those interested in smaller critters have been given a whole, new sphere—the plastisphere—to study.但这些塑料却带给那些兴趣在于微型生物体的人一个全新的生态圈-塑料圈-用于研究。 /201310/259341

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