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襄阳市东风人民医院治疗扁桃体炎价格襄阳医院治疗美尼尔哪家医院最好襄阳樊城区人民中心医院看中耳炎价格 从零开始学口语 第2讲:问候(下) 相关专题:英语口语社交美语五分钟英语快餐日常口语会话120分钟 /200807/45192襄阳那个治急性鼻炎的医院

襄阳市中心医院声带小结治疗的价格Sensing weakness Rockefeller devises a daring scheme.觉察到对手的软弱 洛克菲勒想出了一个大胆的计划He#39;s going to build a steel plant.他要建立一个钢铁厂One to rival anything Andrew Carnegie has ever built.一个可以和安德鲁·卡内基的相抗衡的工厂But Carnegie knows he can#39;t let that happen.但卡内基知道他不能让这种情况发生Carnegie is determined that nobody is going to take his place.卡内基下决心不能让人抢了他的位置He#39;s going to build new plants, he#39;s going to destroy-- if Rockefeller goes into steel he#39;ll destroy him.他会建立新工厂 如果洛克菲勒胆敢进入钢铁业的话 他要干掉他Carnegie calls a meeting.卡内基召集会议Hoping to intimidate Rockefeller into staying out of the steel business.希望吓退洛克菲勒 让他断了进入钢铁业的心思But Rockefeller didn#39;t become the richest man in American history by cowering in fear.但洛克菲勒之所以成为美国历史上的首富 靠的不是胆小怕事Mr. Rockefeller.洛克菲勒先生Mr. Carnegie.卡内基先生You don#39;t want to negotiate with me.你就别跟我谈判了I am a great negotiator.我非常擅长这个I know I intimidate people.我知道别人怕我I understand that.这点我理解I get it, and I understand why, and I don#39;t want to intimidate anybody, unless they try to hurt me.我知道为什么 我也不想让别人怕我 除非别人试图伤害我Then I hurt them back.那样的话我就会伤害他 Article/201607/452003襄阳南漳县治疗腺样体肥大价格 FLASH知性英语:Keeping Our Neighborhood Fresh And Clean本作品来自英语帮帮网(www.english88.com),版权归英语帮帮网所有. /200703/10909襄樊医院哪的治耳喉科好

襄阳中西医结合医院鼻炎治疗的价格However there#39;s a problem.然而问题依旧存在It#39;s still very difficult用一种用户友好的方式to encrypt content in a user-friendly way.对信息进行加密仍然非常困难One of the best ways to protect your privacy保护隐私最好的方式之一is to use encryption,就是使用加密but encryption is so incredibly hard to use.但是加密实在是太难使用I am a technology person我本身是个技术人员and I struggle all the time想让我的加密产品运作to get my encryption products to work.还都非常困难And that#39;s the next challenge,下一个挑战developing an internet where useable encryption是为那些想要躲避大规模监控的人makes bulk surveillance,研发一个在互联网上实用的加密系统for those who want to avoid it, more difficult.使监控变得难上加难At the moment, the systems we#39;re using目前 我们正在使用的加密系统are fairly insecure in lots of ways.在很多方面都十分不安全I think the programmers out there我认为程序员have got to help build tools to make that easier.得开发一种工具使加密变得更简单If encryption is to become more commonplace,如果加密变得更普遍the pressure will likely come from the market.压力将很有可能来自于市场The result of the revelations about the National Security Agency国家安全局泄密事件的结果is that people are becoming quite paranoid.是让人们变得相当多疑重点解释:1.come from 来自; 起源于例句:Nothing but disaster would come from such a plan.此一计划除了导致失败而外将一无所获。2.struggle to do 奋斗; 挣扎例句:Science is the never-ending struggle to find truth.科学是为寻求真理而进行的永无止境的奋斗。 Article/201704/506875 So there are lands few and far between on Earth itself that are hospitable to humans by any measure,but survive we have.本来地球上可以供人类生存的土地是很少的 有些地方通过开发能成为人类可以生存的土地 但是人类还是生存下来了Our primitive ancestors, when they found their homes and livelihood endangered,当我们的祖先发现他们的居住环境变得越来越恶劣的时候they dared to make their way into unfamiliar territories in search of better opportunities.他们鼓起勇气移居到他们不熟悉的土地上去寻找更宜居的地方And as the descendants of these explorers, we have their nomadic blood coursing through our own veins.作为这些探索者的后代 我们血液中流淌着他们无畏的血统But at the same time, distracted by our b and circuses可是与此同时 我们为食物和享乐而分心and embroiled in the wars that we have waged on each other,我们被卷入战争 手足相残it seems that we have forgotten this desire to explore.似乎我们已经丢失了探索的热情We, as a species, we#39;re evolved uniquely for Earth, on Earth, and by Earth,作为人类 我们进化的方式独一无二为了地球上的物质 在地球上生存被地球进化着and so content are we with our living conditions that we have grown complacent我们对我们的居住环境和条件太满意了 以致于我们有些洋洋得意and just too busy to notice that its resources are finite, and that our Sun#39;s life is also finite.或许只是太忙了 而忽略了地球上的资源是有限的 太阳的生命时长也是有限的While Mars and all the movies made in its name have reinvigorated the ethos for space travel,当出现火星本身和所有以它为主题的电影的时候这重新燃起了人类对于探索星际旅行的灵魂few of us seem to truly realize that our species#39; fragile constitution is woefully unprepared for long duration journeys into space.我们当中有很少一部分人意识到我们人类体质弱小的可怜 这无法撑我们做长时间的星际旅行Let us take a trek to your local national forest for a quick reality check.让我们到附近的国家森林公园中走一走来看一下真实的情况So just a quick show of hands here: how many of you think you would be able to survive in this lush wilderness for a few days?那么我先来问几个问题 多少人觉得自己可以在这样长满树木的荒野生存几天Well, that#39;s a lot of you. How about a few weeks?哇 很多人这么有自信 那几周呢That#39;s a decent amount. How about a few months?还是有不少人嘛 那几个月呢That#39;s pretty good too.还不错 有很多人Now, let us imagine that this local national forest experiences an eternal winter.那么 现在让我们再来想象一下我们在这个国家森林公园里经历着漫长的冬季Same questions: how many of you think you would be able to survive for a few days?同样的问题 多少人觉得自己可以在这样的环境下生存上几天That#39;s quite a lot. How about a few weeks?还是有不少人嘛 那么几周呢So for a fun twist, let us imagine that the only source of water available is trapped as frozen blocks miles below the surface.我们做一个有趣的改变我们来想象下 在这个环境中你只能从几英里下的地下冰层中获得水资源Soil nutrients are so minimal that no vegetation can be found,土壤里几乎没有营养物质 找不到什么果蔬and of course hardly any atmosphere exists to speak of.当然大气层也就近乎不存在Such examples are only a few of the many challenges we would face on a planet like Mars.这些仅仅是我们来到像火星这样的星球上后所要面临的挑战中的几个So how do we steel ourselves for voyages whose destinations are so far removed from a tropical vacation?那么我们应当做什么去坚定自己的信心去到一个比起热带小岛差如此多的目的地呢Will we continuously ship supplies from Planet Earth?难道我们要不断的从地球上运输资源吗Build space elevators, or impossible miles of transport belts that tether your planet of choice to our home planet?建造太空升降舱 或者是难以实现的巨长的传输带连接着地球和你所选择的未来根据地?And how do we grow things like food that grew up on Earth like us?我们怎样能像在地球一样在那里种出我们的食物?But I#39;m getting ahead of myself.其实我有些超前In our species#39; journey to find a new home under a new sun,在我们寻找新太阳系下的新家的旅程中we are more likely than not going to be spending much time in the journey itself, in space, on a ship, a hermetic flying can, possibly for many generations.我们很有可能会在这个旅程花费很长的时间在太空中在向密封的飞行罐头一样的飞船里很有可能要度过几十年 几代更迭The longest continuous amount of time that any human has spent in space is in the vicinity of 12 to 14 months.人类在太空中度过的最长的时间是差不多12到14个月From astronauts#39; experiences in space,从宇航员在太空的经历we know that spending time in a microgravity environment我们了解到如果人类长时间处在微重力状态下means bone loss, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular problems,就会变得骨质疏松 肌肉萎缩 还会出现心血管疾病等问题among many other complications that range for the physiological to the psychological.还有很多其他的生理心理上的并发症And what about macrogravity, or any other variation in gravitational pull of the planet that we find ourselves on?如果我们找到的新家有着超重力和重力不均的情况 我们会怎样呢In short, our cosmic voyages will be fraught with dangers both known and unknown.简单说就是我们的星际旅行将会充满已知和未知的危险So far we#39;ve been looking to this new piece of mechanical technology目前我们已经将问题转向新的工程学发明or that great next generation robot as part of a lineup to ensure our species safe passage in space.或者是下一代新型机器人用这些来确保我们人类可以平安的度过这段旅程Wonderful as they are, I believe the time has come for us to complement these bulky electronic giants with what nature has aly invented:尽管这些想法非常棒 我还是相信我们可以用大自然已经创造出来的去补足那些笨重的机器the microbe, a single-celled organism that is itself a self-generating, self-replenishing, living machine.微生物 一个单细胞的 自生自养的活着的机器It requires fairly little to maintain, offers much flexibility in design and only asks to be carried in a single plastic tube.不需要提供给它们什么又有大范围的想象空间去设计它们并且我们只需要一个简单的塑料盒去运输它们The field of study that has enabled us to utilize the capabilities of the microbe is known as synthetic biology.更多关于这方面的知识让我们可以更好的了解微生物 更好地利用它们这个领域叫做合成生物学It comes from molecular biology, which has given us antibiotics, vaccines这个领域是微生物学的分微生物学就是那个带给我们抗生素 疫苗and better ways to observe the physiological nuances of the human body.还有更好的方式来观察人类身体的生理方面的细微差别Using the tools of synthetic biology, we can now edit the genes of nearly any organism, microscopic or not,with incredible speed and fidelity.应用合成生物学的方法我们几乎可以编辑所有生物的基因微生物或非微生物非常快速并精准Given the limitations of our man-made machines,synthetic biology will be a means for us to engineer not only our food,our fuel and our environment,相比较人造机器带来的局限性合成生物学不仅仅带给我们设计食物 燃料和环境的方法but also ourselves to compensate for our physical inadequacies and to ensure our survival in space.也包括设计我们自身让我们完善个体的不足并确保我们能在太空中生存To give you an example of how we can use synthetic biology for space exploration,让我举一个关于我们如何应用合成生物技术到探索宇宙的例子let us return to the Mars environment.让我们重新回到火星的环境中The Martian soil composition is similar to that of Hawaiian volcanic ash,with trace amounts of organic material.火星的土壤和夏威夷火山灰的组成类似它们都有微量的有机物组成Let#39;s say, hypothetically, what if martian soil could actually support plant growth without using Earth-derived nutrients?所以不如我们假设一下如果火星的土壤不需要应用地球衍生的营养物质就可以持植物生长会怎样呢?The first question we should probably ask is, how would we make our plants cold-tolerant?我们应该问的第一个问题是 我们怎么能让我们的植物忍受寒冷?Because, on average, the temperature on Mars is a very uninviting negative 60 degrees centigrade.原因是 火星上的平均温度是非常难以忍受的零下60摄氏度The next question we should ask is, how do we make our plants drought-tolerant?下一个问题是 我们怎么能让我们的植物忍受干旱?Considering that most of the water that forms as frost evaporates more quickly than I can say the word ;evaporate.;因为大多数的水都以霜的形式存在蒸发的速度甚至快过于我说出“蒸发”这个词Well, it turns out we#39;ve aly done things like this.其实 我们已经做到以上的这些要求了By borrowing genes for anti-freeze protein from fish向鱼借用了他们抗冻的基因and genes for drought tolerance from other plants like rice向水稻借用了他们抗旱的基因and then stitching them into the plants that need them,并把这些基因片段编辑到我们需要的植物上we now have plants that can tolerate most droughts and freezes.我们现在拥有了抗旱抗冻的的植物They#39;re known on Earth as GMOs, or genetically modified organisms,在地球上它们被称为GMO或转基因生物and we rely on them to feed all the mouths of human civilization.我们已经用它们来补给人类的需求Nature does stuff like this aly, without our help.大自然已经在没有我们的帮助下做出了这样的作品We have simply found more precise ways to do it.我们仅仅是找到了更好的方法去使用它们So why would we want to change the genetic makeup of plants for space?那么为什么我们要为了探索宇宙去改变植物的基因组成呢?Well, to not do so would mean needing to engineer endless acres of land on an entirely new planet是这样的 如果我们不这样做的话我们就需要在一个新星球上建出几英亩的农田by releasing trillions of gallons of atmospheric gasses这需要上亿加仑的大气层气体and then constructing a giant glass dome to contain it all.不光如此 我们还需要一个巨大的玻璃圆顶去覆盖这片农田It#39;s an unrealistic engineering enterprise that quickly becomes a high-cost cargo transport mission.这是一个不现实的工程计划也很容易演变成高代价的运输任务One of the best ways to ensure that we will have the food supplies and the air that we need确保我们拥有足够的食物和空气供给的最佳方案之一is to bring with us organisms that have been engineered to adapt to new and harsh environments.就是带着转基因生物和我们一起去适应崭新并艰苦的环境In essence, using engineered organisms to help us terraform a planet both in the short and long term.实质上 在短期和长期中转基因生物都可以帮助我们去使一个星球地球化These organisms can then also be engineered to make medicine or fuel.转基因植物同样可以帮助我们制造药品和燃料So we can use synthetic biology to bring highly engineered plants with us, but what else can we do?所以我们可以带着高度转基因化的植物和我们一起 但是我们还能做什么呢?Well, I mentioned earlier that we, as a species, were evolved uniquely for planet Earth.我已经在之前的演讲中提到了人类 作为一个族群在地球上一种奇特的方式进化着That fact has not changed much in the last five minutes that you were sitting here and I was standing there.这个并没有在你们坐在这里的五分钟内有什么变化吧And so, if we were to dump any of us on Mars right this minute, even given ample food, water, air and a suit,所以如果现在把我们中的任何一个人扔在火星上 然后给我们足够的食物 水 空气和一套宇航we are likely to experience very unpleasant health problems我们也可能会出现很不好的健康问题from the amount of ionizing radiation that bombards the surface of planets like Mars that have little or nonexistent atmosphere.因为在像火星这样的星球上 它们几乎没有大气层存在 我们在它们表面会遭受严重的电离辐射Unless we plan to stay holed up underground for the duration of our stay on every new planet,除非我们计划在来到每个新星球时躲在地下we must find better ways of protecting ourselves我们必须找到更好的保护自己的方法without needing to resort to wearing a suit of armor that weighs something equal to your own body weight, or needing to hide behind a wall of lead.而不是去穿一件跟你一样重的宇航或者靠躲在铅墙后面才能生存So let us appeal to nature for inspiration.所以让我们到大自然去发现灵感Among the plethora of life here on Earth,在地球上这些丰富多的生物里there#39;s a subset of organisms known as extremophiles,存在着一个小团体叫做极端微生物or lovers of extreme living conditions, if you#39;ll remember from high school biology.如果你们记得高中的生物课你应该知道他们还叫做极端环境爱好者And among these organisms is a bacterium by the name of Deinococcus radiodurans.在这些神奇的生物中还存在着耐辐射奇球菌It is known to be able to withstand cold, dehydration, vacuum, acid, and, most notably, radiation.它因其耐寒 耐旱 耐真空 耐酸而著名更重要的是 它还耐辐射While its radiation tolerance mechanisms are known, we have yet to adapt the relevant genes to mammals.尽管我们已经了解了它抗辐射的机理 但是我们还没有办法把控制这一性能的基因应用在哺乳动物身上To do so is not particularly easy.做到这一点绝非易事There are many facets that go into its radiation tolerance, and it#39;s not as simple as transferring one gene.我们真正能接触到抗辐射基因需要突破重重难关并且也不仅仅是转移一种基因But given a little bit of human ingenuity and a little bit of time, I think to do so is not very hard either.但是再付出更多的努力和时间 我认为实现这一计划也不是特别难Even if we borrow just a fraction of its ability to tolerate radiation,尽管我们只是借用他耐辐射性能中的一小部分it would be infinitely better than what we aly have, which is just the melanin in our skin.那也要比我们现在拥有的皮肤中的黑色素好很多倍Using the tools of synthetic biology, we can harness Deinococcus radiodurans#39; ability运用基因重组科技我们可以驾驭耐辐射奇球菌的耐辐射性能to thrive under otherwise very lethal doses of radiation.进而可以在拥有致命辐射的环境下生存繁衍As difficult as it is to see, homo sapiens, that is humans, evolves every day, and still continues to evolve.尽管很难发现智人 也就是现在的人类 每天都在进化并且一直持续地在进化Thousands of years of human evolution has not only given us humans like Tibetans,几千年来人类的进化不光带给我们人类who can thrive in low-oxygen conditions,像西藏人一样在低氧的条件下生存的能力but also Argentinians, who can ingest and metabolize arsenic,还有向阿根廷一样消化并新陈代谢the chemical element that can kill the average human being.砷这种对于正常人类致命的化学物质Every day, the human body evolves by accidental mutations每天 人类的身体都因为意外的变化而进化着that equally accidentally allow certain humans to persevere in dismal situations.也以同样几率让一部分人在不适宜的环境中生存下来But, and this is a big but,但是 这是一个很重要的但是such evolution requires two things that we may not always have, or be able to afford, and they are death and time.这种进化需要两种不常见的因素或者可以说是承受不起的因素那就是死亡和时间In our species#39; struggle to find our place in the universe,在我们的种族挣扎着想要在宇宙中找到一片栖息之地的过程中we may not always have the time necessary我们等不起自然进化带给我们for the natural evolution of extra functions for survival on non-Earth planets.更强大的能力 去生存在另一个星球上We#39;re living in what E.O. Wilson has termed the age of gene circumvention,我们生存在被E.O.威尔逊称为基因规避的时代during which we remedy our genetic defects like cystic fibrosis or muscular dystrophy with temporary external supplements.如今我们可以改变基因上的瑕疵比如囊胞性纤维症或肌肉萎缩症用一种暂时性外界供给But with every passing day, we approach the age of volitional evolution, a time during which we as a species一天天过去我们到达了有意识进化的时期在这个时期 我们作为一个种族will have the capacity to decide for ourselves our own genetic destiny.将拥有能力去决定我们自身的能力和先天的命运Augmenting the human body with new abilities is no longer a question of how, but of when.用新技术去操作人体的各个组成将不再是一个“怎样去做”的问题而将变成“何时去做”Using synthetic biology to change the genetic makeup of any living organisms,运用基因重组科技去改变每一个生物体的基因组成especially our own, is not without its moral and ethical quandaries.特别是针对我们人体本身不是没有道德或伦理的问题Will engineering ourselves make us less human?难道改善我们自己会让我们变得不是人类吗?But then again, what is humanity but star stuff that happens to be conscious?但是再说了 人类是什么?不过就是碰巧有自主意识的宇宙组成Where should human genius direct itself?人类的天赋又会引领人类到哪里呢?Surely it is a bit of a waste to sit back and marvel at it.只在这为一项项科技进步而惊叹但并不作出实际改变肯定是一种浪费How do we use our knowledge to protect ourselves from the external dangers and then protect ourselves from ourselves?我们该如何运用我们的知识来帮助我们躲避来自外界和人类自身的一些危害呢I pose these questions not to engender the fear of science我提出这些疑问并不是让大家生出对科学的恐惧but to bring to light the many possibilities that science has afforded and continues to afford us.却是想让更多人了解科学已经给我们带来并会持续给我们带来的更多的可能性We must coalesce as humans to discuss and embrace the solutions not only with caution but also with courage.我们应该作为人类联合起来去讨论并应用那些解决方案并不仅仅需要小心还需要勇气Mars is a destination, but it will not be our last.火星是我们的一个目的地但这并不会是我们最后一个目的地Our true final frontier is the line we must cross我们的最终的疆界将是我们跨出in deciding what we can and should make of our species#39; improbable intelligence.决定我们能做什么和如何使用我们种族无与伦比的智慧Space is cold, brutal and unforgiving.太空是冷酷的 残忍的 毫不留情的Our path to the stars will be rife with trials that will bring us to question not only who we are but where we will be going.我们通向其他星球的道路将充满考验这将带给我们新的问题The answers will lie in our choice to use or abandon the technology that we have gleaned from life itself,就在我们的选择中我们是会使用还是会放弃这项从生命本身拾起的科技and it will define us for the remainder of our term in this universe. Thank you.它也会决定我们在这宇宙中的生存期限 谢谢 Article/201706/513719襄阳第四人民医院腺样体肥大看怎么样好不好襄阳喉咙的专门医院



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