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图木舒克鼻头鼻翼缩小多少钱阿克苏市治疗胎记多少钱乌市沙依巴克区光子嫩肤价格 Finance and Economics;Free exchange;The law and the poor;财经;自由交流;法律与穷人;Courts in emerging markets are better for the poor than many assume;新兴市场国家的法院对待穷人时并不是许多人所想的那样糟糕;In December Indias cabinet approved a “right to food” bill that would give two-thirds of the population a right—supposedly enforceable in law—to cheap food. Parliament must still give its approval, but the idea is part of a trend. Indian law aly promises the right to education, health and paid work. And India is one of many countries that incorporate social and economic rights into their constitutions, and use the courts to enforce those rights. Indonesias Constitutional Court issued rulings in 2004-06 requiring the government to boost education spending. South Africas highest court obliged a reluctant president, Thabo Mbeki, to launch various anti-HIV/AIDS programmes.印度内阁去年12月通过了一项名为“食品权”的议案,将赋予该国三分之二的人口以获取廉价食品的权利。尽管该议案的最终实施还需要经过议会批准,但是其想法体现了印度国内的政策趋势。目前,印度已经通过相关法律保障人们接受教育、享有健康和参加工作的权利。另外,印度也是将社会权利和经济权利写入宪法的国家之一,并通过法院保障权利的行使。另一亚洲新兴市场国家印度尼西亚的立宪法院曾于2004年6月作出裁定,要求政府加大对教育的持力度。而在南非,最高法院曾经迫使总统姆贝基接受他曾不情愿开展的多个对抗艾滋病的项目。Using the law as an instrument of social policy might seem perverse. Until now the balance of academic opinion has been that the courts do little to help the poor. In theory, the law is not supposed to discriminate in anyones favour. In practice, the rich tend to do well in the courts because the poor cannot afford to go to law themselves (they rely on cases brought by others); because the law is said to favour property owners; and because, as Anatole France, a French novelist, sardonically put it, “The majestic equality of the laws prohibits the rich and the poor alike from sleeping under bridges, begging in the streets and stealing b.”将法律作为一种社会政策手段听起来似乎有些荒谬。到目前为止,学术界的主流看法是法院在帮助穷人方面几乎毫无建树。理论上,法律不应该区别对待不同的个人或者群体,但实际上,富人通常能在法庭上获得更有利的结果。究其原因,首先是穷人常常因为无力承担相关诉讼费用而不能主动地利用法律;其次,法律也被认为更有利于财产拥有者。法国小说家Anatole France不无讽刺地说道:“崇高的法律公平地禁止富人和穷人在桥下留宿、上街乞讨和偷窃面包。”But a new study, by Daniel Brinks of the University of Texas at Austin and Varun Gauri of the World Bank, takes issue with this view. The laws record, they argue, is mixed: pro-poor in some countries, regressive in others. But on balance it is much better for the poor than conventional wisdom suggests.但是,最近发表的一份研究报告提出了与主流看法不同的意见。报告的作者分别是来自德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校的Daniel Brinks和世界的Varun Gauri。他们认为,穷人的法律境况因国而异,某些国家的法律更有利于穷人,另一些则不然。但就整体而言,穷人的法律境遇要比传统观点认为的好许多。The authors argue there are three kinds of legal case. Some involve regulation, some obligation, some provision. Regulation cases force a government to change the rules to improve access to a basic right. Obligation cases change the behaviour of those obliged to give a rights-based service (for example, by spelling out what rights patients have to information about medical treatment). Provision cases demand some new good or service (for example, does the law require the state to give AIDS drugs to HIV-positive prisoners?). Regulation cases offer most hope for the poor, the authors reckon, because the benefits are universal. Obligation cases are least likely to help, because rulings usually affect only those who aly receive a service. With provision cases, it depends on how broad a rulings application may be.Daniel Brinks和Varun Gauri将现实中的案件分为三种类型,分别涉及法规regulation、义务obligation和条款provision。法院通过审理涉及法规的案件,迫使政府改变规定,使之更有利于基本权利的行使。涉及义务的案件则可以要求义务人提供基于权利的务(比如阐明患者对于自己所接受的哪些医疗务信息具有知情权)。涉及条款的案件则是关于提供新的商品或者务(比如法律是否规定政府必须为患有艾滋病的囚犯提供治疗药物?)。研究人员认为,涉及法规的案件对穷人帮助最大,因为这类案件的受益群体最为广泛。涉及义务的案件对穷人的帮助最小,因为这类案件的裁定通常只涉及已享有务的群体。而涉及条款的案件对穷人的帮助则取决于裁定适用的范围。The authors then look at five countries, all emerging markets but with different levels of income, different legal traditions (some common law, some civil code) and different histories of using the law for social policy. They calculate what proportion of the benefits resulting from legal judgments under rights-based laws go to the poorest 40% of the population in each country.Daniel Brinks和Varun Gauri研究时将目光集中在五个有着不同收入水平和法律体系(习惯法和民法)的新兴市场国家,这些国家利用法律为社会政策务的历史也各有千秋。他们对各个国家基于权利相关法律的裁定进行利益分析,计算其中属于最穷的40%人口的比例。India, they find, has been most successful by this measure. Its courts are the most likely to take up regulation cases which raise broad policy issues. The authors reckon Indian rulings have pushed up first-grade enrolment of girls by 10% a year, bringing 7m children into school-feeding programmes. Despite serious problems with enforcement, 84% of the benefits of relevant rulings, they think, have gone to the poorest two–fifths. South Africa also uses regulation cases extensively. Here, the poor received three-quarters of the benefits of legal rulings on health and 100% of the gains from education rulings.研究人员发现,印度在这项统计中的表现最为优异。印度法院最易于接受涉及法规的案件,这类案件通常都包含有影响广泛的社会议题。Daniel Brinks和Varun Gauri认为,印度通过制订法规将700万儿童纳入学校午餐计划,将该国女孩的基础教育入学率在一年内提高了10%。尽管实施过程依然包含着许多严重的问题,但他们认为84%的利益都分配给了最穷的40%人口。南非法院同样易于接受涉及法规的案件,根据统计,该国涉及健康政策的法律裁定使穷人获得了四分之三的利益,而与教育政策相关的裁定则为100%。Brazilian courts, unlike their Indian and South African peers, rarely consider suits with broad implications. Instead, they take on individual provision cases. But they hear so many—40,000 claims a year about providing medicines, for example—that their rulings have sweeping implications. Experts have long assumed that such rulings seldom help the poor, because the benefits are restricted to the plaintiffs, who are likely to be well-off. But the authors point out that after a string of losses in court, the government bodies that deliver subsidised medicine changed their behaviour, making the stuff more easily available. By the authors calculations, 36% of the benefits from medical cases in Brazil go to the poorest 40%—ie, they are marginally regressive.巴西的法院和印度及南非不同,它很少关心那些有着广泛含义的案件,而是对涉及特定条款的案件更感兴趣。不过,由于巴西法院一年要处理大约4万件类似关于提供药品的涉及特定条款的案件,大量涉及特定条款的案件综合在一起,还是为该国的社会政策提供了广泛的指引。长期以来,专家们都认为这类案件帮不上穷人什么忙,因为利益都属于原告,而原告通常比较富裕。但是研究报告指出,提供补助药品的政府相关机构在遭受了一系列败诉后,会改变自己的行为,为穷人获得补助药品提供更多便利。Daniel Brinks和Varun Gauri估计,巴西的医疗案件判决中36%的利益由最穷的40%人口获得,略微不利于穷人。Compared with India, Brazil and South Africa, Indonesia has had few court cases on broad social matters. Among those few are the rulings which pushed education spending up dramatically. But since state education in Indonesia tends to help the middle class most, the effect was still mildly regressive: 36% of the benefits went to the two poorest quintiles. Even that was better than in Nigeria where, the authors reckon, three-quarters of the benefits were captured by the rich. This was partly because many Nigerian cases concerned universities (one suit, for example, looked at whether people had a right to establish private ones).同印度、巴西和南非相比,印度尼西亚法院几乎不参与涉及广泛社会问题的案件,少有的例子中包括一项推动教育出大幅度提高的判决。但是,由于中产阶级在该国教育体系中受益最大,因此印度尼西亚的法律环境对穷人不太有利:36%的相关利益由最穷的40%人口获得。即便如此,印度尼西亚穷人的法律境况还是要比尼日利亚穷人好很多。在那里,富人获得了法律利益的四分之三。究其原因,部分是由于许多案例涉及大学教育(例如有一个案例是关于人们是否有权设立私立大学)。Majestic results崇高的结论So the empirical evidence is mixed. But it does not support the view that the law is an elite game, fixed to serve the interests of the rich and educated. When the authors aggregate their national studies, they conclude that 55% of the benefits that flow from the various legal decisions accrue to the poorest 40%. Such calculations are, inevitably, rough and y. Ideally, one should compare the costs and benefits of going to law with those of pursuing the same policy objectives in parliament—which is hard to measure. It is also an open question whether a “right to food”—ie, an obligation for someone else to provide it—is the best way to help the poor. A targeted cash-transfer programme, which makes welfare payments conditional on recipients actions, may work better. More broadly, it is far from clear that society as whole benefits when unelected judges mandate potentially costly social spending. That said, the study is still a revelation: courts are more majestic than decades of received wisdom have suggested.实际的研究结果喜忧参半,但是足以反驳这样一种传统观点:法律是精英们掌控的游戏,务于富人和接受过良好教育的人的利益。Daniel Brinks和Varun Gauri将各国的研究结果进行综合后发现,新兴市场国家中55%的法律利益由最穷的40%人口获得。当然,这样的计算方式不可避免地有些粗糙,更为理想的办法是对比诉诸法律和通过议会达成同样政策目标的成本、收益。然而,后者的相关成本收益很难进行衡量。另外,像“食物权”这类对其他人规定提供商品或务义务的法案,是否是帮助穷人的最好办法?这也值得深入思考的问题。或许,根据接受者行为进行有条件福利付的定向现金转移付计划效果会更好。从更广泛的意义上讲,让并非通过选举产生的法官强制要求政府采用成本高昂的社会出对社会整体来说是否有益,这一问题也没有明确的。即便如此,这项研究还是很好地说明了现实中法院的形象比长期以来人们传统思维中的更为崇高。 /201305/239561Business商业报道Multinationals in emerging markets新兴市场的跨国公司Must try harder要做的还有很多The ambitions of Western firms in emerging markets far exceed their efforts西方跨国公司在新兴市场行动滞后于雄心SPEAK to the boss of a big, rich-world multinational company and he will soon wax lyrical about the attractions of emerging markets.假如跟发达国家跨国公司老总聊天,他肯定会大加赞赏新兴市场的魅力。Even recent wobbles in some of these countries have not curbed vocal enthusiasm for the BRICS and other collections of high-growth markets,即便是新兴市场近期的经济动摇状况也没有削弱跨国公司对金砖四国及其他国家高速增长的市场的夸赞和热情。whose prospects have more than offset a gloomy prognosis for the maturing, growth-starved domestic markets of the developed economies.新兴市场的繁荣不仅仅消除了发达经济体由于自身发展成熟而导致国内增长停滞从而产生的消极预期。So, with the source of future profits so clearly identified, presumably such firms are doing everything possible to succeed in emerging markets?因而,未来利润之源如此显而易见之时,大概这些跨国公司会尽一切可能在新兴市场抢占先机吧?Strangely, it seems they are not.然而奇怪的是,他们似乎并不急于行动。Or so says a new report, Playing to Win in Emerging Markets, by the Boston Consulting Group.据波士顿咨询集团的一篇名为为夺取新兴市场的新闻报道,情况确实如此。The consultancy polled over 150 executives from the world’s biggest multinational companies.该公司针对来自全球最大的跨国公司的150名经理进行调查。So far, those firms have not done badly, earning on average 28% of their revenues in emerging markets.目前,那些公司的运营状况还不错,他们在新兴市场的收益平均达到总收益的28%。Yet nearly four-fifths of them expect to gain market share, which could be trickier.然而80%的跨国公司想获得市场份额,这将会更加难以捉摸。Many multinationals base their entire senior management team at home, where they are too remote to tackle the challenges involved in conquering new territories.许多跨国公司将高级资深管理团队留在国内,这使得他们距新兴市场太过遥远,难以直面新疆域上的挑战。Those firms that have moved at least two of their top 20 executives to the new front line have outperformed their rivals by far, says G.据波士顿咨询集团消息,目前为止,在公司最顶尖的 20个高管中,那些至少派出两位到新兴市场前沿阵地的公司,其经济效益要比竞争对手好很多。Schneider Electric recently relocated several senior people, including the boss, toHong Kong.施耐德电器公司近期进行人事调动,将几名高管包括其老板安排到香港。Global firms are also finding the going increasingly tough against local competitors.跨国公司也意识到与当地的竞争对手之间的胶着越来越激烈。The domestic firm can focus better on its home market, adapt more swiftly to changing conditions and is often prepared to take more risk, says G.波士顿咨询集团称,相较而言,本地公司能更多地集中精力于国内市场,更快地适应变化了的情况并且做好了冒更多险的准备。And nowadays it can tap the global market for the same people, capital and technology deployed by multinationals and attract talented local managers.如今,本地公司也能通过跨国公司带来的人力、资本和技术开拓国际市场吸引才华横溢的本地经理人。What can multinationals do to fight back?跨国公司将如何予以反击?David Michael, one of the authors of the report, reckons they need to treat emerging economies as their new core markets,该报告的作者之一戴维?迈克尔认为他们应该将新兴市场作为新的核心市场。if necessary changing their entire business models to make themselves more nimble and entrepreneurial.如有必要,他们还要转换整个商业模式以使其更加灵活更具创造性。Why are multinational bosses not walking their emerging-market talk?为什么跨国公司的老板不践行他们有关新兴市场的言论?One risk, as discovered last year by the boss of Procter Gamble, is that by devoting too much attention to emerging markets their company will lose focus on the rich countries that still,正如保洁公司老总去年所发现的那样,拓展新兴市场有风险。倘若他们将太多的精力投入到新兴市场,他们的公司将相应地减少对富裕国家的投入,for now, provide the bulk of its profits.而后者却是跨国公司利润的主要来源。 /201309/257860乌鲁木齐医院打瘦脸针

昆玉去除黄褐斑多少钱Have you ever gone to the store just for milk, but walked out with eight sale-priced cans ofsomething youd never tasted and eight candy bars?你是否亲身经历过下面的情况:走进超市时的你只是想买一瓶牛奶,但当你离开时,手上拿着八罐你从未尝过的打折商品,以及八条糖果。How does that happen?怎么会这样呢?Brian Wansink and colleagues have studied how people make decisions in stores.伊利诺斯大学食品与商标研究所的布莱恩·万斯克士研究了人们在商场里是如何作出购买决定的。The results areinteresting not only for merchandisers hoping to increase sales, but customers trying to resistthe temptation.研究结果无论是对想提高营业额的商家,还是对想要抵抗诱惑的消费者来说都十分有趣。One way stores increase sales is that standby of merchandising, the multiple unit price.商场提升营业额的一种方法就是备用促销,即多件商品组合标价。Thatswhen a sign lists the price for several items, instead of one, say,4 cans for .该销售模式下,一个标签上会有多件商品的总价,比如说4美元4罐。Of course, youcould buy one, but its hard to resist the suggestion to buy more.你当然可以只买一罐,但你很难抵抗再多买一点的心理暗示。Wansink found that multipleunit pricing increased sales by almost a third.万斯克士发现该销售策略能使营业额提高近三分之一。Heres an even more astounding technique.还有一种更令人张口结舌的方法。When Wansink put up a sign that said,Buy Snickers Bars for your Freezer, people tended to buy one.万斯克士首先打出一条标语:为您的冰箱添置一些士力架吧!这时人们往往会买一条。Next though, he changed the sign to ,Buy 18 Snickers Bars for Your Freezer.然而接下来他将标语换成为您的冰箱添置18条士力架吧!It probably sounded ridiculous to customers too, but they tripled their purchases to three candy bars, on average.这也许对顾客而言,也荒谬不已,但顾客们的平均购买量却增加到三根。The limit sign is another trick of the numbers that increases sales, even though stores usuallyintend it to do just the opposite.而限制购买的标语则是商场增加营业额的另一个常用伎俩,尽管商家的本意是完全与之相反的。Lets say soup is marked way down, to bring in customers.比如,商场正通过大幅调低汤罐头价格以招徕顾客。The addition of a sign limiting purchase to 12 cans had a dramatic effect in Wansinks study, increasingsales by 112%!而万斯克的研究发现,一条限购12罐的标语能起到惊人的作用:使营业额激增112%!To resist the power of supermarket suggestion, write a grocery list at home, including how muchyou need.如果你想抵抗超市的心理暗示的话,最好在家中就列好购物单,包括你所需要的。At the store, remember how the numbers games work!当你在超市里时,千万记住商家们是如何玩弄数字游戏的。 /201404/283745吐鲁番市脱小腿毛多少钱 You may aly know that chocolate can be lethal to yourpet, but did you know that onions can be toxic to your catsand dogs too?也许你已经知道巧克力对宠物的杀伤力,但是你知道小猫小吃了洋葱会中毒吗?And Im not just talking about their breath.我不仅仅说的是他们的呼吸。You see all forms of onions-cooked, raw, dehydrated-containsulfurcompounds.要知道,新鲜的、脱水的、烹饪的洋葱,无一例外含有硫化物。When your pet ingests onions, thesecompounds are broken down into what are known as disulphidecompounds;宠物摄食洋葱,化合物就分解成二硫化物,红细胞膜“中毒”,形成海恩茨氏小体的突起小泡。These bubbles make the red blood cell more rigid, and weaken its outermembrane, which means not only that the cell cant flex and twist as it circulates in the body,but that it is more likely to rupture.海恩茨氏小体使红细胞僵硬,外膜受损。红细胞在体内循环,无法弯曲和扭转,更易破裂。Now, the main function of red blood cells is to circulate oxygen throughout the body.红细胞的主要功能是循环体内的氧气。Withoutenough of these, the animal becomes anemic, and–if the bone marrow isnt given enough timeto regenerate new red blood cells-it may even die.红细胞的缺失诱发动物贫血;如果骨髓没有及时更新红细胞,动物就会丧命。This also explains why the effects of oniontoxicity can take a few days to show up, and why even very small amounts of onions can stillhave a cumulative damaging effect.这也是洋葱毒性在数日后才得以显现的原因,而极少量的洋葱也能带来极大的危害。So what can you do to protect your dog or cat?那么,你如何保护宠物呢?Make sure to labels.请仔细阅读标签。For example, babyfood, which people use to entice their sick cats to eat, often contains onion powder.比如,人们用来喂生病宠物猫的婴儿食品中就常含有洋葱粉。Also, do notfeed your pet table scraps that contain onions in any shape or form.也不要喂给宠物任何含洋葱的残羹剩饭。And it is always if your cat ordog begins vomiting, acting depressed, or breathes rapidly.此外,如果你的宠物猫出现呕吐、精神沉郁、呼吁紧促等症状。Dont delay! Take them to the vet.就赶快送去兽医诊所! 201408/321413新疆生产建设兵团总医院脱毛手术多少钱

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