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Qing Dynasty清朝Rise of the Manchu满族的崛起In the early 1600s Aixinjueluo Nurhaci formed the nomadic Manchu State known as Manchuo (满洲).17世纪早期,爱新觉罗努尔哈赤建立了以游牧为生的满洲国。He united four of the Manchu Flagged Factions that and later collected power of all eight of the flagged factions.他统一了满洲四旗并掌控了八旗的所有权力。In the later periods of his reign, he moved the capital to Shenyang.在他执政的末期,他将都城迁到了沈阳。When Lindan Khan, the last grand-Khan of the Mongols, died on his way to Tibet in 1634, his son Ejei surrendered to the Manchu and gave the great seal of the Yuan Emperor to Huangtaiji.当蒙古族最后的大汗林丹汗在1634年前往西藏的路途中去世后,他的儿子额哲臣于满洲国并将元朝的国玺交给了皇太极。As a result, Huangtaiji established the new dynasty of Qing as the successor of the Yuan Dynasty in 1636.因此,皇太极于1636年建立了清朝,也就是元朝的后一任帝国。After years of civil unrest, the Ming capital Beijing was sacked by a coalition of rebel forces led by one Li Zicheng (李自成).经历了多年的国内动乱,明朝的都城北京被李自成带领的起义军洗劫一空。The Ming Dynasty officially came to an end when the last Ming Emperor committed suicide by hanging himself on a tree on the hill overlooking the Forbidden City.当明朝的最后一任皇帝在遥望着紫禁城的山头上吊自杀时,明朝正式结束了。After taking Beijing in April 1644, Li Zhicheng led an army of 60000 strong to confront Wu Sangui (吴三桂), the general commanding Ming’s 100000 strong garrison stationed at ShanhaiPass(山海关).1644年4月,李自成占领北京后带领着60000强军与吴三桂对垒,吴三桂统领着明朝100000强大的驻军驻扎在山海关。ShanhaiPass is the pivotal northeastern pass of the Great Wall of China located fiffy miles northeast of Beijing and for years its defenses were what kept the Manchus at bay and out of China.山海关是长城东北部关键的关口,它位于北京东北方50英里的地方,多年以来,它将满族人阻挡在中国之外,使他们陷入困境。Wu caught between two enemies decided to cast his lots with the Manchus and made an alliance with Dorgon, regent to the then six-year old Shunzhi, son of Huangtaiji who had passed away the year before.吴三桂被夹在两个敌人中间,最终决定将赌注下在清朝身上并与6岁顺治帝的摄政王多尔衮结成联盟,顺治帝是皇太极的儿子,皇太极于前一年驾崩。Together the two armies met Li Zhicheng’s rebel forces in battle on May 27, 1644.1644年5月27日,吴三桂与清军联军和李自成的起义军开战。Even though the rebel forces were routed, Wu’ s army was so weakened by the day’s fighting that he had no choice but to join the Manchus forces as they captured Beijing on June 6 and began their conquest of the whole of China.尽管李自成的军队已溃不成军,吴三桂的军队也因连日征战过于虚弱,无奈只得在满洲国的军队攻占了北京征了中国之后加入他们的军队。The process took another seventeen years of battling Ming loyalists, pretenders and rebels.满洲军队又花了17年与反清复明者、伪政权以及起义军作战。The last Ming pretender Prince Gui sort refuge in Burma but was turned over to a Qing expeditionary force headed by Wu Sangui who had him brought back to Yunnan province and executed in early 1662.明朝伪政权的最后一任皇帝桂王在缅甸避难,后来又被移交给了吴三桂带领的清朝远征军,吴三桂把他带回云南省,并在1622年早期将其杀害。 /201512/412268The Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period春秋战国时期The Contention of a Hundred Schools of Thought争鸣As an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China, the Hundred Schools of Thought (诸子)lasted from 770 to 222 .作为中国历史上一个文化与智慧迅速扩展的时代,诸子始于公元前770年,终于公元前222年。Known as the Golden Age of Chinese thought and the Contention of a Hundred Schools of Thought (争鸣),the period saw the rise of many different schools of thought.这个时代被誉为中国思想的黄金时期和争鸣的时期,它见了不同思想学派的兴起。Many of the great Chinese classic texts that originated during this period have had profound influences on Chinese lifestyle and social consciousness lasting to the present day.不少起源于这个时代的中国古典著作直到今日对中国人的生活方式和社会意识还有着深远的影响。The intellectual society of this era was characterized by itinerant intellectuals, who were usually employed by various state rulers as advisers on the methods of government, war, and diplomacy.这个时代的知识型社会以流动的智者为特征,这些智者被不同国家的君主任用为顾问,针对治国之道、治军之道和外交手段提出建议。Confucianism (儒家思想)is the body of thought that has arguably had the most enduring effect on Chinese life.儒家思想可能是对于国人生活最具有长远影响的本体思想。Also known as the School of the Scholars, its written legacy lies in the Confucian Classics, which later became the foundation of the traditional society.它还被称为学者学派,其文学遗产存在于儒家典籍中,这些典籍为传统社会奠定了基础。The representative of this thought is Confucius (孔子),he believed that the only effective system of government necessitated prescribed relationships for each individual: “Let the ruler be a ruler and the subject a subject.”这种思想的代表人物是孔子,他坚信政府唯一行之有效的体制必然是个体之间明确规定的关系:“君君,臣臣”。Furthermore, he contended that a king must be virtuous in order to rule property.除此之外,他主张君主以仁治国。Mencius (孟子) was a Confucian disciple who made major contributions to the sp of humanism in Confucian thought, declaring that man, by nature, was inherently good.孟子是孔子的弟子,他为儒家思想中人道的传播做出了主要贡献,宣扬“人性本善”。He argued that a ruler could not govern without the people;s tacit consent, and that the penalty for unpopular, despotic rule was the loss of the “mandate of heaven”.他认为一位君主不可能脱离人民的默许而治理国家,而不得人心的惩罚与暴虐的管理是“天命”的缺失。Another Confucian follower was Xun Zi (荀子)who preached that man is innately selfish and evil,孔子的另一位继承者是荀子,宣扬“人性本恶”,he asserted that goodness is attainable only through education and conduct befitting one;s status.他坚称教育是唯一能够获得仁善的渠道,而后天的环境会影响人的仁善。He also argued that the best form of government is one based on authoritarian control, and that ethics is irrelevant in the context of effective rule.他还认为国家治理最好的形式应建立在专治管理之上,仁义道德与有效统治的环境没有关系。Legalism (法家思想)greatly influenced the philosophical basis for the imperial form of government.法家思想深刻地影响了国家管理形式的哲学基础。During the Han Dynasty, the most practical elements of Confucianism and Legalism were taken to form a sort of synthesis, marking the creation of a new form of government that would remain largely intact until the late 19th century.在汉代,儒家思想和法家思想中最实用的元素被结合起来,创造了一种政府管理的新模式,这种模式一直被完整保留到19世纪末期。As the second most significant stream of Chinese thought, the Zhou period also saw the development of Taoism (道家思想).中国同样见了国学思想中第二主要的流派——道家思想的发展。Its formulation is often attributed to the legendary sage Lao Zi (老子)and Zhuang Zi (庄子).它由传说中的圣人老子和庄子所构建。The focus of Taoism is on the individual within the natural realm rather than the individual within society;道家思想的核心在于自然境界中的个人而不是社会中的个人。according to Taoism, the goal of life for each individual is to seek to adjust oneself and adapt to the rhythm of the natural world, to follow the Way of the universe, to live in harmony.根据道家思想,每个人的生活目标应该是调整自我来适应自然世界的节奏,顺应宇宙的模式,和谐生活。The school of Mohism (墨家思想)was founded upon the doctrine of Mozi (墨子).墨家学派是基于墨子思想而创立的。Though the school did not survive through the Qin Dynasty, Mohism was seen as a major rival of Confucianism in the period of the Hundred Schools of Thought.尽管这个学派在秦朝没有得以发展,墨家思想仍被认为是争鸣学派中儒家思想的主要竞争对手。Its philosophy rested on the idea of universal love: Mozi believed that “all men are equal before heaven”, and that mankind should seek to imitate heaven by engaging in the practice of collective love.它的理论在于“兼爱”的思想。墨子相信“人人平等”,认为人们应该通过兼爱来模仿天志。His epistemology can be regarded as primitive materialist empiricism; he believed that our cognition ought to be based on our perceptions—our sensory experiences, such as sight and hearing—instead of imagination or internal logic, elements founded on our capacity for abstraction.他的理论可以被看作是最原始的唯物主义。他相信我们的认知应该建立在我们的感觉,也就是我们的感官体验例如视觉和听觉上,而不应该建立在想象、内在联系或是以抽象概念为基础的元素上。In a word, the scene of “contention of a hundred schools of thought” brought forth in the Spring and Autumn Period 2 500 years ago and the Warring States Period over 2 200 years ago and the emergence of various schools of thought and their exponents such as Lao Zi and Confucius about 2400 years ago all occupy a very important position in the world history of philosophy.总而言之,“争鸣”的景象出现在2500年前的春秋时期和2200年前的战国时期。2400年前,诸子的出现以及他们的倡导者老子和孔子都在世界哲学史的发展过程中占据了重要地位。 /201509/397298An acid-attack survivor in India has been made a model for a fashion brand, drawing attention to the crime in the country with one of the highest rates of acid violence in the world.印度一位遭受泼酸攻击的幸存者将成为一时尚品牌的代言人,这一消息引起了全世界对这一泼酸攻击暴力犯罪率最高的地区的关注。Laxmi, who goes by one name, features in an advertising campaign for a new range of apparel from Viva N Diva in an initiative the company said is aimed at raising awareness of those who have lost their physical beauty to acid attacks.拉克西米出现在了Viva N Diva这一品牌的饰广告宣传活动当中。该公司表示,这项活动是为了提高那些因遭受泼酸攻击而失去美貌的女性的意识。A clip titled Face of Courage shows Laxmi being made up and then striding down the catwalk while smiling at the cameras, her scarred face in focus.该饰品牌拍摄了一个命名为;面对勇气;的视频短片,克拉西米面对镜头走上T台,镜头聚焦在她满是伤疤的脸部。;We had seen some pictures of other acid-attack survivors, and we thought, if we can create an opportunity for even one of them, it would be worthwhile,; said Manan Shah, managing director at Viva N Diva in Surat, in the western state of Gujarat. ;We have received a very good response and we hope other companies will follow the example.;;我们看到了一些遭受泼酸袭击的幸存者的照片,我们认为,如果我们能给哪怕其中一个人创造一个机会,这将是很有意义的。;Viva N Diva公司的总经理 Manan Shah 在古吉拉特邦西部说道,;我们收到了非常好的响应,我们希望其他公司也可以效仿。;Globally, there are as many as 1,500 recorded acid attacks every year, with more than 1,000 cases estimated to occur in India alone. However, many attacks go unreported because victims are too afraid of reprisals to come forward.据记录,全球每年共有1500人遭受泼酸攻击,其中仅在印度就有1000多人。然而,很多受害者怕遭到攻击者的报复,所以并没有曝光相关消息。Laxmi, who was 15 when she was attacked by a 32-year-old man whose advances she had spurned, has petitioned the court for a complete ban on the sale of acid. She received an International Women of Courage Award from US First Lady Michelle Obama in 2014.拉克西米15岁时,因拒绝一个32岁男人的求婚而遭受泼酸攻击,她请求法院完全禁止硫酸的销售。2014年,美国第一夫人米希尔·奥巴马授予拉克西米;国际妇女勇气奖;。 /201601/423635It was a gorgeous fall day in Dumbo, Brooklyn, and Keira Cannon was holding one of the weekend photo shoots she does with her favorite subject: her son, Princeton.在布鲁克林丹波(Dumbo)一个美丽的秋日,凯拉·坎农(Keira Cannon)正在进行周末摄影,拍摄她最喜欢的对象:儿子普林斯顿(Princeton)。Princeton wore leather pants, black-and-white checked sneakers and a black sweatshirt with an open-mouthed vampire graphic. But that wasn’t quite enough flair for his mother. So Ms. Cannon whipped out a purple faux-fur jacket — except that Princeton was, in teenager-speak, “done.”普林斯顿穿着皮裤、黑白格运动鞋和黑色运动衫,运动衫上的图案是张着大嘴的吸血鬼。不过,在坎农看来,这还不够显示她的才华。于是她拿出一件紫色人造毛皮夹克,只不过普林斯顿“已经完事了”(done,现在的青少年喜欢用这个词)。But Princeton is not a teenager. He is 5 years old. A happy-seeming little boy, he played with his scooter, balanced on the curb, twirled in endless circles but only had so much tolerance for the professional photographer whom Ms. Cannon, 38 and a pastry chef, had hired to populate his Instagram feed, Prince and the Baker, which has more than 5,600 followers.不过,普林斯顿还算不上青少年,他才5岁。他看起来兴致很高,骑着踏板车,一会儿在马路沿上保持平衡,一会儿不停地原地打转,不过他对妈妈请来的专业摄影师的容忍度只有这么大。他的妈妈坎农38岁,是个糕点大厨。她请摄影师拍照是为了让他们的Instagram账户Prince and the Baker更受欢迎,目前这个账户有5600多名粉丝。When the photographer attempted to coax him to pose for one more shot with the Brooklyn Bridge behind him, he gave her a polite, “No thanks.” It didn’t help that children were riding past him on scooters of their own, or bicycles.当摄影师试图哄他以身后的布鲁克林桥为背景再摆个姿势拍照时,他礼貌地说:“不,谢谢。”这时有几个孩子骑着踏板车或自行车从他身边经过,他更是按捺不住了。Once the half-hour shoot was over, Ms. Cannon posted multiple photos of Princeton in the outfit on the Instagram feed, tagging the Canadian online shop, the Mini Life, that had provided it, and the brands included. In return, she would get a shopping discount and keep the clothing, worth about 0.半小时的拍摄一结束,坎农就在Instagram上发布了几张普林斯顿穿那套衣的照片,并加上了提供这套装的加拿大网店Mini Life以及装品牌的标签。作为回报,她能得到店铺折扣,并保留这些原价约为350美元的衣。During busy seasons, she receives such packages weekly. Depending on the brand, Ms. Cannon will sometimes earn a payment of to 0 per post, she said, adding that L’Officiel Enfant, a showroom in Midtown, once paid her 0 for a look-book shoot.在旺季,她每周都能接到这样的活儿。坎农说,根据品牌不同,一个帖子的报酬约为50至100美元不等。她补充说,中城的装推广公司L’Officiel Enfant有一次为一幅时尚画册照片付给她250美元。Typically, Princeton is happy to be in the spotlight. “He kind of loves it,” Ms. Cannon said. “A lot of followers will actually recognize him in the street. And he’ll say, ‘How do people know me?’ or ‘People think that I’m adorable?’ I’m like, ‘Yeah, you’re totally adorable.’ He’s a sweet little guy, and it opens him up in ways because people want to talk to him about what he’s wearing and how he’s doing.”总的来说,普林斯顿很高兴站在聚光灯下。坎农说:“他挺喜欢的。很多粉丝真的能在大街上认出他来。他会问:‘他们怎么认识我呀?’或者‘他们是不是觉得我很可爱?’我会说:‘是啊,你非常可爱。’他是个可爱的小男孩,这让他更开朗,因为人们想跟他谈论他的衣和他的情况。”The entertainment industry has long been populated with (some may say built by) stage mothers like Rose Hovick, Jaid Barrymore, Teri Shields, Dina Lohan, and reigning “momager” Kris Jenner. But Instagram, which Pew Research says is the fastest growing major social network among adults in the ed States, has become an express track for parents interested in sharing and sometimes capitalizing on the visual story line of their children’s lives.业从来都不缺培养明星的妈妈(有人甚至说,业是这些妈妈们发展起来的),比如罗丝·霍维克(Rose Hovick)、雅伊德·巴里莫尔(Jaid Barrymore)、特丽·希尔兹(Teri Shields)、迪娜·洛汉(Dina Lohan),以及首屈一指的“妈咪经纪人”克里斯·詹纳(Kris Jenner)。不过,对那些喜欢分享孩子生活照片、有时从中赚钱的父母们来说,Instagram已经成为一个便利的渠道。据皮尤研究中心(Pew Research)称,在美国成年人中,Instagram是发展最快的主要社交网站。Other than a few recommendations about proper tagging, endorsement deals resulting from such activity largely lie outside the protective scope of the Federal Trade Commission, said Susan Scafidi, the academic director of the Fashion Law Institute at Fordham University.福德姆大学(Fordham University)时尚法律学院(Fashion Law Institute)的学术主管苏珊·斯卡菲迪(Susan Scafidi)说,除了几项关于恰当加标签的建议之外,这些交易大多不在联邦贸易委员会(Federal Trade Commission)的保护范围之内。“While the modeling industry isn’t perfect by any means, it is at least, at the level of children, regulated to some extent,” she said, referring to limitations on work hours and the creation of a trust fund for wages.她说:“虽然模特业本来就不完美,但是至少在儿童这个层面,还是有一些规定的。”她指的是限制工作时长,要求设立信托基金来管理报酬。Regardless of how their time and money is being handled, the amateur child models of Instagram are aly more famous on the Internet than most of your co-workers. There’s 4-year-old London Scout, with 105,000 followers; 2-year-old Millie-Belle Diamond, with 143,000; 4-year-old Michelle (154,000); Gavin (200,000); and the Mini Style Hacker (260,000). Then there’s the prince of Instagram: Alonso Mateo, with more than 600,000 followers. He recently attended the Dior show at Paris Fashion Week.不管他们的工作时间有多长,收入是怎么处理的,Instagram上的这些业余儿童模特在网上的名气比你的大部分同事还要大。比如4岁的伦敦·斯科特(London Scout)有10.5万粉丝;2岁的Millie-Belle Diamond有14.3万粉丝;4岁的米歇尔(Michelle,15.4万);加文(Gavin,20万);Mini Style Hacker(26万)。还有Instagram王子:阿隆索·马特奥(Alonso Mateo),他有60多万粉丝。前不久,他在巴黎时装周上参加了迪奥(Dior)的时装秀。Princeton’s dad, Sai Roberts, 40, a graphic designer, has more modest aspirations. “His mom and I have reviewed some of the other Instagram kids who have a lot of followers, and so there are some concerns in the sense that if it was to get out of hand, but so far it’s really been a positive experience,” he said. “I’m very proud that he’s getting exposure, and I hope he’s able to use that for his own creative flair and voice as he grows older.”普林斯顿的爸爸赛·罗伯茨(Sai Roberts)今年40岁,是一位平面设计师,他的愿望更朴实。他说:“我和他妈妈看了Instagram上有很多粉丝的小孩,担心情况会失控,不过到目前为止,我们获得的都是正面体验。有更多人认识他,我为此感到很骄傲,我希望他长大后能用他的名气发挥自己的创造性天分,表达自己的想法。”Sometimes adults are drawn to the feed: people who post comments on their own Instagram pages like “Can I be her?” or “She’s become my style inspo” or “I love the hair!!!!”有时,成人们也会被那些照片吸引,他们在自己的Instagram主页上发布这样的:“我能变成她那样吗?”“她成了我的造型灵感来源。”“我超喜欢这种发型!!!”And marketers are also taking an interest. Athena Rotolo, who owns the Mini Life website, said she was pleased with the transactions she has struck with Ms. Cannon. “She requests certain items that fit in for the style of the shoot and then I send them off to her,” Ms. Rotolo said. “So instead of me having to hire someone and pay all those fees, it’s a mutual relationship.”市场推广人员也产生了兴趣。Mini Life网站的所有者雅典娜·罗托洛(Athena Rotolo)说:她对自己和坎农之间的交易很满意,“她会要一些符合她的拍摄风格的衣,我就发给她。这样我就不用雇人,也不用花那些钱,这是一种互惠关系。”Parents have also negotiated deals with Gwyneth Paltrow’s Goop and other higher-profile companies.家长们还和格温妮丝·帕特洛(Gwyneth Paltrow)的Goop等高级装公司协商交易。On the higher end, there’s London Scout (her first and middle names) walking down a street in a couture party dress for the Instagram account Scout Fashion. Or London Scout at New York Fashion Week in a pink and navy faux fur coat, waving to a crowd of photographers.高端的一些例子包括伦敦·斯科特(London Scout,这是她的第一个名字和中名)为Instagram账户Scout Fashion拍摄的身穿高级定制派对裙走在街头的照片。或者她在纽约时装周上身穿粉色海军蓝人造毛皮外衣向摄影师们挥手的照片。“It was like she had her own little paparazzi,” said her mother, Sai De Silva, who runs the feed. London Scout is living #scoutstyle and schooling followers on how to #gettheLondonlook. And because London’s mother, 34 and a self-described social-media strategist, is as photogenic as her daughter, there are also the hashtags #mommydaughtermoments and #ScoutMomstyle.伦敦·斯科特的妈妈赛·德席尔瓦(Sai De Silva)负责发布照片。德席尔瓦说:“就好像她有自己的仔队。”伦敦·斯科特引领斯科特风尚(#scoutstyle),指导粉丝们如何打造伦敦造型(#gettheLondonlook)。德席尔瓦今年34岁,自称社交媒体策略师,她和女儿一样上镜,所以也发布关于母女时光(#mommydaughtermoments)和斯科特妈妈风尚(#ScoutMomstyle)的照片。Ms. De Silva, who lives in New York, has created a weekly calendar to manage the account. “It’s the same thing you would do with a magazine,” she said. One day she takes the photos of London, and on another she hires a professional photographer. Two to three wardrobe changes are scheduled for each outing: London going to the park or the supermarket, dressed to the nines.德席尔瓦住在纽约,每周都制订管理那个账户的日程。她说:“这跟做杂志是一样的。”有时她自己给伦敦拍照,有时请专业摄影师拍。伦敦每次出门(去公园或超市)都计划好换两到三套衣,打扮得十分完美。“That way, I have content for the week,” Ms. De Silva said. “Or if she’s in the mood to shoot a photo on my iPhone, then I’ll take a capture. But we don’t make it an issue where it’s 24-7 because it would be obnoxious and ridiculous for a 4-year-old. If my daughter isn’t happy, then there are no photos.”德席尔瓦说:“那样我就准备好了一周要发布的内容。如果她愿意让我用iPhone拍,那我就拍两张。但我们不是每时每刻都拍,因为对一个四岁小孩来说,那样太讨厌太荒谬了。如果女儿不高兴,那就不拍。”Taylen, age 2, has some 112,000 followers. “Taylen has become a brand,” said her mother, Angelica Calad, 33 and the owner and designer of POMP Kids, an online clothing business in Davie, Fla. Ms. Calad’s Instagram feed, Taylen’s Mom, is a devoted chronicle of Taylen and Aleia, Ms. Calad’s infant daughter, in high-fashion outfits. In one photo, Taylen wears a retro Esther Williams-inspired dusty rose bodysuit with ribbon shoulder straps, glitter-adorned bottoms and a bow tie. In another, Aleia wears peach merino overalls and a white-feathered chieftain headdress.两岁的泰兰(Taylen)大约有11.2万粉丝。她的妈妈安杰莉卡·卡拉德(Angelica Calad)今年33岁,是佛罗里达州戴维市的网上装公司POMP Kids的所有者和设计师。她说:“泰兰已经成为一个品牌。”卡拉德的Instagram账户Taylen’s Mom专门用来记录泰兰和刚出生的女儿埃莉娅(Aleia)身穿高级装的造型。在其中一张照片里,泰兰穿着以埃丝特·威廉姆斯(Esther Williams)为灵感的复古土灰玫瑰紧身衣裤,肩带上装饰着蝴蝶结,臀部装饰着亮片,领口有个领结。在另一张照片里,埃莉娅身穿桃色美利奴羊毛连体衣,头戴白色羽毛酋长头饰。In the course of one weekend, Ms. Calad booked back-to-back shoots for Taylen and Aleia. She said she is also in talks to develop a network television show for Taylen and is branching out into home décor. But the real get is that Taylen is headlining the holiday campaign for Kardashian Kids Kollection, a relationship that began, Ms. Calad said, when she was approached by a publicist for the Kardashian line through Instagram.有一个周末,卡拉德为泰兰和埃莉娅安排了一连串拍摄。她说,她还在协商为泰兰开设一个网络电视节目,而且在考虑扩展到家居装饰方面。不过,真正的大事件是泰兰即将成为卡戴珊孩童系列(Kardashian Kids Kollection)假日广告的主要模特。卡拉德说,卡戴珊装系列的一位公关人员通过Instagram联系她,开始了合作。Ms. Calad works with at least 100 brands and said she sometimes receives money, but sometimes not. “This is not an advertising site,” she said. “That’s the difference between my Instagram and a lot of other moms’ Instagram accounts, which is that they’ll take whatever gets sent to them. I don’t. I have a particular style for my girls. It has to be handmade or eco-friendly, with simple fabric. Anything organic.”卡拉德和至少100个品牌合作,她说她有时收钱,有时不收。她说:“这不是一个广告网站。这是我和其他很多妈妈的账户的不同之处。她们是不管别人送什么都接受。我不一样。我给女儿们设计了独特的风格。必须是手工制作的或环保的,面料要简单。一切都得是有机的。”This is a favorite word of Ms. Calad’s. The clothing her children wear is organic. The photo shoots are organic. The way her Instagram feed began is organic. But there’s no spilled ice cream and there are never ever any tears in the pictures.“有机”是卡拉德最喜欢的一个词。孩子们穿的衣是有机的。照片拍摄是有机的。Instagram账户的开设是有机的。但是在这些照片中,我们从来看不到冰激凌污点或泪水。Still, Ms. Calad insists nothing is forced. “At 2 years old, you would think the tantrums would start with photo shoots and things like that, but Taylen truly enjoys it,” she said. “A lot of the brands we work with, they see it right away: her charisma and her love for the camera.”不过,卡拉德坚称,一切都不是强迫的。她说:“你本来以为两岁的孩子一拍照就会哭闹什么的,但是泰兰真的很喜欢拍照。很多跟我们合作的品牌一下子就看出了她的魅力以及对镜头的喜爱。”Ginger Clark, a psychologist and professor of clinical education at the University of Southern California, compared parent-run Instagram feeds to the pageant world.加利福尼亚南部大学(University of Southern California)的心理学家和临床教育教授金杰·克拉克(Ginger Clark)把父母经营的Instagram账户与演艺界相提并论。“Not every kid is going to have this experience, but it runs the risk of giving the child the sense that they are a commodity in your eyes,” she said. “You have to be extra careful to make sure the messages you’re giving your child are ‘This is for fun, this is dress-up.’ But when you’re hiring your own photographer, then it becomes more commercialized.”她说:“不是所有的孩子都会有这种体验,不过它会有一种风险,孩子可能会觉得,在你眼里,他们是商品。你必须格外小心,确保给孩子传递的信息是:‘这就是为了好玩,为了把你打扮漂亮’。不过,在你雇用摄影师之后,会变得更商业化。”Patricia Greenfield is a psychology professor at the University of California at Los Angeles, director of the campus’s Children’s Digital Media Center and a co-author of an oft-cited study that found that fame was the No. 1 goal for children ages 10 to 12. “It really boils down to someone’s values and whether or not you want your child to grow up thinking of himself or herself in terms of how famous he or she is, versus having more pro-social values,” Dr. Greenfield said of cultivating Instagram stars.帕特丽夏·格林菲尔德(Patricia Greenfield)是加州大学洛杉矶分校(University of California at Los Angeles)的心理学教授,也是该校儿童数字媒体中心的主管。她是一项经常被引用的研究的联合作者。那项研究发现,对10至12岁的儿童来说,名气是头等目标。格林菲尔德提起培养Instagram明星时说:“最根本的问题是价值观,以及你是否想让孩子在成长过程从出名程度来评判自己,而不是拥有更亲社会的价值观。”Her co-author on the study, Yalda T. Uhls, a child psychologist, said children whose parents seek fame for them may grow up to be introverts or have higher-than-usual social anxiety. “The other extreme is, your child will get so used to this attention that they’ll start to crave it and they may crave it in unhealthy ways,” Dr. Uhls said.那项研究的另一位作者娅尔达·T·尤尔斯(Yalda T. Uhls)是一名儿童心理学家。她说,如果父母为孩子追求名气,孩子长大后可能会形成内向型人格或者具有高于常人的社会焦虑感,“另一种极端的可能性是,你的孩子会习惯这种关注,并渴望得到它,甚至可能通过不健康的方式追求它”。Regardless of the potential psychological effects, the mothers interviewed for this article said they feared online predators. “You never know who’s behind a profile,” said Mia St. Clair, 29, a professional photographer in Spokane, Wash. Her son Grey, 3, is at the epicenter of Grey’s Little Closet. They have over 28,000 followers.尽管存在这些潜在的心理影响,但是为本文接受采访的母亲们更担心的是网上的猎手。29岁的米娅·圣克莱尔(Mia St. Clair)是华盛顿州斯波坎市的专业摄影师。她三岁的儿子格雷(Grey)是Grey’s Little Closet的中心,这个Instagram账户有超过2.8万名粉丝。她说:“你永远不知道网上那些人是谁。”“Now that it’s so large and it’s growing, we just felt like we should just kind of shift it and not be so focused on Grey,” Ms. St. Clair said. “We don’t love the idea of him growing up and one day feeling like he has this huge following or fan base.”圣克莱尔说:“现在粉丝人数很多,而且在不断增长,我们感觉应该做些改变,不再把重点放在格雷身上。我们不想让他长大以后感觉自己拥有庞大的粉丝群。”Her husband, James St. Clair, 33, a director of media and communications at Calvary Spokane, a church, also voiced caution. “I never thought it would be this big,” he said. “I had hesitation at first, mostly because I just didn’t understand it. As I’ve learned more and seen the effects, both positive and not-so-positive, I now have the mind-set that we need to be responsible with the platform that we have.”她的丈夫詹姆斯·圣克莱尔(James St. Clair)今年33岁,是Calvary Spokane教堂的媒体和通讯主管。他也表示担心:“我从没想过会有这么多粉丝。一开始我有点疑虑,主要是因为我不能理解这种情况。后来我了解得更多,看到了正面和不太正面的影响,现在我的态度是,我们需要对自己拥有的平台负责。”Ms. Cannon, the pastry chef from Brooklyn, recently dealt with an incident in which a Facebook user posted photos of Princeton and other children without permission. A group of mothers, including Ms. Cannon, demanded that they be taken down.前不久,布鲁克林的糕点师坎农处理了一个意外事件,一名Facebook用户未经授权发布了普林斯顿等孩子的照片。这些孩子的妈妈,包括坎农,要求撤掉这些照片。But such fears have not stopped her from proceeding full steam ahead with Prince and the Baker.不过,这些恐惧没有阻止她继续全力开发Prince and the Baker这个Instagram账户。“I’m not trying to thrust him in it right away, and I’m going at his pace,” Ms. Cannon said. “But, yes, ultimately, we’re on that track of maybe television work or commercials. I think Princeton and I are on the cusp of blowing up.”坎农说:“我不想让他马上投入其中,我会跟随他的节奏。不过,是的,最终,我们将上电视或拍广告。我觉得我和普林斯顿即将绽放。” /201511/412024

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