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It is one of the most beloved and famous of all songs, belted out at countless gatherings for infant and octogenarian alike. Yet “Happy Birthday to You,” far from being as free as a piece of cake at a party, is actually considered private property.这首歌家喻户晓、备受喜爱。下至学步婴儿,上至耄耋老人,无数人的聚会上都有这首歌高声响起。不过,《祝你生日快乐》并不像派对上的蛋糕一样免费,它的版权其实属于私人。A federal lawsuit filed by a group of independent artists is trying to change that, and lawyers in the case, in a filing last week, said they had found evidence in the yellowed pages of a nearly century-old songbook that proves the song’s copyright — first issued in 1935 — is no longer valid.一群独立艺术家发起联邦诉讼,试图改变这个局面,本案原告律师们在上周提交的一份文件中声称,他们在一本近百年前的旧歌集泛黄的纸页间找到了据,明这首歌的版权已经过了保护期(1935年初次登记注册)。 A judge may rule in the case in coming weeks. If the song becomes part of the public domain, it would cost the Warner Music Group, which holds the rights, millions of dollars in lost licensing fees. It would also be a victory for those who see “Happy Birthday to You” as emblematic of the problems with copyright — a song that has long since survived anyone involved in its creation, yet is still owned by a corporation that charges for its use.接下来的几个星期里,法官将会对此案做出判决。如果这首歌属于公共版权,它目前的版权所有者华纳音乐集团将会损失数百万美元的版权许可费用。此外,还有许多人认为,《祝你生日快乐》堪称现行版权制度中各种问题的象征,这首歌所涉及的所有创作者均已作古,但它的版权却仍然属于一家大公司,使用它还要向公司缴纳费用。此案如果胜诉,对于这些人来说也不啻为一种胜利。“It is one of the few songs that you’ve heard for as long as you’ve lived, and you kind of think of it as a folk song,” said Robert Brauneis, a professor at the George Washington University Law School who in 2010 published a skeptical study of the copyright of “Happy Birthday to You.”“几乎没有什么歌能让人听一辈子,这首歌就是其中之一,你觉得它应该是属于民歌,”乔治·华盛顿大学法律学院的罗伯特·布罗奈斯(Robert Brauneis)说,2010年,他就《祝你生日快乐》的版权问题发表了一份充满怀疑的研究报告。The case also highlights the centrality of copyright claims to media businesses like the music industry, where the question of who owns the rights to a song can be worth millions of dollars. Advocates for rigorous copyright laws point out that they protect musicians as well as the companies that represent them. Still, their interpretation can rattle the industry; that was the case in March, when a jury found that Robin Thicke’s song “Blurred Lines” had copied “Got to Give It Up,” a 1977 hit by Marvin Gaye.这个案子也凸显出,对于音乐行业这样的媒体业来说,对版权的要求可谓重中之重——在音乐行业内,一首歌的版权归属价值成百上千万美元。持严密的版权法的人指出,这些法律保护音乐人的利益,也保护代表音乐人的公司的利益。但是他们的解释也会令这个行业感到不安;比如今年三月,法庭判决罗宾·西克(Robin Thicke)的歌《含糊其辞》(Blurred Lines)抄袭了马文·盖伊(Marvin Gaye)1977年的金曲《要放弃了》(Got to Give It Up)。Part of the dispute over “Happy Birthday” derives from the song’s byzantine publishing history. Its familiar melody was first published in 1893 as “Good Morning to All,” written by Mildred Hill and her sister Patty, a kindergarten teacher in Kentucky. Birthday-themed variations began to appear in the early 1900s, and soon “Happy Birthday to You” was a phenomenon, popping up in films and hundreds of thousands of singing telegrams in the 1930s.围绕着《生日快乐》的争议有部分是来自这首歌错综复杂的出版史。1893年出版了一首名为《大家早上好》(Good Morning to All)的歌,与它旋律颇为类似,创作者是米尔德里德·希尔(Mildered Hill)和她的姊——肯塔基州的幼儿园老师帕蒂(Patty)。生日快乐主题的演变版本于20世纪初出现;30年代,《祝你生日快乐》开始风靡一时,出现在许多电影里,乃至数十万“唱歌电报”中(由歌手为接收电报的人唱出电文内容,是一种礼物——译注)。Its appearance in a scene in Irving Berlin’s show “As Thousands Cheer” in 1933 led to a lawsuit, and in 1935 the copyright for “Happy Birthday to You” was registered by the Clayton F. Summy Company, the Hill sisters’ publisher. The song changed hands over the years, and Warner acquired it in 1988 when buying the song’s owner, Birchtree Ltd., as part of a publishing deal reported at the time to be worth million. According to some estimates, the song now generates about million in licensing income each year, mostly from its use in television and film.1933年,这首曲子出现在欧文·柏林(Irving Berlin)的演出里,名为《千万欢呼》(As Thousands Cheer),引发了一场法律诉讼;1935年,《祝你生日快乐》的版权被希尔姊的出版商克莱顿·F·萨米公司(Clayton F. Summy Company)注册。多年来,这首歌的版权几经易手,1988年,华纳公司买下了这首歌的所有者伯奇特里有限公司(Birchtree Ltd.),作为一项出版合约中的一部分,据当时的报道,该交易价值在250万美元。据估计,如今,《祝你生日快乐》每年为华纳公司带来200万美元的许可收益,大都来自电视和电影中的使用。Yet while the song is widely performed at private gatherings, its copyright status leads to peculiar workarounds in public settings. Chain restaurants often come up with their own songs to avoid paying licensing fees, according to Mr. Brauneis’s paper. On live television, it is not uncommon for an impromptu performance to be quickly silenced by producers.诚然,这首歌在私下场合广为使用,但它的版权状况在公共环境下却导致了各种应变之道。根据布罗奈斯的文章,(有人庆祝生日时)连锁餐厅经常播放自己的歌曲,避免为播放这首歌付费用。在电视现场节目里,如果有嘉宾即兴演唱这首歌,制作人就赶快消音,这种事屡见不鲜。Jennifer Nelson, who is making a documentary about the song and first filed the lawsuit against Warner two years ago, said that the company charged her ,500 to use the song. The case, which has been joined by other artists and seeks class-action status, is being heard in federal court in Los Angeles. Plaintiffs want the song to be declared part of the public domain, and for Warner to return licensing fees dating to at least 2009.詹妮弗·纳尔逊(Jennifer Nelson)正在为这首歌拍摄一部纪录片,两年前正是她首次起诉华纳公司,她说,公司要求她为使用这首歌付1500美元。后来其他艺术家也加入进来共同起诉,洛杉矶联邦法庭已经受理这一案件。原告们希望这首歌可以被改判为属于公共版权,华纳公司则需退还至少到2009年为止他人付的许可费用。“Our clients want to give ‘Happy Birthday to You’ back to the public, which is what Patty Hill wanted all along,” said Mark C. Rifkin, a lawyer for the plaintiffs.“我们的客户希望把《祝你生日快乐》归还给公众,这也是帕蒂·希尔一直以来的愿望,”原告的一位律师马克·C·里夫金(Mark C. Rifkin)说。Warner, which declined to comment for this article, contends in court filings that its copyright is valid. The song also generates hundreds of thousands of dollars each year for a nonprofit group, the Association for Childhood Education International.华纳公司拒绝为本文接受采访,它在法律文书中主张,自己的版权是有效的。这首歌每年亦为非营利组织“国际儿童教育协会”(Association for Childhood Education International)带来数十万美元的收入。Yet “Happy Birthday to You” has long been a prime target for critics of the laws that regulate copyright. Thanks to an extension made under the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 — which was lobbied for heavily by Hollywood — the song remains under protection through 2030.其实《祝你生日快乐》早已是版权法批评者们的主要抨击对象。由于1998年通过的桑尼·波诺版权延长期法案(Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act,规定版权的保护期限是作者有生之年加死后70年,比伯尔尼公约规定的国际惯例多20年,1923年前的出版物均属公共版权——译注),版权保护期限得以延长(好莱坞做了大量院外游说,力主通过这一法案),因此这首歌直到2030年都在版权期保护之内。“The fact that ‘Happy Birthday to You’ is still under copyright is the most symbolic example of how copyright has expanded and overreached beyond its Constitutional purpose,” said Kembrew McLeod, a communications professor at the University of Iowa who has written about the song.“《祝你生日快乐》仍在版权保护期内,这是版权法过度扩张,达到违宪地步的最典型例子,”爱荷华大学传播学教授坎姆布鲁·麦克里奥德(Kembrew McLeod)为这首歌撰文写道。Mr. Brauneis contended in his 2010 study that the song’s copyright may not have been properly renewed when its initial term expired, in 1963. But lawyers for the plaintiffs in the “Happy Birthday” suit — for whom Mr. Brauneis said he was working as an unpaid consultant — now say they have proof of deeper problems.1963年,这首歌的版权期第一次到期,布罗奈斯在他2010年的那篇文章中主张,当时就不应当将它的版权期予以延长。但《生日快乐》一案的原告律师们(布罗奈斯为他们充当免费顾问)说,他们有据,可以揭示更深层次的问题。Last week, they submitted evidence that they called “a proverbial smoking gun”: a 1922 songbook containing “Good Morning and Birthday Song,” with the birthday lyrics in the third verse. While other songs in the book are given with copyright notices, “Good Morning and Birthday Song” says only that it appears through “special permission” of the Summy Company. Under the laws of the time, an authorized publication without proper copyright notice would result in forfeiture of the copyright, according to lawyers involved in the case. Furthermore, under the 1998 law, anything published before 1923 is considered part of the public domain.上星期,他们提交了一桩据,他们称之为“众所周知的冒烟火”:那是一本1922年的歌集,里面收录了名为《早安与生日歌》(Good Morning and Birthday Song)的歌曲,第三段是生日快乐的歌词。那本书里的所有歌曲都附上了版权声明,《早安与生日歌》则是经过萨米公司的“特别许可”才得以使用的。本案律师称,根据当时的法律,正式出版物如果没有版权声明,就会导致版权被没收。根据1998年的法律,任何1923年以前出版的作品均属公共版权领域。Warner argued that while earlier versions of the birthday song may have been published, they were not authorized by the sisters themselves. Also, no copyright covered “Happy Birthday,” the label argues, until it was registered in 1935, so there was no copyright to be invalidated in 1922.华纳公司称,尽管生日歌的若干早期版本可能早早就得以发表,但它们都未经过两本人授权。此外,公司声称,没有一项版权涵盖了《祝你生日快乐》,直至这首歌于1935年正式注册,所以,不存在失效的1922年版权。Both sides have asked for summary judgment, and the judge, George H. King of ed States District Court in Los Angeles, is expected to rule soon. Judge King could deny both motions and hold a trial — raising the possibility of a strange proceeding in which all principal witnesses are long dead.双方都要求做出简易程序判决(summary judgment),期望此案法官,美国洛杉矶地区法庭的乔治·H·金(George H. King)能够速战速决。金法官也可以否决双方的要求,举行庭审——这可能会很奇怪,因为所有关键人都早已身故。As part of the evidence submission last week, the plaintiffs included a paper trail showing how they tracked down the songbook. It started with electronically scanned images from Warner of a 1927 edition of the same book, but with the publisher’s crucial permission line about “Good Morning and Birthday Song” blurred. Lawyers for the plaintiffs searched for other copies of the book and found one at the University of Pittsburgh; a 1922 edition was also located.原告上周呈送的据中包括书面文件,追溯他们是怎样查找到那本歌集。一开始,他们在华纳找到那本歌集1927年版的电子扫描图片,但关于《早安与生日歌》最关键的出版者许可那一行是模糊的。原告律师开始寻觅这本书的其他版本,最后在匹兹堡大学找到了;而且还找到了1922年的版本。In a series of emails about the 1927 edition, a Pittsburgh librarian told Mr. Rifkin that the songbook had been found in a university storage facility.在一系列关于该书1927年版的电子邮件通信里,匹兹堡的图书管理员告诉里夫金,这本歌集是在一间大学的储藏室里找到的。“Here you go,” she wrote in sending it to him. “Surely the copyright hasn’t lasted this long.”“加油吧,”她在随书附上的邮件里写道,“版权肯定持续不了这么久。” /201508/396168Is the electric car market about to have its iPhone moment?电动汽车市场是否即将迎来iPhone时刻?Elon Muskclearly thinks so. The chief executive of Tesla Motors has never been shy when it comes to bragging about the wonders of his company’s vehicles. But based on his extravagantly ambitious new production plans, he has decided that a definitive moment is at hand that could turn the global car industry on its head.埃隆#8226;马斯克(Elon Musk)显然认为是肯定的。这位特斯拉汽车(Tesla Motors)的首席执行官在夸耀其公司汽车的美妙时从来不会保守。但基于雄心勃勃的新的生产计划,他认为一个决定性的时刻即将到来,有望颠覆全球汽车产业。The Apple-like lines outside Tesla sales outlets at the end of March were a clue. That prospective customers would queue for hours to put down a ,000 deposit on a car they had not even seen — and which most of them would not be able to actually buy for more than two years — is testament to Mr Musk’s ability to whip up excitement in a way that no one has done since the late Steve Jobs.3月底,特斯拉销售门店外排起的队伍犹如苹果(Apple)门店那么长,那就是一个线索。这些潜在客户愿意排好几个小时的队,为一款他们甚至还未见到的汽车付1000美元定金(其中多数人要等上两年多才能真正买到手),这明了马斯克有本事煽动人们的兴奋心情,自史蒂夫#8226;乔布斯(Steve Jobs)去世以来,还没有别的人做得到这一点。If all those pre-orders turn into sales (a big “if”, since the deposits are refundable) Tesla will bank bn in revenues. As the company has aly taken to boasting, that will make the debut of its new Model 3 the biggest consumer product launch of all time. Even the iPhone did not get to that kind of scale until its third full year of sales.如果所有这些预购转化成销售额的话(这里存在一个大大的问号,因为定金是可以返还的),特斯拉将斩获140亿美元的营收。(鉴于该公司喜欢夸耀,)那将令新款Model 3的亮相成为史上最大的消费者产品发布。即便是iPhone也是在问世第三年才达到这种规模的。Based on this, Mr Musk has decided to go for broke. Tesla’s goal of hitting a production target of 500,000 by 2020 — nearly 10 times its 2015 deliveries — always looked a stretch. Now he plans to hit that output by 2018. And his new 2020 target? A cool 1m. At ,000, but with the sizzle of the Tesla brand and incorporating many of the features of the far more expensive Model S, Mr Musk has decided the 3 represents a breakthrough moment.基于这点,马斯克决定放手一搏。特斯拉原来的目标是到2020年实现50万辆的产量目标(那是该公司2015年发货量的近10倍),这个目标本来就看起来勉强。现在他计划到2018年就实现这一产量目标。他为2020年设定的新目标?100万辆。Model 3售价3.5万美元,借助特斯拉品牌的热度,再加上纳入了昂贵得多的Model S的很多功能,马斯克认为,Model 3代表着一个突破时刻。So what is the risk that other disrupters from the tech industry, who have also been circling the automobile world, will crash this electric car party?那么,科技行业的其他颠覆者(它们也在对汽车行业虎视眈眈)是否有可能闯入这场电动汽车派对?Mr Musk had a succinct answer, when asked about that on his company’s quarterly earnings call earlier this week: Apple and Google do not make things. They have been circling the automobile world for a while, but have yet to find a way in — though a deal with Fiat this week to make 100 self-driving minivans at least represents a toe in the door for Alphabet, Google’s parent, as it tries to put its self-driving technology on the road.在最近特斯拉的季度财报电话会议上被问及这个问题时,马斯克的回答简明扼要:苹果和谷歌(Google)不从事生产。它们觊觎汽车行业已有一段时间了,但尚未找到突破口,不过最近谷歌与菲亚特(Fiat)的协议(生产100辆无人驾驶小型货车)至少代表着谷歌母公司Alphabet已经有一只脚踏了进来,试图将其无人驾驶技术投入实用。“Making things” turns out to be a key point here. Contract manufacturers exist in the car business, but there is no global supply chain to dial up instantly, as Apple has been able to do so masterfully with its gadgets. There is not enough battery capacity in the world to support a mass electric car market. Only Mr Musk will have that — provided he can meet his own goals for Tesla’s “gigafactory”, being constructed in Nevada to support his car plans.“生产产品”是这里的关键。代工制造商在汽车行业是存在的,但没有一个现成的全球供应链,就像苹果一直能够赖以制造其产品的供应链那样。全球没有足够的电池产能来撑庞大的电动汽车市场。只有马斯克会拥有这样的产能——如果他能够实现特斯拉的“超级工厂”这个目标,该厂正在内华达修建,将为他的汽车计划提供持。Of course, Tesla itself has also yet to prove that it can handle the challenging task of scaling up production to meet the kind of demand Mr Musk dreams of. It has not even been able to hit much lower levels of production for its existing vehicles.当然,特斯拉自己还尚未明,它能够应对扩大产量的挑战,以满足马斯克梦想的那种需求。它甚至尚未达到现有车型的低得多的产量水平。Mr Musk has blamed production glitches with the X on hubris — a quality his company has never been short of. Compared to the overambitious SUV crossover vehicle, the 3 has been designed with ease of production in mind, he promises.马斯克将Model X的生产问题归咎于狂妄——他的公司的确从来不缺这种特质。他承诺,与过于雄心勃勃的SUV跨界汽车相比,Model 3在设计时就考虑到了生产方便。Even with all this, there is the not inconsequential question of demand. The electric car market has seen many false dawns, though it may finally be turning a corner. Last year sales rose above 500,000, an increase of 70 per cent.即便如此,还有一个绝非无关紧要的需求问题。尽管最终可能会打开局面,但电动汽车市场出现过多次虚假黎明。去年,电动汽车销量突破50万辆,增长70%。To imagine that Tesla can match this entire global market single-handedly by 2018 takes a giant leap of faith.想象特斯拉一家公司到2018年就能达到整个全球市场的规模,那是需要极大信心的。Mr Musk, though, has concluded that his is the only company that has a shot, and the Model 3 is the car with which to do it.然而,马斯克得出的结论是,他的公司是唯一有机会脱颖而出的电动汽车制造商,而Model 3就是取得这种突破的那款汽车。If he is right, comparisons with the iPhone will not be out of place. Like electric cars, smartphones went through many false dawns before Apple broke the market open. To produce a winning formula took a convergence of technology trends — the falling costs of processing power, increasing mobile bandwidth — along with innovations like multi-touch screens and the right packaging. The electric car industry has been waiting for a similar moment.如果他说对了,把这款汽车与iPhone相提并论并非离谱。与电动汽车一样,在苹果打开市场之前,智能手机也经历过很多虚假黎明。要拿出制胜配方,需要各种科技趋势融合:处理能力成本下滑、移动带宽扩大,以及多点触控屏等创新和正确的包装。电动汽车行业等待着类似时刻的到来。Mr Musk’s electric car dream always looked like one of the most audacious of technology bets. This week, the stakes got much higher.马斯克的电动汽车梦本来就看上去像是最冒险的科技赌注之一。最近他进一步加大了赌注。 /201605/445145China plans to launch Kuaizhou-1 solid-fuelled carrier rocket in December, a breakthrough in its commercial rocket launches.我国计划于12月发射快舟一号固体燃料运载火箭,这是我国商业火箭发射领域的一次突破。The news was announced last Wednesday at the 11th China International Aviation And Aerospace Exhibition by Lyu Xiaoge, a spokesperson for China Aerospace Science and Industry Corp.中国航天科工集团发言人吕晓戈于上周三在第十一届中国国际航空航天览会上宣布了该消息。Kuaizhou is a low-cost carrier rocket with high reliability and short preparation period.快舟火箭是一种成本低、可靠性高、准备周期短的运载火箭。It was designed to launch low-orbit satellites weighing under 300 kg.它是为发射重量在300公斤以下的低轨道卫星而设计的。The rocket is launched via a mobile launch vehicle and will primarily launch satellites to monitor natural disasters and provide disaster-relief information.快舟火箭将由一台移动发射车发射,将主要发射监测自然灾害、提供救灾信息的卫星。 /201611/477711

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