明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年09月20日 05:42:16
The story of Wei Huixiao, a highly intelligent and beautiful woman who gave up her well-paid white-collar job to serve as a military officer on China#39;s first aircraft carrier, has aroused a heated discussion among Chinese netizens.韦慧晓,一个智慧和美貌并存的女人,她放弃了高薪白领工作到中国第一艘航母上去当军官的事迹,引起了中国网友的广泛关注。Wei was born in 1977 in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. After graduating from Nanjing University, Wei served as Secretary to the Senior Vice-President and then as an executive assistant at Huawei Technologies. Her outstanding work at Huawei won her many accolades, but despite her promising career, she wanted to pursue something that would give her more spiritual fulfillment.韦慧晓于1977年出生在广西壮族自治区。从南京大学毕业后,她进入了华为科技公司,先后担任高级副总裁秘书、行政助理。她在华为出色的工作为她赢得了许多奖项。不过尽管她的职业前途一片光明,但她还是想追求更多精神上的满足。After working for four years, she enrolled at Sun Yat-sen University to obtain her master#39;s and PhD in Earth Sciences.在工作四年之后,她考取了中山大学地球科学系硕连读研究生。In the midst of her studies, Wei wrote a letter recommending herself for service on China#39;s first aircraft carrier, the Liaoning. ;This aircraft carrier is the biggest stage for Chinese naval officers. My dream is simply to be an ordinary crew member, spending my days fighting the wind and waves,; she wrote.在她还在念研究生时,韦慧晓就向中国的第一艘航母辽宁舰负责单位写了一封自荐信。她在信中写道:“航母是中国海军最大的舞台,我的梦想就是当一名普通的航母舰员,在战风斗浪中历练成长!”Wei#39;s choice surprised many people because, given her rich work experience and academic achievements, she had many opportunities. Some even told her she was crazy, to which she retorted that she knew exactly what she wanted to do and working on an aircraft carrier was it.韦慧晓的选择出乎了很多人的意料,因为鉴于她丰富的工作经验和卓越的学术成就,她有很多的选择机会。甚至有些人认为她是疯了,不过她坚称清楚自己最想要做什么,那就是在航空母舰上工作。Eventually, her wish was granted and Wei became the first female officer on the Liaoning with a PhD.最终,她实现了自己的梦想,成为了辽宁舰上第一位女士军官。 /201604/435964




  Woman Tried To Kill Herself After Meeting Her Ugly Online Lover女子因男网友太丑而多次自杀There are numerous stories of finding love and romance through the help of the internet but this time a story of failed online romance will be tackled. 通过网络寻找真爱的例子屡见不鲜,但下面这个失败案例却很糟心。A woman just attempted to kill herself not just once, but multiple times after meeting her online lover for the very first time. She was so devastated when she met her online lover for the first time. According to her mother, the lovers just met online and decided to be on a dating status, but they haven’t met until that day.有位女子见男网友第一面,只因对方太丑,尝试自杀多次。看到对方这么丑,她极度崩溃。据该女子母亲讲,她女儿和对方相遇在网上,本已打算确定恋爱关系,但之前一直没见过面。One night in a hotel in Heilongjiang province, police authorities found the online couple having arguments on the 7th floor of the hotel. The woman is obviously disappointed at her lover#39;s appearance, ran to the balcony and stood with one leg over while shouting “You cheated me!” The police attempted to calm her down but they only got to separate the two lovers. Suddenly, the woman gobbled up several sleeping pills and slashed her wrist using a broken glass. Good thing that the police were able to stop her from doing self-harm.有天晚上,黑龙江当地警方发现在一家旅馆7楼,有对情侣正在争吵。女方明显在嫌弃男方长相,只见她跑到阳台上,一条腿站在栏杆前,喊着“你骗我!”警方试图劝她冷静下来,但也只是把他们俩暂时分开。突然,该女子又吞下很多安眠药,用碎玻璃猛割自己的手腕。好在警方控制了局面,没让她做出进一步伤害自己的举动。The woman#39;s parents were apparently against their daughter meeting a man that she just met online. But they cannot do anything about it since she really fell in love and even traveled to meet her online beau, who is apparently 10 years older than her.该女子的父母明显反对女儿去见男网友。但他们无力阻止,因为女儿似乎真正爱上了对方,非要去见这位明显比自己大10多岁的男网友。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可,。 /201607/456812

  Americans seem very afraid of cancer, with good reason. Unlike other things that kill us, it often seems to come out of nowhere.美国人似乎非常惧怕癌症,而且有着充分的理由。跟其他那些杀死我们的东西不一样,癌症仿佛总是从天而降。But evidence has increasingly accumulated that cancer may be preventable, too. Unfortunately, this has inflamed as much as it has assuaged people’s fears.不过,有越来越多的据表明,癌症或许也可以预防。不幸的是,这一发现引发的恐惧,和它驱除的一样多。As a physician, I have encountered many people who believe that heart disease, which is the single biggest cause of death among Americans, is largely controllable. After all, if people ate better, were physically active and stopped smoking, then lots of them would get better. This ignores the fact that people can’t change many risk factors of heart disease like age, race and family genetics.作为一名医生,我遇到的很多人相信,美国人的单一最大死因——心脏病——在很大程度上是可控的。毕竟,如果吃得更健康,多做运动,并停止吸烟,大多数心脏病人的情况会好转。但一个事实被忽略了,人们无法改变诱发心脏病的许多风险因素,比如年龄、种族和家族基因。People don’t often seem to feel the same way about cancer. They think it’s out of their control. A study published in Science in January 2015 seemed to support that view. It tried to explain why some tissues lead to cancer more often than others. It found a strong correlation between the number of times a cell divides in the course of a lifetime and the risk of developing cancer.对于癌症,人们似乎往往并不这样看,而是认为自己无法控制它。一项于2015年1月发表在《科学》杂志(Science)上的研究,似乎为这种观点提供了撑。它试图解释,为什么相比之下,某些组织更容易发展出癌症。文中发现,细胞在一生当中的分裂次数与罹患癌症的风险之间存在很强的相关性。In other words, this study argued that the more times DNA replicates, the more often something can go wrong. Some took this to mean that cancer is much more because of “bad luck” than because of other factors that people could control.换句话说,该研究认为,DNA复制次数越多,出问题的可能性就越大。有人据此认为,带来癌症的主要是“坏运气”,远超其他一些人为可控的因素。Unfortunately, this simple explanation is not really what the study showed. Lung cells, for instance, divide quite rarely, and still account for a significant amount of cancer. Cells in the gastrointestinal tract divide all the time and account for many fewer cancers. Some cancers, like melanoma, were found to be in the group of cancers influenced more by intrinsic factors (or those we can’t control), when we clearly know that extrinsic factors, like sun exposure, are a major cause.不幸的是,这个简单的解释并非该研究真正表明的东西。举例来说,肺部细胞很少分裂,但肺癌在癌症中占有很大的比重。胃肠道的细胞时时都在分裂,那里生癌的几率却要小得多。有些癌症,比如黑色素瘤,被发现属于受内在因素影响更大的一类癌症(也就是我们无法控制的那种);与此同时我们也清楚地知道,一些外在因素,比如阳光暴晒,是它的一大诱因。Further, this study was focused more on the relative risks of cancer in one type of tissue versus another. What we really care about is how much we can reduce our own risk of cancer by changing our behavior.此外,该研究更为关注的是,一类组织与另一类组织相比,生癌的相对风险有多大。而我们真正关心的是,通过改变自己的行为,我们可以在多大程度上降低罹患癌症的风险。A more recent study published in Nature argues that there is a lot we can do. Many studies have shown that environmental risk factors and exposures contribute greatly to many cancers. Diet is related to colorectal cancer. Alcohol and tobacco are related to esophageal cancer. HPV is related to cervical cancer, and hepatitis C is related to liver cancer.发表在《自然》杂志(Nature)上的一项更为近期的研究称,我们能做的事其实很多。许多研究表明,环境风险因素及风险暴露会大大促进许多种癌症的发生。节食与大肠癌有关。酒精和烟草与食道癌有关。人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)与宫颈癌有关。丙型肝炎与肝癌有关。And you’d have to be living under a rock not to know that smoking causes lung cancer and that too much sun can lead to skin cancer.只要不是与世隔绝的人应该都知道,吸烟会导致肺癌,日晒过多可能会导致皮肤癌。Using sophisticated modeling techniques, the researchers argued that less than 30 percent of the lifetime risk of getting many common cancers was because of intrinsic risk factors, or the “bad luck.” The rest were things you can change.通过使用精密的建模技术,研究人员提出,罹患癌症的终生风险有不到30%由内在因素导致,或说“坏运气”。其他的都属于你可以改变的东西。Most recently, in JAMA Oncology, researchers sought to quantify how a healthful lifestyle might actually alter the risk of cancer. They identified four domains that are often noted to be related to disease prevention: smoking, drinking, obesity and exercise.最近,在《美国医学会期刊·肿瘤学》(JAMA Oncology)上发表的论文显示,研究者试图量化健康的生活方式可以如何实质性地改变罹患癌症的风险。他们找出了四个经常被指出与疾病预防有关的因素:抽烟、喝酒、肥胖和运动。They defined people who engaged in healthy levels of all of these activities as a “low risk” group. Then they compared their risk of getting cancer with people who weren’t in this group. They included two groups of people who have been followed and studied a long time, the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, as well as national cancer statistics.他们把在这四个方面保持健康水平的人列为“低风险”人群,然后把他们患癌症的风险与不在此列的人作比较。其中包括被追踪和研究了很长时间的两组人,即护士健康研究(Nurses’ Health Study)和医药卫生从业人员随访研究(Health Professionals Follow-up Study)的参与者,还参考了全美的癌症数据。Of the nearly 90,000 women and more than 46,000 men, 16,531 women and 11,731 men fell into the low-risk group. For each type of cancer, researchers calculated a population-attributable risk, which is the percentage of people who develop cancer who might have avoided it had they adopted low-risk behaviors.总共有将近9万名女性和逾4.6万名男性参与者,其中16531名女性和11731名男性属于低风险人群。研究人员计算了每种癌症的人群归因风险——即当初如果采取低风险行为模式,或许本可以避免患上癌症的病人的比例。About 82 percent of women and 78 percent of men who got lung cancer might have prevented it through healthy behaviors. About 29 percent of women and 20 percent of men might have prevented colon and rectal cancer. About 30 percent of both might have prevented pancreatic cancer. Breast cancer was much less preventable: 4 percent.当初如果秉承健康的生活方式,大约82%的女性肺癌病人和78%的男性肺癌病人或许可以避免患上这种疾病。大约29%的女性和20%的男性或许本可以避免罹患结直肠癌。大约30%的男性和30%的女性或许本可以避免罹患胰腺癌。原本或许可以避免患上乳腺癌的病人比例要低得多,只有4%。Over all, though, about 25 percent of cancer in women and 33 percent in men was potentially preventable. Close to half of all cancer deaths might be prevented as well.不过,总体而言,大约25%的女性癌症病人和大约33%的男性癌症病人或许本可以把癌症拒之门外。此外,所有死于癌症的人中,大约有一半或许本可以避免这种结局。No study is perfect, and this is no exception. These cohorts are overwhelmingly white and consist of health professionals, who are not necessarily like the population at large. But the checks against the national data showed that if anything, these results might be underestimating how much cancer is preventable by healthy behaviors.没有哪项研究是完美的,该研究也不例外。这些参与者均为医护专业人员,而且大多数都是白人,这和人口的整体结构有所不同。但与全国数据比对显示,如果这有什么影响的话,那就是:上述结论或许低估了通过采取健康的行为模式预防癌症的成功率。As we talk about cancer “moonshots” that will most likely cost billions of dollars and might not achieve results, it’s worth considering that — as in many cases — prevention is not only the cheapest course, but also the most effective.我们在谈论癌症“登月计划”这一极有何能耗费数十亿美元资金,但却可能一无所获的项目之际,有必要考虑一下——在许多情况下——预防不仅仅是最便宜的解决方案,而且是最有效的。Simple changes to people’s behaviors have the potential to make sure many cancers never occur. They have a side benefit of preventing health problems in many other areas, too. Investment in these efforts may not be as exciting, but it may yield greater results.人们只要改变自己的行为方式,就有可能永远把癌症拒之门外。这样做还有附带的好处:可以让其他许多领域的健康问题得到预防。对这些预防工作的投资或许没有那么令人振奋,但却可能带来更大的回报。 /201607/453317Parents of obese children should get healthy food vouchers, experts say专家称肥胖孩子的父母应该得到健康食品券Parents of the one in three primary schoolchildren who are dangerously overweight should be given ;healthy food vouchers; to encourage their offspring to eat more fruit and vegetables, public health experts have recommended.在三个有肥胖风险的小学生中,公共卫生专家建议;健康食品券;应赠送其中一个学生的父母,用来鼓励他们后代多吃水果和蔬菜。The Royal Society for Public Health (RSPH) said the move would help tackle the worsening childhood obesity crisis, which has prompted ministers to draw up a new strategy due to be published in January.皇家学会公共健康部表示,此举将有助于扭转儿童肥胖日益恶化的危机,这促使部长起草一个于1月份公布的新策略。The society wants local councils in England, which since 2013 have received a dedicated public health budget, to fund the vouchers. They would be ;provided to parents of overweight and obese children to incentivise better eating habits,; an RSPH report on childhood obesity suggests.自2013年以来英格兰地方理事会已收到一个专用的公共卫生预算,该协会希望英格兰理事会以券融资。RSPH关于儿童肥胖的报告指出,他们将;给予超重和肥胖儿童的父母健康食品券来激励更好的饮食习惯;。The RSPH is proposing the vouchers as part of an overhaul of the ;fat letter; that parents of children identified as overweight through the annual national child measurement programme (NCMP) receive in some places.作为;肥胖信;监测的一部分,RSPH会发放健康食品券,这种活动将通过每年在全国一些地方开展的儿童测量项目(NCMP)的方式进行。Such letters are meant to prompt the family of a pupil concerned to start receiving support to help tackle their child#39;s excessive weight, rather than just notifying them of their body mass index result.这些信件试图促使相关学生家庭开始接受RSPH的持,来帮助解决孩子的超重问题,而不仅仅只通知他们的体重指数结果。Shirley Cramer, the RSPH#39;s chief executive, said the society#39;s research found only one-fifth of parents found the ;fat letter; useful. ;We believe that the letter should be seen as the beginning of a dialogue with parents, not simply flagging up whether their child is obese,; Cramer said.RSPH的首席执行官雪莉·克拉默表示,该社团研究发现仅有五分之一的家长认为;肥胖信;有用。克拉默说;我们认为,这些信件应该被看做是父母对话的开始,不是简单地标记他们的孩子是否肥胖;。The healthy food vouchers would be modelled on those that pregnant women and mothers of children under four on low incomes aly receive under the Healthy Start programme. The means-tested scheme gives qualifying women one or two vouchers a week depending on how old their child is, each worth ?3.10, to use to buy healthy food or vitamins.妇和处于4岁以下儿童的低收入母亲已经率先接受此项目发放的健康的食品券。入息审查资助方案将根据孩子的大小,每周给予符合条件的女性一或两个健康食品券,每个价值3.1英镑,用于购买健康的食品或维生素。译文属 /201606/447839

  “The huge challenge of this work is to help patients feel more normal and less alone during this unusual experience of dying,” he said. “The more we can articulate that people do have vivid dreams and visions, the more we can be helpful.”“这项工作所面临的巨大挑战是,我们需要帮助患者在逐步走向死亡这种不寻常的历程中感觉更正常,减轻他们的孤独感,”他说。“人在临终时确实有着生动的梦境和幻象。这一点我们传达得越清楚,对患者的帮助就越大。”Other research suggests that dreams seem to express emotions that have been building. Tore Nielsen, a dream neuroscience researcher and director of the Dream and Nightmare Laboratory, at the University of Montreal, surmised that at the end of life, such a need becomes more insistent. Troubled dreams erupt with excessive energy. But positive dreams can serve a similar purpose.其他的一些研究表明,梦境是对累积情绪的一种表达。加拿大蒙特利尔大学(University of Montreal)梦境与梦魇研究实验室(Dream and Nightmare Laboratory)主任、梦境神经系统科学研究员托雷·尼尔森(Tore Nielsen)推测,人在走到生命尽头时,用做梦宣泄情感的需求变得越发迫切。患者通过噩梦来发泄过剩的精力。不过,积极的梦境也可以起到类似的作用。“The motivation and pressure for these dreams is coming from a place of fear and uncertainty,” he said. “The dreamers are literally helping themselves out of a tough spot.”“患者之所以会做这种梦,出自他们的恐惧和不确定,”他说。“实际上,他们是在通过做梦这种方式帮助自己走出困境。”In the weeks and days before death, the dreams of the patients in the study tended to occur with greater frequency, populated with the dead rather than the living. The researchers suggest that such phenomena might even have prognostic value.这项研究中的患者在离世前几周或几天内做梦往往更加频繁,且梦境中故去者要多于活着的人。研究人员认为,这种现象甚至可能具有一定的预测价值。“I was an aggressive physician, always asking, ‘Is there more we can do?’ ” said Dr. Kerr, who is also the chief medical officer for Hospice Buffalo. “There was a patient who I thought needed to be rehydrated, and we could buy him some time.” But, he said, a nurse, familiar with the patient’s dreams, cautioned: “‘You don’t get it. He is seeing his dead mother.’ He died two days later.”“我是一个有进取心的医生,我总是问自己:‘我们是不是还可以再做些什么?’”克尔士说道;他也是水牛城临终关怀中心的首席医疗官。“曾有一名患者,我认为他需要接受再水化治疗,这样可以让他多活些时日。”但是,一位熟悉患者梦境的护士告诫他说:“你不明白。他梦见了自己死去的母亲。”“两天后,那名患者去世了。”他说。Certainly, many dying patients cannot communicate. Or they recount typical dream detritus: a dwarf lifting the refrigerator, neighbors bringing a chicken and a monkey into the patient’s apartment. And some patients, to their disappointment, do not remember their dreams.当然,有许多垂危的患者丧失了与人交流的能力,或者他们只能回忆起梦境中的细枝末节:侏儒抬着冰箱;邻居把一只鸡和一只猴子带进患者的公寓什么的。还有患者沮丧地表示自己记不起做了什么梦。Dr. Kerr, who recently gave a talk at TEDxBuffalo about the research, said he was simply advocating that health care providers ask patients open-ended questions about dreams, without fear of recrimination from family and colleagues.克尔士最近在TEDxBuffalo就这项研究发表了演讲,他说自己只是提倡医务人员用开放式的问题来询问患者的梦境,无需担心会招致患者家属和同事的指责。“Often when we sedate them, we are sterilizing them from their own dying process,” he said. “I have done it, and it feels horrible. They’ll say, ‘You robbed me — I was with my wife.’”“我们常常会给他们使用镇静剂,使他们走得平静,”他说。“我干过这种事,感觉很糟糕。患者们会说:‘你们打扰了我——我本来正在梦中和妻子相会呢。’”While the patient was lying in bed, her mother by her side, she had a vision: She saw her mother’s best friend, Mary, who died of leukemia years ago, in her mother’s bedroom, playing with the curtains. Mary’s hair was long again. “I had a feeling she was coming to say, ‘You’re going to be O.K.’ I felt relief and happiness and I wasn’t afraid of it at all.” — Jessica Stone, 13, who had Ewing’s sarcoma, a type of bone cancer, a few months before she died.有一名患者在母亲陪在她床边的时候出现了幻象:她看到了她母亲最好的朋友,多年前死于白血病的玛丽在她母亲的卧室摆弄着窗帘。玛丽的头发又长长了。“我有一种感觉,她来是想对我说:‘没关系,一切都会好起来的。’我感到宽慰和幸福,再也不害怕了。”——身患尤文氏肉瘤(一种骨癌)的13岁女孩杰西卡·斯通(Jessica Stone)在去世几个月前讲述。Many in hospice suffer from delirium, which can affect up to 85 percent of hospitalized patients at the end of life. In a delirious state, brought on by fever, brain metastases or end-stage changes in body chemistry, circadian rhythms are severely disordered, so the patient may not know whether he is awake or dreaming. Cognition is altered.临终关怀中心的许多患者都患有谵妄(delirium),患病率在住院的临终患者中可高达85%。发热、肿瘤的脑转移或人体在垂危时的化学变化导致患者神志不清,这种状态下他们的昼夜节律严重紊乱,因此很可能搞不清楚自己究竟是醒着还是在做梦,认知功能也受到了影响。Those who care for the terminally ill are inclined to see end-of-life dreams as manifestations of delirium. But the Hospice Buffalo researchers say that while some study patients slipped in and out of delirium, their end-of-life dreams were not, by definition, the product of such a state. Delirious patients generally cannot engage with others or give a coherent, organized narrative. The hallucinations they are able to describe may be traumatizing, not comforting.照顾绝症患者的人倾向于将临终的梦境视作谵妄的表现。但水牛城临终关怀中心的研究人员表示,虽然参与研究的患者时不时地陷入谵妄,但依据定义来看,临终的梦境并非这种状态的产物。神志不清的患者一般无法与他人互动或进行连贯的、有条理的陈述。他们能描述出来的只有那些给他们带来伤害和不适的幻觉,而舒适安逸的那类则不行。Yet the question remains of what to make of these patients’ claims of “dreaming while awake,” or having “visions” — and the not-uncommon phenomena of seeing deceased relatives or friends hovering on the ceiling or in corners.然而,问题是:这些患者“做白日梦”或出现“幻象”,“看到已故亲友在天花板或角落徘徊”等这类异常现象,其根源究竟在哪里。Donna Brennan, a longtime nurse with Hospice Buffalo, recalled chatting on the couch with a 92-year-old patient with congestive heart failure. Suddenly, the patient looked over at the door and called out, “Just a minute, I’m speaking with the nurse.”唐娜·布伦南(Donna Brennan)是水牛城临终关怀中心的一名老护士了,她回忆起与一名92岁的充血性心力衰竭患者在沙发上聊天的情形:突然之间,患者朝门口看了一眼,喊道,“稍等一下,我在跟护士谈话呢。”Told that no one was there, the patient smiled, saying it was Aunt Janiece (her dead sister) and patted a couch cushion, showing “the visitor” where to sit. Then the patient cheerfully turned back to Mrs. Brennan and finished her conversation.在被告知那里没有人后,患者露出了微笑,说来者是詹妮斯阿姨(Aunt Janiece,她已故的姊姊),还拍拍沙发坐垫,示意“访客”坐下。然后乐呵呵地转回身来继续跟布伦南谈话。In her notes, Mrs. Brennan described the episode as a “hallucination,” a red flag for delirium. When the episode was recounted to Dr. Kerr and Anne Banas, a Hospice Buffalo neurologist and palliative care physician, they preferred the term “vision.”布伦南在记录中将此事称为“幻觉(hallucination)”,这是谵妄的一个警示信号。而当克尔士和水牛城临终关怀中心的神经学家、姑息治疗医生安妮·巴纳斯(Anne Banas)听到这段叙述时,他们更偏向于使用“幻象(vision)”一词。“Is there meaning to the vision or is it disorganized?” Dr. Banas asked. “If there is meaning, does that need to be explored? Does it bring comfort or is it distressing? We have a responsibility to ask that next question. It can be cathartic, and patients often need to share. And if we don’t ask, look what we may miss.”“这些幻象是别有意义还是杂乱无章?”巴纳斯士问道。“如果它们别有意义,那是否需要深入探讨?我们有责任进一步追问:它们是令人舒心还是苦恼?临终的幻象可能充满了情绪宣泄,患者通常需要有人和他们一同分担。要是我们不闻不问,我们恐怕会错过什么!”Dr. William Breitbart, chairman of the psychiatry department at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, who has written about delirium and palliative care, said that a team’s response must also consider bedside caregivers: “These dreams or visions can be interpreted by family members as comforting, linking them to the legacy of their ancestry.美国纪念斯隆-凯特琳癌症中心(Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center)的精神科主任威廉·布赖特巴特(William Breitbart)士曾经撰写过关于谵妄和姑息治疗的报告,他表示,医护团队在工作时必须将床边照护者也考虑在内:“家属们可能会将这些梦境和幻象解读为一种安慰,将它们视作与祖先相联系的纽带。“But if people don’t believe that, they can be distressed. ‘My mother is hallucinating and seeing dead people. Do something about it!’” Dr. Breitbart trains staff to respect the families’ beliefs and help them understand the complexities of delirium.“但是,如果人们不相信这些,就可能因此而苦恼。“我的母亲产生了幻觉,老是看到死去的人。快做点什么来改变这种状况!’”布赖特巴特士训练工作人员尊重家属的观念,并帮助他们了解谵妄的复杂性。Some dream episodes occur during what is known as “mixed-state sleep” — when the boundaries between wakefulness and sleep become fragmented, said Dr. Carlos H. Schenck, a psychiatrist and sleep expert at the University of Minnesota Medical School. Jessica Stone, the teenager with Ewing’s sarcoma, spoke movingly about a dream of her dead dog, Shadow. When she awoke, she said, she saw his long, dark shape alongside her bed.美国明尼苏达大学医学院(University of Minnesota Medical School)的精神病学家、睡眠专家卡洛斯·H·申克(Carlos H. Schenck)士说,某些梦发生在所谓的“混合睡眠”,也就是俗话说的半睡半醒状态下。身患尤文氏肉瘤的少女杰西卡·斯通生前曾经动情地讲述她梦见了自己死去的爱犬——影子(Shadow)。她还说,自己醒过来的时候,看到它修长的深色身影就在她的床边。Dr. Banas, the neurologist, favors the phrase end-of-life experiences. “I try to normalize it for the family, because how they perceive it can push them away from that bedside or bring them closer,” she said.神经学家巴纳斯士更喜欢称其为“临终体验”。她说:“我试着让患者的家属视其为一种正常的现象,因为他们对此的看法可以令他们与患者的关系变得疏离或者亲近。”The patient had never really talked about the war. But in his final dreams, the stories emerged. In the first, the bloody dying were everywhere. On Omaha Beach, at Normandy. In the waves. He was a 17-year-old gunner on a rescue boat, trying frantically to bring them back to the U.S.S. Texas. “There is nothing but death and dead soldiers all around me,” he said. In another, a dead soldier told him, “They are going to come get you next week.” Finally, he dreamed of getting his discharge papers, which he described as “comforting.” He died in his sleep two days later. — John, 88, who had lymphoma. 有一名患者,之前从未怎么谈及过战争。但在他生命最后的梦境中,那些故事浮出了水面。第一个梦里,他梦见到处都是血淋淋的濒死的士兵。那是诺曼底的奥马哈海滩,波涛拍岸。当年才17岁的他是救援艇上的射击手,他们拼命地想把伤员们抢救出来,送回得克萨斯号战舰(U.S.S.Texas)上。“我的周围除了死亡和死去的大兵之外,一无所有,”他说。在另一个梦里,一名死去的士兵对他说:“他们下周会来接你。”最后,他梦见自己拿到了退伍书,他说这让自己“松了一口气”。两天后,患者在睡梦中离开了人世。——他的名字是约翰(John),88岁,患有淋巴瘤。Not all end-of-life dreams soothe the dying. Researchers found that about 20 percent were upsetting. Often, those who had suffered trauma might revisit it in their dying dreams. Some can resolve those experiences. Some cannot.并非所有的临终梦境都能给濒死之人带来抚慰。研究人员发现,约20%的梦令人郁闷。通常情况下,曾经遭受过创伤的人很可能会在临终的梦境中再度体会到那些伤痛。有些人可以泰然处之,不会为之所困扰。有些人则做不到。When should doctors intervene with antipsychotic or anti-anxiety medication, to best allow the patient a peaceful death? For the Hospice Buffalo physicians, the decision is made with a team assessment that includes input from family members.医生应该在何时采用抗精神病药物或抗焦虑药物等手段进行干预,从而尽可能地令患者在平静安详中渡过人生的最后时光呢?水牛城临终关怀中心的医生们认为,这种决策应通过团队评估来达成,包括患者家属提供的信息。Dr. Kerr said: “Children will see their parents in an altered state and think they’re suffering and fighting their dying. But if you say: ‘She’s talking about dead people, and that’s normal. I’ll bet you can learn a lot about her and your family,’ you may see the relative calming down and taking notes.”克尔士说:“儿女们发现父母处于异常的精神状态下,会觉得他们是在痛苦地与死亡抗争。但如果这时你告诉他们:‘她是在与故去的人交谈,这很正常。我敢打赌你能从中了解到很多关于她以及你的家庭的事情,’说不定家属们就会慢慢平静下来,还会做记录。”Without receiving sufficient information from the family, a team may not know how to the patient’s agitation. One patient seemed tormented by nightmares. The Hospice Buffalo team interviewed family members, who reluctantly disclosed that the woman had been sexually abused as a girl. The family was horrified that she was reliving these memories in her dying days.如果不能从患者的家人那里获得足够的信息,团队可能就无从解读患者焦躁不安的根源。有一名患者一直噩梦缠身。水牛城临终关怀中心的团队约见了他的亲属,他不情愿地透露,患者在少女时代曾遭受过性侵。她在临终之际又一次陷入了这些记忆,令她的家人惊骇不已。Armed with this information, the team chose to administer anti-anxiety medication, rather than just antipsychotics. The woman relaxed and was able to have a powerful exchange with a priest. She died during a quiet sleep, several days later.获得了这一信息,团队选择给患者使用抗焦虑药物治疗,而非单用抗精神病药物。这名患者放松了下来,也可以与牧师进行有效的交流了。几天后,她在平静的睡眠中逝世。This fall, Mrs. Brennan, the nurse, would check in on a patient with end-stage lung cancer who was a former police officer. He told her that he had “done bad stuff” on the job. He said he had cheated on his wife and was estranged from his children. His dreams are never peaceful, Mrs. Brennan said. “He gets stabbed, shot or can’t breathe. He apologizes to his wife, and she isn’t responding, or she reminds him that he broke her heart. He’s a tortured soul.”去年秋天,护士布伦南照料一名终末期肺癌患者。他以前是一名警官。他告诉她,他在工作时“干过坏事”,还说自己曾对妻子不忠,孩子们都疏远他。他的梦都不平静,布伦南说道。“他梦见自己被刀捅、被击或者无法呼吸。他向太太道歉,但她没有理会他,反而提醒他是怎样伤透了她的心。他的灵魂备受煎熬。”Some palliative care providers maintain that such dreams are the core of a spiritual experience and should not be tampered with. Dr. Quill, who calls people with such views “hospice romantics,” disagreed.有些姑息治疗提供者认为,此类梦境是患者精神体验的核心内容,不应该被打扰。奎尔士不赞同这种观点,称这些人是“临终关怀浪漫主义者”。“We should be opening the door with our questions, but not forcing patients through it,” Dr. Quill said. “Our job is witnessing, exploring and lessening their loneliness. If it’s benign and rich with content, let it go. But if it brings up serious old wounds, get real help — a psychologist, a chaplain — because in this area, we physicians don’t know what we’re doing. ”“我们应该用提问来打开患者的心门,但不可以强迫他们,”奎尔士说。“我们的工作就是见、探索并减轻他们的孤独。如果梦境内容丰富且无害,就不用管它。但如果它揭开了惨痛的旧伤疤,就需要有心理学家或牧师提供切实的帮助——因为我们这些普通医生并不了解这个领域。”In the first dream, a black spider with small eyes came close to her face. Then it turned into a large black truck with a red flatbed, bearing down on her. Terrified, she forced herself awake. In another dream, she had to pass through her laundry room to get to the kitchen. She glanced down and saw about 50 black spiders crawling on the floor. She was so scared! But when she looked closer, she saw they were ladybugs. She felt so happy! “Ladybugs are nice and I knew they weren’t going to hurt me,” she recounted later. “So I made my way to the kitchen.”— Rosemary Shaffer, 78, two months before she died of colon cancer.在第一个梦里,一只长着小眼睛的黑蜘蛛爬近了她的脸。然后,它变成了后挂一辆红色平板拖车的黑色大卡车,朝她轧过来。她吓坏了,惊醒过来。在另一个梦里,她必须穿过洗衣房到厨房去。她低头一瞥,只见有大约50只黑蜘蛛在地板上爬。她害怕极了!但是,等她细看端详,才发现那只是些瓢虫。她顿时又觉得庆幸不已!“瓢虫还好,我知道它们不会伤害我,”她事后回忆道。“所以,我顺利地走进了厨房。”——78岁的患者罗斯玛丽·谢弗(Rosemary Shaffer)在因结肠癌去世两个月前的讲述。The Hospice Buffalo researchers have found that these dreams offer comfort not only for the dying, but for their mourners.水牛城临终关怀中心的研究人员发现,这些梦不仅抚慰了垂死之人,受益的还有为他们哀痛的人。Kathleen Hutton holds fast to the end-of-life dream journals fastidiously kept by her sister, Mrs. Shaffer, a former elementary schoolteacher and principal. Rosemary Shaffer wrote about spiders and trucks, and then the ladybugs. In one dream, she saw flowers at a funeral home, which reminded her of those her daughter painted on handmade scarves. She felt loved and joyful.凯瑟琳·赫顿紧紧握着她的姊姊、曾经担任小学教师和校长的谢弗的日记,她在日记里一丝不苟地记录下了自己的临终梦境。罗斯玛丽·谢弗写到了蜘蛛和卡车,然后还有瓢虫。在一个梦里,她看到了殡仪馆里的鲜花,这让她想起了女儿在手工围巾上描绘的花朵,令她感到爱和欢悦。“I was glad she could talk about dreams with the hospice people,” Ms. Hutton said. “She knew it was her subconscious working through what she was feeling. She was much more at peace.”“我很高兴她能和临终关怀中心的人说起自己做的梦,”赫顿说。“她知道这是她的潜意识通过她的感受在起作用。她变得平静多了。”Knowing that has made her own grief more manageable, said Ms. Hutton, who teared up as she clasped the journals during a visit at the hospice’s family lounge.在造访临终关怀中心的家庭休息室时,赫顿拿着这些日记,落下泪来,她说自己会好过一些。Several months ago, Mrs. Brennan, the nurse, sat with a distraught husband, whose wife had pancreatic cancer that had sp to the liver. She had been reporting dreams about work, God and familiar people who had died. The patient thought that she would be welcomed in heaven, she said. That God told her she had been a good wife and mother.几个月前,护士布伦南坐在一名悲痛欲绝的丈夫身边,他的妻子患了胰腺癌,已经扩散到肝脏。她说自己一直梦见工作、上帝和过世的熟人。布伦南说,患者认为自己会在天堂受到欢迎。上帝告诉她,她是好妻子、也是好母亲。“Her husband was angry at God,” Mrs. Brennan said. “I said: ‘But Ann is not. Her dreams aren’t scary to her at all. They are all about validation.’“她的丈夫却很生上帝的气,”布伦南说。“于是我说:‘但是安(Ann)的心中全无怨愤。她的梦境一点也不令她感到恐惧。它们都充满了对她一生的认可。’“He just put his head down and wept.”“他垂下头,哭了起来。” /201607/452649


  Chinese Bainian中国人的拜年Early on the first morning of the Spring Festival,families set out to pay a lunar New Year visit to each other after the members of each family greet each other with lunar New Year wishes. This is called in Chinese Bainian, meaning paying the Spring Festival visits and greetings. Usually,the youngpay a visit to the old while the people about the same age share equal greetings;then,visits are paid in sequence to relatives of close kinship,relations ,neighbors, teachers, friends and colleagues. To kowtow used to be one of the rites involved in paying the spring Festival visits,but now it is replaced by the Spring festival greetings with best wishes, for instance,wishes for a good fortune. When the junior pay the senior the Spring Festival visit, the latter are supposed to give the former some money as a gift,which is known ;money for an added age.;在春节的第一天早上,去拜年,每个成员家庭成员互相问候与送上农历新年的祝愿。在中国,这就是所谓的拜年,这意味着春节走访和问候。通常情况下,年轻的拜访年老的,而年龄相仿的互相问候;然后,拜访的顺序是有密切的血缘关系的亲戚,爱人,邻居,老师,朋友和同事。磕头是春节拜访仪式之一,但现在却换成了春节的问候与美好的祝愿,例如,祝愿发财。当未成年人拜访年长者时,年长者应该给未成年人一些钱作为礼物,这被称为“压岁钱”。 /201606/450092



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