原标题: 上饶横峰县下颌角整形多少钱飞度云中文

If asked to imagine the first prehistoric tools, crafted and used by our early, hominid ancestors, youd probably think of crude knives or spear heads, chipped from stone.You probably arent aware of another human innovation that might be just as old. Today well learn about the two million year history of the toothpick, possibly one of humanitys oldest tools.如果让你去想象做工粗糙,人类最早的祖先使用过的史前牙签,你可能会想到由石头磨成的原始刀具或者矛尖。你可能没有意识到另一种同样古老的革新。今天我们就来了解200万年的牙签历史,这可能是人类历史上最古老的工具之一。Early stone tools, like knives and scrapers, are easy for anthropologists to learn about because these items are still around. Even after two million years, a chipped stone tool is still going to be there when you dig it up. Toothpicks, however, are another story. Made from splinters of wood, thorns, or bone fragments, these can rot and crumble away over time, leaving no recognizable trace. If this is so, how can an anthropologist look at a two million year old fossil site and claim that these early pre-humans picked their teeth?早期的石头工具,如小刀和刮刀,让人类学家很容易理解,因为在现代社会仍然存在这些东西。即使再过200万年,这些东西仍然埋在地里。然而牙签却是另一回事了。大多数牙签由木头的碎片、荆棘或者骨头碎片制成,会随着时间的流逝腐烂消失,不留下任何可辨别的痕迹。如果是这样的话,为什么人类学家会只凭着200万年前的化石遗址,就声称古代史前人类也用牙签剔牙?Its certain that no toothpick will ever last two million years, but this isnt the case with teeth. In fact, fossil teeth are the most durable remnants that anthropologists work with, and some of these ancient teeth display a curious set of grooves. Although these might have been caused by tooth decay, a close examination of the marks seems to indicate that the grooves were worn by repeated toothpicking--probably to alleviate the pain of gum disease. Indeed, these fossil grooves match the toothpick grooves in the teeth of several modern aboriginal populations.可以肯定的是,没有牙签会保存200万年,但牙齿却不一样了。事实上,牙齿化石是人类学家所研究的最持久的残留物。这些古时人类的牙齿上排列着一道道凹槽,很令人好奇。尽管这可能是由于蛀牙引起的,但经过进一步仔细检查,明这些凹槽似乎是因为长期剔牙而形成,古人类剔牙也可能是为了减轻牙龈疾病引起的疼痛。事实上,不少现代土著居民的牙齿上也出现了凹槽,并与化石上的凹槽相匹配。Its enough to warm every dentists heart: The first tools werent just for preparing food, hunting, or fighting. They might have been used for dental hygiene as well. 这足以温暖每一位牙医的心:第一个工具不只是为了准备食物,为了狩猎或战斗,也可能是为了保持牙齿卫生。201205/184384

Books and Arts; Book Review;Money and the markets;Insatiable longing文艺;书评;金钱与市场;贪婪的欲求:资本主义的局限性;Two new books probe the limits of capitalism;两本探讨资本主义局限性的新书;How Much Is Enough? Money and the Good Life. By Robert Skidelsky and Edward Skidelsky.《多少才算够?金钱与良好生活》,作者:罗伯特·斯科德尔斯基和爱德华·斯科德尔斯基。What Money Cant Buy: The Moral Limits of Markets. By Michael Sandel.《钱买不到的东西:市场的道德局限性》,作者:迈克尔·桑德尔。MOST policymakers, and the economists who advise them, believe that the rich Western economies have suffered a mechanical malfunction. With the right monetary, fiscal and regulatory tools, the growth machine will eventually whirr into life. Others think the Wests true malaise is not mechanical but moral: a love of money, markets and material things.在大多数当权者以及向他们建言的经济学家看来,富裕的西方经济遭遇了机制性的失调。只要运用正确的货币和财政政策及监管工具,经济增长机器终究会恢复生机。但另有一些人认为,西方世界的真正病因不是源自机制,而是源自道德:是对金钱、市场和物质生活的追逐。“How Much Is Enough?” and “What Money Cant Buy” are well-argued versions of this second view. In the former, Robert and Edward Skidelsky, a father-and-son pair of British academics, take as their text an essay written in 1930 by John Maynard Keynes. Keynes (of whom the elder Skidelsky has written a three-volume biography) mused that within a century “the economic problem” would be solved: in rich countries people would be at least four times wealthier, on average, and have to work perhaps 15 hours a week. He looks right about living standards, but horribly wrong about working hours.《多少才算够?》和《钱买不到的东西》这两本书,雄辩地论了上面所说的第二种观点。前一本书的作者是英国父子学者罗伯特·斯科德尔斯基和爱德华·斯科德尔斯基。他们在书中从约翰·梅纳德·凯因斯在1930年写的一篇论文说起(罗伯特·斯科德尔斯基曾写过三卷本的凯恩斯传记)。凯恩斯在那篇论文文中预言,不出一百年,“经济问题”将不成其为问题。在富裕国家中,人们的财富将增加三倍,平均每周将只工作15小时。他对生活水平的预言看来是对的,但对工作时间的预言却大错特错了。In the rich world the modern economic problem, the Skidelskys say, is how to live well amid plenty, not how to survive amid scarcity. Yet the West still chases slavishly after ever-higher gross domestic product, a purely material measure that takes no account of the blessings of nature or leisure. Humanity has become insatiable, in short. It is time to stop and rediscover the “good life”. This they identify with a list of “basic goods”: health, security, respect, “personality” (autonomy, if you prefer), harmony with nature, and leisure.斯科德尔斯基父子认为,在富裕世界里,现时的经济问题已经不是如何在短缺的环境中挣扎生存,而是如何在丰裕的环境中过高质量的生活。但是西方世界仍然在竭力追求不断增长的GDP(国内生产总值)。GDP是一个纯粹的物质性指标,完全忽略自然和闲适的价值。简言之,人类已经变得贪得无厌。现在已经到了反思和重新定义“良好生活”的时候了。他们对良好生活的定义包括一系列“基本条件”:健康、安全、尊严、“个性”(或者说“自主”)、与自然的和谐关系,以及闲适。You might expect the Skidelskys to make common cause with those economists who believe that maximising “happiness” should be the goal of public policy. Not a bit of it. What makes people happy, they argue, is not necessarily good. They have little time for statistical measures of happiness—or the pursuit of any single metric. That would imply that the elements of the good life could be traded off against each other, which they deny. Nor do the Skidelskys ally themselves with environmentalists. Greens reject growth because they believe it cannot be sustained without wrecking the planet. But what if it can? Better, say the Skidelskys, to pursue the good life for its own sake.人们可能以为,斯科德尔斯基父子和那些认为公共政策目标应当是“幸福”最大化的经济学家属于同一阵营,其实不然。斯氏父子认为,使人们感到幸福的事情,不一定都是好事。他们在书中几乎没有讨论幸福的统计指标或度量标准问题。那些统计指标意味着,良好生活的各种要素是可以互相替换的,而他们否认这种可替换性。另外,斯氏父子也不赞成环境主义者的主张。绿色运动倡导者们反对经济增长,因为他们认为,不毁掉地球,就不会有可持续的增长。但是,持续的增长不一定以毁掉地球为代价。斯氏父子认为,更重要的是探究良好生活本身的意义。Capitalism, they note, has “made possible vast improvements in material conditions”, but it also fuels human insatiability. One way it does this is by “increasingly ‘monetising the economy”. Monetisation is what vexes Michael Sandel, a Harvard political philosopher, in “What Money Cant Buy”. Mr Sandel poses a single question: has the role of markets sp too far?他们认为,资本主义在极大地改善了人们的物质生活条件的同时,也助长了人们贪婪的本性。其途径之一是使经济越来越“金钱化”。“金钱化”是哈佛大学哲学家迈克尔·桑德尔在《金钱买不到的东西》一书中的重点关注。桑德尔先生提出了一个问题:市场化是否已经走得太远了?He argues that it has, and packs his book with examples. Some, such as the sale of a poor mans kidney for transplanting into a rich mans body, will make many people squirm. Others, such as the sale of naming rights for sports stadiums, may yield only a resigned shrug. But almost all give pause for thought. Mr Sandel poses two objections consistently. One is inequality: the more things money can buy, the more the lack of it hurts. The other Mr Sandel calls “corruption”: buying and selling can change the way a good is perceived. Paying people to give blood does not work. Giving schoolchildren money as an incentive to books may make ing a chore rather than a lifelong pleasure.桑德尔认为,市场化确实太过分了,在书中他举出了很多例子。有些例子,比如穷人出卖肾脏移植于富人的身体,会使很多人感到不安。另一些例子,如体育场出卖挂名权,大概只会使人无奈地耸耸肩而已。但几乎所有的例子都令人思考。桑德斯先生在书中反复强调了他对过度市场化的两个反对意见。其一是不平等:钱能买到的东西越多,缺钱带来的伤害就越大。其二是桑德斯先生所称的“腐蚀”:买卖行为会改变人们对良好事物的看法。如对献血人付钱的办法并不能鼓励更多的人献血;用给钱来鼓励小学生阅读书籍,会使阅读成为一种负担而不是终生的乐趣。Mr Sandel does not say precisely where he thinks the limit should lie. That should be left, he hopes, to public debate. The Skidelskys are bolder, proposing policies that would encourage the pursuit of the good life rather than endless growth: a basic income; a tax on consumption rather than income; and an end to the tax-deductibility of company spending on advertising. This would reduce the incentive to work and the temptation to consume.桑德斯先生并没有明确指出市场化的边界应当在哪里。他希望通过公众的讨论来解决这个问题。但斯氏父子在这个问题上更为激进,他们提出了一些政策建议,这些政策旨在鼓励人们追求良好生活而不是无止境的增长:有限的基本收入;用消费税取代收入税;广告出不再计入公司的税前成本。这些措施将降低人们的工作动力和消费欲望。Does the rat race always detract from the good life? Only a few years ago, it would have been hard to imagine that whole libraries of books, music and information could be summoned to a phone in your palm; yet the pursuit of profit has helped to put them there. Nevertheless, “How Much Is Enough?” is a good question. Even if just now the West could do with more, not less, GDP, the pursuit of wealth for its own sake is folly. Anyone who sets store by capitalism and markets will find both books uncomfortable ing. They should be all the same.难道激烈的商业竞争总是良好生活的负面因素吗?几年以前,还很难想象整座图书馆的书籍、音乐和信息可以储存在一部小小的手机里,但人们对利润的追逐使它得以实现。尽管如此,“多少才算够?”仍然是一个有意义的问题。即便西方目前可以创造更多而不是更少的GDP,为了追求财富而追求财富也是愚蠢的。任何一个赞同资本主义和市场的人,都会发现这两本书读起来很不舒,但它们还是值得读一读的。 /201212/212776Its not hard to think of moments when history was changed by someone who blew the whistle on government missteps. Daniel Ellsburg, for instance, leaked the Pentagons secret history of its involvement in Vietnam to the New York Times and hastened public disillusion with that war.很难想起因有人揭发政府的失误而改变历史轨迹的事件。例如,Daniel Ellsburg 向纽约时报泄露了五角大楼在越战时期的秘密历史,加速毁灭了公众对战争的幻想。FBI official Mark Felt, known to the world as Deep Throat, helped bring down the Nixon administration after the Watergate scandal. Most “whistleblowers,” though, never get much fame or public notice. As a result, theyre vulnerable to being fired or silenced.以“深喉”闻名于世的联邦调查局的官员 Mark Felt 在水门事件后,帮助扳倒了尼克松政府。然而大多数的“弊端揭发人”却从未得到应有的名声或引起公众的注意。因而,他们很容易遭到解雇或被迫保持沉默。As far back as 1912, Congress recognized that in our democracy, public knowledge of government wrongdoing—or waste—is vital to societys welfare. Its broadest protection for whistleblowers came in the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 and the 1989 Whistleblower Protection Act, which guard most federal employees who step forward from retaliation for their actions. These laws arent perfect, but theyve helped ordinary Americans serve their fellow citizens.早在1912年国会就意识到,在民主社会公众应该对政府的不当行为或者铺张浪费有所了解,这是非常重要的社会福利。1978年的《文官改革法》以及1989年的《举报人保护法》保护大多数的联邦雇员不因他们的行为受到报复,这是对告密者最广泛的保护。这些法律并不堪称完美,但它们帮助美国普通老百姓为自己的同胞务。Whistleblowers have disclosed a cover-up of airplane near-misses at Dallas-Fort Worth airport, revealed toxic emissions by Federal Prison Industries, and laid bare repeated violations of nuclear safety laws at a plant in Ohio—misdeeds we might never have known about, were it not for the protection Congress gave them.告密者揭发了达拉斯-沃斯堡大型机场试图掩盖飞机劫持未遂事件;揭露了联邦监狱工业公司释放有毒气体这一事实;将俄亥俄州一家核电站屡次违反核安全法公布于世——如果不是国会提供保护,我们永远不会知道这些罪行。原文译文属!201211/210107

Business Mongolian copper Halfway to where?商业 蒙古铜矿 半程去何方?彷徨,宝石山下倚彤妆A massive mining project hits a snag一个庞大的矿业项目遭到意外困难IN THE endless brown wastes of the Gobi desert in the south of Mongolia huge blue structures are springing up.在蒙古南部一望无际的棕色戈壁沙漠荒原上,庞大的蓝色建筑物拔地而起。Some 18,000 workers are employed on Oyu Tolgoi, or ;Turquoise Hill;, the largest undeveloped copper and gold mine in the world.大约18,000名员工为世界上尚未开采的最大铜金矿山,奥尤陶勒盖(意为;绿宝石山;)工作。Rio Tinto, the mining giant that is managing the project, flew its chairman, Jan du Plessis, to the site for a ceremony on September 25th to mark the halfway point of the first phase of construction.正在经管这一项目的采矿业巨头力拓公司的董事长杜立石飞临现场,参加了9月25日的一项庆典,这标志着矿山建设的第一阶段已经完成了一半。Celebrations were hardly marred by rumblings of discontent back in the capital, Ulaanbaatar, from Mongolian politicians.这些庆祝几乎没有受到来自首都乌兰巴托的蒙古政治家们不满叫嚣的干扰。But since then the rumblings have got louder, worrying not just Oyu Tolgois investors, but all those gleeful at the prospect of a prolonged mining-led boom in the country.但从那时起叫嚣声变得更为响亮了,对此感到担忧的不仅是奥尤陶勒盖的投资方,还有所有因采矿业为这个国家带来的长期繁荣前景感到兴高采烈的人们。A group of 20 members of parliament signed a petition in early September asking the government to reopen negotiations on the ;Investment Agreement; that set the billion project in motion.9月初,20名国会议员在一份请愿书上签字,要求政府就年的;投资协议;——这一协议启动了这项耗资一百亿美元的项目——重开谈判。That could be dismissed as populist political noise ahead of elections due next year.人们可以把这当作为明年大选造势的平民主义政治喧嚣而不予理会。But by the end of the month, it had become the basis of a formal request from the government to Ivanhoe Mines of Canada, which has a 66% stake in the company that owns the mine and is in turn 49% owned by Rio.但到9月末,这已经成了政府向加拿大艾芬豪矿业公司提出的正式要求的基础;力拓公司持有艾芬豪公司49%的股份,而后者则持有这座矿山的拥有者公司中66% 的股份。Opening parliament this week, the speaker, who sits on the National Security Council, voiced his support for a renegotiation.本周宣布议会开幕的议长——他也是国家安全委员会的成员——表示持重开谈判。The main demand is to bring forward the date when the government has the option to increase its 34% share in the project to 50%.他们的主要要求,是让政府可以提前选择将其在此项目中的股份由34%增加到50%的时间。At present, its share—which was financed by a loan from Rio—cannot rise until 2040.根据现有协议,政府的股份——由力拓的一项贷款提供资金——要到2040年才可以增加。The government also wants to impose a ;sliding-scale royalty; on the project.与此同时,政府想对这一项目征收;浮动权利金;。This week, Ivanhoe and Rio shot back a letter saying the agreement was not up for renegotiation.艾芬豪与力拓本周在回信中声称该协议没有谈判余地。All they will concede is that, under its terms, the government is within its rights to ask for talks. They are adamant, however, that the terms cannot be changed.他们做出的仅有让步是,政府有权按照协议规定要求对话。但他们认定,协议条款绝无更改可能。The mining companies point out the huge benefits the project brings in terms of employment, tax revenue and foreign exchange.这两家矿业公司指出了这一项目在就业、税收与外汇方面带来的庞大利益。By 2020, when it will be producing 450,000 tonnes of copper a year, which will be sold across the nearby Chinese border, it is expected to account for a staggering one-third of Mongolias GDP.当2020年矿山年产铜量达到450,000吨时,这些铜可以向不远处的中国出口,预期可占蒙古全国GDP的三分之一,一个令人惊叹的数字。They also argue that, with the copper price falling, a renegotiation might leave the government in a worse position.他们还认为,随着铜价下跌,重开谈判可能对政府不利。The current agreement has the effect of insuring its equity stake against market risk.现有的协议具有保其股权不受市场风险影响的作用。The investors feel some Mongolians do not understand that, because of taxes and royalties, the governments 34% share grossly understates the benefits it will receive from the project.投资者们感到,由于在税收与权利金上的收益,政府从这一项目得到的好处将远远超过表面上34%的股份,而一些蒙古人对此并不清楚。Oyu Tolgoi is the poster project for a national mining boom that sees Ulaanbaatar crawling with foreign miners and their investment bankers.奥尤陶勒盖是国家矿业兴隆的一个招牌式项目,它让外国矿业公司和他们的投资一起涌入乌兰巴托。Of immediate concern are plans to raise billions of dollars through a multinational offering of shares in a huge coal project, Tavan Tolgoi, also in South Gobi province.当前人们关心的,是以一个庞大煤矿项目的股权面向多国集资筹措数十亿美元的计划;该煤矿名为塔班陶勒盖,也位于南戈壁省。Oyu Tolgoi aly faces problems enough.奥尤陶勒盖面临的麻烦已经够多的了。Inter-governmental negotiations with China have yet to produce an agreement on its supply of power for the early years of production.与中国举行的政府间谈判尚未达成投产初期一些年内由中国提供电力的协议。Ivanhoe has been snapping at Rio for making ;unauthorised remarks; about the project, and there is the small matter of billion in bank finance to be raised.艾芬豪一直对力拓有关这一项目的;非正式;十分不满,另外还有筹集四十亿美元贷款的小事。So the government needed a face-saving way out of the latest fine mess it had gotten the project into.因此,政府需要以一种体面的方式摆脱他们造成的这一项目的最新尴尬局面。On October 6th it issued a joint statement with the foreign partners saying they had settled their differences, without amending the Investment Agreement. 10月6日他们与外国合伙人发表了一项联合声明,宣称各方已在不修改投资协议的情况下达成了一致。Rio and Ivanhoe will be relieved.力拓和艾芬豪可以安心了。But it will still have to deal with the disgruntled parliamentarians, not to mention voters.但心怀不满的国会议员还是需要安抚,更遑论选民们了。 /201301/218111

Business Bribery abroad A tale of two laws商业 海外行贿 两部法律的故事Americas anti-corruption law deters foreign investment. Britains is smarter美国的反贪腐法让企业对海外投资望而却步,而英国的则更为明智BRIBING foreign officials is wrong, but not everything governments do to prevent it is wise or proportional.向外国官员行贿是不对的。但并非政府所做的所有防范行贿的措施都是明智或能产生对应成效的。Firms are increasingly fed up with the way Americas Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) is written (confusingly) and applied (vigorously).企业对美国的《海外反腐法》(FCPA)的厌倦是与日俱增,不仅仅因为它的内容(让人困惑),还因为它的执行方式(过于激进)。The law was passed in 1977, but recent years have seen a spike in enforcement, from five actions in 2004 to 74 in 2010.该法案于1977年通过,然而最近几年执行次数增长迅速,从2004年的5次增长到2010年的74次。Five of the ten biggest settlements ever were last year, including a 0m fine against BAE Systems, a British defence contractor, and a 5m fine against ENI, an Italian oil firm.十大处罚中有五个发生于去年,其中包括对英国国防承包商BAE系统的处罚(达4亿美元)以及意大利石油公司ENI的处罚(达3.65亿美元)。On August 31st the Wall Street Journal reported that the Department of Justice has been investigating Oracle, a database-software company, for a year. Unusually, Oracle has said nothing about the investigation. Ethisphere, a promoter of corporate responsibility, rated Oracle one of the worlds most ethical companies in . Mike Koehler, a law professor at Butler University in Indiana, writes that General Electric, HP, AstraZeneca and others have all been among Ethispheres ;Worlds Most Ethical; while settling FCPA prosecutions or under investigation.八月31日《华尔街日报》报道称司法部调查一个数据库软件公司Oracle,已经一年了。反常的是,Oracle对这次调查只字不提。企业责任提倡人Ethisphere认为Oracle是年全球最有道德责任感的企业之一。印第安纳州Butler大学的某法律专家Mike Koehler写道,曾位列Ethisphere的;全球最具道德责任感企业;名单上的General Electric, HP, AstraZeneca等企业都被FCPA的指控过或者受到调查。An FCPA action is an ordeal. Few firms dare risk going to court—only two cases against corporations have ever resulted in completed trials. The vast majority of cases are settled, which can take years. Listed companies must satisfy not only the Department of Justice, but also the Securities and Exchange Commission, which enforces the FCPA provisions requiring accurate records of all business dealings (to deter or detect illicit payments). Before the department and the commission will sign off on a settlement, the company must satisfy them that the rest of its operations are squeaky clean. Narrow investigations can mutate into broad ones that cost tens of millions of dollars.被FCPA指控的话,后果很惨痛。很少企业敢冒险上法庭——企业被告的案例中只有两个结案了。很多案子要用上几年时间才能结案。上市公司不仅要达到司法部的要求,还要满足券和交易委员会的要求,而这就使得FCPA要具备所有企业的交易记录(从而防止或者发现非法交易)。在司法部和该委员会做出最终决定之前,企业必须让他们相信公司的其它运作也是没有猫腻的。调查不充分会使案情变得更大,为此将付出成千亿美元。And bosses can be sent to prison for up to 20 years if their companies fall foul of the FCPA. In theory, they could be jailed because a staff member at a foreign subsidiary bribed an official without their knowledge. In some cases, the law insists that directors ought to know about dodgy goings-on, even if they do not.如果企业违反了FCPA的规定其老板的最高可被判刑20年。理论上,即使是在他们不知情的情况下,如果其驻外员工向官员行贿的话,他们也可被判入狱。某些情况下,法律坚持认为管理者应该知道这些小动作——即使有时候他们确实不知情。This is a hefty deterrent to doing business in poor countries, some studies have found. Andy Spalding, a law professor at the Chicago-Kent College of Law, likens the way the FCPA is enforced to ;de facto sanctions; on countries where corruption is rife. A study by KPMG, a consultancy, found that a third of British and a quarter of American companies would simply steer clear of corruption-prone countries to avoid the risk of being prosecuted. Firms from less fussy places, such as China, will happily fill the gap.有研究发现,这成了企业进驻穷国的极大障碍。芝加哥肯特法学院的一名法律专家Andy Spalding将FCPA的做法类比为贪腐盛行的国家的;事实判决;。某顾问公司KPMG做了一份研究表明,三分之一的英国公司和四分之一的美国公司会简单地选择不去那些贪腐盛行的国家做生意,从而避免被起诉。而处于要求不那么严格的国家(比如中国)的企业则很乐意填补这个空白。The US Chamber of Commerce, a business lobby, says the FCPA also deters foreign mergers and acquisitions. A firm inherits the sins of a company it buys, even if it has done reasonable due diligence, the chamber says. To avoid this risk, it must conduct the equivalent of a ;vast internal investigation;, says the chamber. Many firms find it simpler to stay at home.商业游说团——美国商会——认为FCPA将外资并购企业也吓跑了,它认为即使一个企业已经做了法律尽职调查,但还是要承担它所并购的企业的罪行。为了避免这种危险,该企业必须进行一次;大范围的内部调查;,该商会说道。于是很多企业觉得留在国内发展要简单得多。A new British anti-bribery law, passed in 2010, appears to have been better crafted. The Bribery Act is broad and tough. It covers bribery within Britain as well as abroad. In contrast to the FCPA, it makes no exception for small ;facilitation payments; to speed up routine business such as customs checks or visas.英国2010年通过的反贿赂法似乎更胜一筹。该《贿赂法》涉及范围更广,刑法也更重:其处罚对象既包括国内也包括国外。相较FCPA,它连;便利付;——能加速一些类似海关检查或者签等日常业务的付方式——也不放过。But it is fair, too. Unlike the FCPA, it has a ;compliance defence; that allows a company to avoid the harshest penalties if the wrongdoer is a junior employee and the firm otherwise has a strict anti-bribery policy which is clear to all employees and effectively administered. One rogue employee cant easily cause a crippling probe into an otherwise blameless company.然而它也是公平的。与FCPA不同的是,它允许;遵守式合规性保护;,也就是说,如果涉事员工是未成年人或者该企业有严格的反贿赂规定,并且让所有员工都知晓这项规定从而使其得到有效执行,那么该企业可以避开最严酷的惩罚。一个按规矩做事的企业不会如此轻易地让一两位明知故犯的员工给毁了。Americas Department of Justice sees no need for such safeguards. And since few cases go to trial, judges have given little guidance as to what the FCPAs bewildering text actually means. So, for now, it means whatever an aggressive prosecutor says it does.而美国司法部认为这样的防范是多余的。由于很少案子受到审讯,法官也没有对FCPA那些令人迷惑的条款做出太多指示。因此,就目前为止,这些条款的含义,全凭胆大的起诉人如何作出解读。 /201301/220267Have you ever noticed that while it’s pretty easy to tell your dog is sick, it’s much harder to know how your cat or bird are feeling? Well, before you start asking your dog why it can’t be more stoic like animals half its size, it’s probably worth considering each animal’s place in the food chain.你有没有注意到发现是否生病很容易,但想知道猫或鸟的感受就比较难了。在你问“为什么不能比身材不及它一半的动物更坚强”之前,应该思考一下在食物链中的位置。You see, the lower down the food chain you are, the more important it is for you to hide any sign of illness. Obvious illness or pain function as red flags for predators. You may as well wear a sign saying, “Easy meal, guys. Come and get me.”要知道,在食物链的位置越低,隐藏疾病的任何征兆就越重要。明显的疾病或疼痛对食肉动物来说是危险的信号。就好像你身上有这样的标语“容易到手的午餐,伙计们,快来吃我吧”。Now, even small dogs are genetically programmed to function like predators, which makes sense considering they are close relatives of wolves. And birds–you can probably figure out why the only way you’d find out your bird is sick is when it dies. The situation with cats, as compared to dogs and birds, is much more interesting. On the one hand, cats are predators, but on the other, they’re small enough to be prey.现在,即使是很小的也由基因决定了是肉食动物。所以把看作狼的近亲也是有道理的。至于鸟类,也许能知道它是否生病的唯一途径就是死亡。而猫的情况与和鸟相比,就更有趣了。一方面,猫是食肉动物;另一方面,它们身材矮小很容易被捕食。So how can you tell if your smaller pets need medical attention? For one thing, trust your hunches. No one knows your pets like you do, so if you notice even very subtle changes in habits and behavior, you may want to have a vet look them over. For a cat, other signs of illness might be that it has stopped grooming, is losing weight, vocalizing more or less than usual, or missing the litter box.所以你要怎样判断宠物需要医药治疗呢?首先,相信预感。没有人比你更了解你的宠物。当你注意到它们生活习惯上尽管是非常微小的变化,也要请兽医对其进行检查。而猫生病的其它征兆,可能就是精神不振,食欲不佳等症状。 /201303/231706

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