明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年09月21日 13:21:37
Theresa May has struck a defiant tone against those seeking to halt or slow down Brexit, urging Europhiles to “accept what the people decided特里Theresa May)对那些寻求阻止或延缓英国退欧的人士作出强硬表态,敦促亲欧者“接受人民的决定”。The prime minister warned that if the government was forced to get parliament’s mandate for triggering Article 50 the mechanism for leaving the EU Britain would end up with a worse deal.英国首相警告称,如果政府被迫在获得议会授权之后才能触发《里斯本条约》第50条——退出欧盟的机制——英国最终会得到更糟糕的退欧安排。The opposition Labour party said on Sunday that it would not “hold upthe Article 50 process.反对党工党周日表示,该党不会“阻止”第50条的进程。Jeremy Corbyn, the leader, suggested in an earlier interview that the party would vote against Mrs May unless she adopted his “Brexit bottom lines including full access to the single market and the protection of workersrights.工党领袖杰里科尔Jeremy Corbyn)在较早前的一次采访中暗示,除非梅采纳了他的“退欧底线”(包括全面保持单一市场准入和保护工人权利),否则工党将投票反对梅。But he later said: “There must be transparency and accountability on Brexit terms. We won’t block Article 50 but will fight for a Brexit that works for Britain.”但他后来表示:“退欧条款必须有透明度和问责机制。我们党不会阻止0条,但会为一个对英国有利的退欧安排而斗争。”Labour and the Lib Dems are expected to work together to put pressure on Mrs May to give more details of her negotiating position, if she is forced to pass legislation allowing her to invoke Article 50.如果梅不得不争取议会通过允许她触发第50条的立法,预计工党和自由民主党将联合起来向梅施压,要求她介绍有关她的谈判立场的更多细节。On the eve of her first major trade trip as prime minister to India Mrs May told MPs and peers who regretted the result of the EU referendum that they had to accept the public’s vote from June.在她作为首相展开首次重大经贸之旅(前往印度)前夕,梅告诉那些对退欧公投结果感到遗憾的上下两院的议员,他们必须接受6月份的投票结果。(上图为梅抵达印度的新德里机场——编者注)High Court judges stunned the government on Thursday by pronouncing that it cannot invoke Article 50 without a vote in parliament, a decision which ministers are trying to overturn in the Supreme Court.英国高等法院法官上周四裁定,政府不能在没有提交议会投票表决的情况下触发第50条,这个裁定震惊了政府。目前部长级官员们正试图在最高法院推翻这一裁定。Mrs May said in a statement on Saturday night that her focus was to get on with delivering Brexit: “The result was clear. It was legitimate,she said.梅在上周六晚发布的一份声明中表示,她的工作重点是完成退欧任务:“结果很清楚。这是合法的,”她说。“We need to turn our minds to how we get the best outcome for our country,the prime minister said.“我们需要把精力转向如何为我国争取最好的结果,”英国首相表示。“That means sticking to our plan and timetable, getting on with the work of developing our negotiating strategy and not putting all our cards on the table that is not in our national interest and it won’t help us get the best deal for Britain.”“这意味着坚守我们的计划和时间表,踏踏实实拟定我们的谈判战略,而不是把我们手上的牌都放在谈判桌上——那不符合我们的国家利益,无助于我们为英国争取最好的安排。”来 /201611/476529How France’s Fight With Islam Became a Bestseller法国和伊斯兰之间争端登上畅销榜David Thomson was one of the first to declare religion a part of the problem in France’s war on terror. Now he’s become the country’s hottest intellectual.戴维·汤姆逊,曾为公开表示法国反恐问题涵盖宗教第一人。如今他是全国最火知识分子。Long before France’s correspondents, scholars, politicians, and police were all focused on the Islamic State, al Qaeda, and the dangers posed by returning foreign fighters, there was David Thomson.早在法国各个记者、学者、政客和警方全力集中处理伊斯兰国、基地组织和海外归法圣战分子之前,汤姆逊就有所察觉。Nine months before the January 2015 attacks on Charlie Hebdo and Hyper Cacher, Thomson, a correspondent for Radio France Internationale who had spent years reporting from North Africa and building contacts within jihadi circles, was repeatedly mocked on national television. He declared, in a now infamous panel debate on French fighters flocking to Syria, that some combatants he was in contact with who had traveled to the Middle East were determined to return and launch strikes against France.015年一月份查理周刊和Hyper Cacher(犹太教食品专售连锁超市)袭击事件发生的九个月前,身为法国国际广播电台记者的汤姆逊已在北非花费数年时间报道、与圣战圈建立联系,还屡次嘲讽国家电视台。他声称自己联系上了部分行至中东并准备回国发动反法袭击的圣战士。这些人就是现在热议中成群结队涌入叙利亚,臭名昭著的法籍圣战分子。“I’ve never heard that! Why would they go so far away if the enemy is aly here?one prominent academic, the sociologist Rapha?l Liogier, scoffed on the set of a France 2 talk show, accusing Thomson of playing into the hands of populists. Another panel guest, the researcher Hanane Karimi, warned of the risk of “stigmatizing Muslims,while another derided Thomson as a neophyte and a dabbler, sneering that just because he had “done a report and interviewed tens of jihadiststhat he was not “the reigning expert on the question. You need to show a bit of proof of humility.”“我就没听说过什么外籍圣战士!如果敌人就在法国,那他们干嘛要跑那么远?”著名大学教授兼社会学家拉斐尔·里奥吉耶曾在法国第二电视台一档脱口秀上对此嗤之以鼻,指责汤姆逊是在为民粹主义者谋利。另一位嘉宾,研究员汉娜·卡里米则警告此举会有“侮辱穆斯林”的风险。而同组的嘉宾嘲笑汤姆逊是菜鸟,水平业余,讥讽他不过“采访报道了几十个圣战分子”,“不是反恐问题专家,最好表现谦逊点儿。”Flash forward two years, however, and after consecutive terrorist attacks on domestic soil, 13 straight months under a state of emergency, and a coming presidential election, Thomson dubbed “the man who talked with jihadistsand a “prophetby some in France’s media has become France’s favorite public intellectual. Following the publication of his most recent best-selling book, Les Revenants, or The Returned, which features interviews with fighters for the Islamic State who have come back from “the caliphate,Thomson has graced the front pages of Le Monde. He’s starred in flattering profiles, in-depth interviews, and panel discussions for nearly every major French print, online, and broadcast outlet. The publishers of Les Revenants ordered an urgent new print run after the book quickly sold out; secondhand copies are being offered online at three times the sale price.然而当时间快进两年,等法国本土遭受一连串恐怖袭击、历时整3个月全国紧急状态加上总统大选来临之时,被一些法国媒体戏称为“和圣战分子谈过话的男人”和“先知”的汤姆逊却变成了法国备受喜爱的公共知识分子。随着其最新畅销书Les Revenants(《归来者》)出版,汤姆逊获得了《法国世界报》前几页的位置作为持。《归来者》一书以同从“哈里发之地(意为伊斯兰教土地)”归来的伊斯兰国圣战士访谈为主要内容。汤姆逊几乎成了每大法国纸媒、线上媒体和广播电台眼中的明星,溢美之词、深度访谈、小组讨论直播络绎不绝。《归来者》迅速销售一空后,出版商下令紧急加印;同时,该书的二手复印本在网上已经卖到了原版的三倍价钱。Thomson’s book is based on more than two years of repeated interviews with 20 subjects provided in face-to-face meetings in prisons, homes, and kebab shops in France, and over the phone, including operatives in Syria. The author, who over the past decade has spoken to more than 100 mainly French but also Tunisian and Belgian jihadis, paints a picture, using their own words, of fighters who were seduced by the idea of a hedonistic, violent, and transcendental experience, which Thomson calls “LOL jihad,and who have returned from the caliphate often disappointed, typically unrepentant, and in some cases y to do it all again.汤姆逊的书把两年来在法国监狱中、家中、烤串店里与20个研究对象的面对面访谈以及电话采访作为基础,还包括在叙利亚的情报员。作者在过去十年中和上百个主要为法国籍但同时又是突尼斯籍和比利时籍的圣战分子谈过,用他们的语言绘制出一幅画像,画着受到享乐主义、暴力和先验诱惑的圣战士,汤姆森把这些人统称为“LOL圣战士(???黑人问JPG)”。画像中还有那些回到法国后往往失望透顶、执迷不悟,其中一些人还准备着再去趟哈里发。“Charlie [Hebdo] was the most beautiful day of my life. I would so much like it to happen again,says Lena, one of Thomson’s more bloodthirsty subjects. “And I hope a sister will undertake the next targeted attack.”“《查理周刊》被袭是我生命中最美妙的一天……我真想再来一次,”此话出自莲娜,她是汤姆逊究对象中相对更嗜血的群体成员之一。“我希望有会采取下次针对性袭击。”But it is Thomson’s and his subjectsverdict on the fraught topic of the role of Islam that has helped win so much attention. A marginalized minority’s sense of humiliation, discrimination, and post-colonial fury; absent fathers and family trauma; the slippery slope between juvenile delinquency and “holy war and the promise of a sexual paradise all these are important in explaining jihad in France, Thomson argues. However, none of this would be enough to tip his interviewees over the edge without the important and too-often-dismissed role of religion and politico-spiritual convictions specifically, the hard-line Salafist Saudi Wahhabist school of Islam which paved the way for the initial descent of his subjects into violent jihadism and helps explain why they are unlikely to ever re-emerge.但汤姆逊本人以及他研究对象对伊斯兰教在反恐问题中所演角色的定性赢得了诸多关注。少数民族被边缘化的羞耻感、被歧视感和后殖民时代的愤怒;父亲在成长中的缺席、家庭带来的创伤;青少年犯罪和“圣战”间的微妙倾斜;还有宗教保给予的性爱天堂——汤姆逊主张以上全部因素对解释法国境内圣战分子的存在十分重要。然而,这些因素无一足够把采访对象的思想转变,真正转变他们思想的关键却常常受到忽视的因素,即宗教和政治精神信仰发挥的作用——尤其是强硬萨斯派沙特阿拉伯瓦哈比主义伊斯兰学校——学校为他的研究对象们铺平了走向暴力圣战主义的先路,也阐明了参与者不太可能回归常人的原因。France’s public intellectuals scholars, judges, religious figures, “deradicalizationproponents, and journalists have spent the last few years grasping for answers, amid the seemingly never-ending news of homegrown attackers and foiled plots, for how their country became, as Thomson reminds ers, the Western nation “most threatened, targeted and hitby jihad. But few, wrote Le Figaro columnist Alexandre Devecchio in a recent column, “succeeded in fully convincing.”法国的公共知识分子们——学者、法官、宗教人士、“去激进化”持者和记者——在仿佛永无止境的本土籍袭击者和阴谋挫败的新闻中,急切地寻找着:国家会变成何种模样的。如同汤姆逊提醒读者们所示,西方国家正“主要遭受圣战的威胁、针对性袭击和打击”。而现实中汤姆逊却仅仅“成功地彻底说”几个人,《法国费加罗报》专栏作家亚历山大写到。Internationally known figures like the political scientists Gilles Kepel and Olivier Roy engaged in a vicious battle this year over whether France should understand its jihad problem as the “Islamization of radicalism(Roy) that is, Islam is not to blame or the “radicalization of Islam(Kepel) yes, it is. But the rival scholarsfight stayed mainly within elite circles and both eventually came in for criticism. Roy has been widely questioned for dismissing Islamic State memberstheologically grounded convictions, while Kepel has been reproached for viewing Islamist terrorism too narrowly through the religious prism. Les Revenants, on the other hand, has become a “publishing phenomenon,Devecchio says, that has “reconciled Kepel and Roy.”国际知名人士。例如政治学家吉勒斯·凯佩尔和奥利维埃·罗伊在今年一次较量中针锋相对,争论应该把圣战问题理解为“激进主义伊斯兰教化(罗伊观点)”——伊斯兰教是无辜的;或是“伊斯兰教激进化(凯佩尔观点)”——不,祸首就在伊斯兰教。不过两位学者的较量主要停留在精英阶层且两种观点均受到批评。罗伊因忽视伊斯兰国成员理论上根深蒂固的信念受到广泛质疑,凯佩尔则被指责采用过于狭隘的宗教棱镜式方法看待伊斯兰恐怖主义。另一方面,《归来者》成为“出版现象”,亚历山大认为此书“调和了凯佩尔和罗伊两者的观点。”“Jihadism ‘made in Franceis the fruit of the meeting between radical Islam and the era of emptiness,he says. “The hybrid child of a murderous utopia and a disenchanted époque.”“‘生于法国’的圣战主义是激进派伊斯兰与无知年代碰撞的产物”亚历山大说到。“血腥凶残的乌托邦和幻灭的时代产下了混血儿。”The publication of Les Revenants, however, also happens to come at an opportune political moment. The 2017 French presidential election is only months away and is shaping up as a quasi-referendum on terrorism and Islam. After equivocating for years on how much to “take onFrance’s second religion, French politics as a whole seems to be coming around to the idea entirely. Before Thomson released Les Revenants, then-Socialist prime minister and now presidential aspirant Manuel Valls was aly railing against Salafism as the “[antechamber] of terrorism.Few voices on the left today maintain that Islam has nothing to do with the threats facing France. Meanwhile, on the right, both candidates expected to lead in the presidential election next spring, Republican Fran?ois Fillon and National Front leader Marine Le Pen, have characterized the Muslim faith as antithetical to French values. Thomson’s book comes as France appears to have decided that the debate over the role of Islam in its terror problem is finished and those who say the religion has a problem have won.《归来者》出版也正好迎来了一个适时的政治时刻。仅数月017年法国总统大选即将到来,本次大选基本可以说是半个对恐怖主义和伊斯兰教的全民公投。在对法国第二大宗教该“管控”几分的问题上推诿多年后,整个法国政界似乎完全改变了观点。在汤姆逊推出《归来者》之前,时任社会党总理,现任总统候选人曼努埃尔·瓦尔斯准备好坚决反对萨斯主义,并将其视作“恐怖主义的[前厅]。”今天,左翼政党仅有零星声音仍持伊斯兰教和法国面临的威胁无关。与此同时,右翼政党的两位候选人都期望引领明年春天的总统大选。法国共和党人弗朗索瓦·菲永和国民阵线党领袖玛丽娜·勒庞均把穆斯林信仰视作同法国价值观背道而驰。汤姆逊的书出版正赶上法国就伊斯兰教在恐怖主义问题中扮演何等角色的讨论即将收场之时——而认为宗教有问题的一方刚好胜出。Thomson applies an anthropological eye to human behavior and an old-school reporter’s talent for cultivating and listening to primary sources. He got his start by covering the Arab Spring aftermath in Tunisia and Libya before returning to Paris. Over time, he built what is arguably the deepest network of contacts of any Western journalist or researcher who has tried to get inside the francophone ranks of the Islamic State. The correspondent first traced the exodus of foreign fighters to Syria in his 2014 Les Francais Jihadistes (the French Jihadists), which gave voice to the young French people “totally galvanized by their projectof waging holy war in Syria and those who, in a number of cases, aspired to return and commit terrorist attacks in their native country. In that first book, he described one network of jihadis based in Syria and Iraq whose members “constituted the embryonic stem cell of the commandothat went on to commit attacks on the Bataclan concert hall in Paris in November 2015.汤姆逊运用老派记者那份培养和倾听原始素材的才能,并采用人类学视角来观察人类行为。他的取材覆盖了阿拉伯之春在突尼斯和叙利亚产生的余波,将此作为起点,再向巴黎进发。随时间流逝,汤姆逊建立了一张比任何试图探究法语伊斯兰国的西方记者或调查员都深入的联系网。在汤姆014年著书《法国圣战士》中,驻外记者首先追踪了外籍圣战士退出叙利亚,让法国青年们“完全被叙利亚圣战计划,和众多返法发动对祖国恐怖袭击的人刺激行动起来”。在第一本书中,汤姆逊把在叙利亚和伊拉克的圣战分子描述为“组成恐怖突击队的胚胎干细胞”,他们0151月连续发动了巴黎巴塔克兰音乐厅劫持事件。Les Revenants includes interviews with diverse subjects, some free and many in prison. There are young zealots of North African background, like Safiya, who left for Syria but have returned to France and re-resumed openly smoking, a habit that would have cost her 40 lashes in Islamic State territory. Yet she is aly talking about leaving again not to Syria this time, but to Yemen. “I can’t bring myself to stay in Franceshe says. “I hate France. I don’t feel like I have a place.Then there is Kevin, a 21-year-old former Catholic choirboy from Brittany. He converted at age 14; by 17 he was in Syria; and now he is hoping to journey back to France to join the four wives and six children he acquired in the caliphate. He is currently imprisoned in Turkey. The cast includes former high school students, casual workers, ex-French army, and the strange case of a doctor couple who declared they spent several months working for the Islamic State in Raqqa with their daughters, not because they were supporters but because they wanted to rescue their son.《归来者》包含了对多个研究对象的采访,有些对象是自由身,很多则身陷囹圄。他们中有不少年轻的狂热分子。比如沙菲雅,她曾到叙利亚后又返回法囀?回法后沙菲雅恢复了在公共场合吸烟的习惯,在伊斯兰国土地上这么做会让她受0下鞭打的惩罚。如今她又在谈论再次离开——不是前往叙利亚而是去也门。“我不想逼自己留在法国”她说。“我恨法囀?我觉得自己在法国没有立足之地。”然后是凯文,一名来自布列塔尼的21岁前天主教唱诗班男孩儿。他14岁时皈依伊斯兰教7岁身在叙利亚;他一心回法国联系上在哈里发得到的四个妻子和六个孩子。如今凯文被关押在耳其。研究对象的名单上有曾经的高中生、普通工人、前法国军人,以及比较罕见的一对医生夫妇。这对夫妇声称和女儿一起在拉卡省为伊斯兰国工作了几个月,不是因为他们持伊斯兰国而是他们想救出自己的儿子。It has become popular wisdom that today’s Western jihadis have profane pasts. But nearly all of the returned fighters in Thomson’s book received a religious education as children. Seventy percent come from Muslim and often conservative households. Many met figures who helped in their radicalization at mosques, and among people they know. The majority say they took their first steps toward the Islamic State when they gravitated first toward so-called quietist or non-violent Salafism, emulating the “pious predecessorsfrom the time of the Prophet before breaking away to join armed jihad. The Salafist movement has attracted rising numbers of adherents in France over the past decade, with its extreme fundamentalist values of a “rupturewith mainstream society.当今西方圣战分子亵渎神明的经历已是众所周知。但基本上汤姆逊书中所有的返法圣战分子都在儿童期接受过宗教化教育。其中百分之七十的人有穆斯林且家庭背景通常很保守,很多人通过清真寺和熟人受到激进化洗礼。多数人表示他们踏向伊斯兰国的第一步是被所谓的寂静主义者或者说温和派萨斯主义吸引,模仿先知时代“虔诚的先驱们”生活,之后再加入武装圣战。过去十年里,萨斯运动吸引来的法国信徒人数持续增长,极端原教主义价值观与社会主流“决裂”。“It was very influential,says 20-year-old Zoubeir, of his period frequenting “quietistSalafist groups, with their ultra-literal interpretation of traditional texts, before his flight to Syria, where he got to know some of the future attackers behind the Paris and Brussels attacks of November 2015 and March 2016. The only self-proclaimed full-blown repentee in the book, Zoubeir describes his initial period in Islamic State land as “a holiday camp a jihad where you can shoot people and eat an ice cream at the same time.He is the first returned French fighter to have volunteered to intelligence services, after a year of imprisonment, to talk to vulnerable young people about his experience to offer them a “counter-discourse.”“影响深远0岁的佐贝尔在飞往叙利亚前经常出入“寂静主义”萨斯团体,通过他们对传统经文超越文字层面的解释,在那儿认识了一些将来会015年十一月和2016年三月发动袭击的人。作为书中唯一自认为成熟的忏悔者,佐贝尔把自己在伊斯兰国度过的最初阶称为“假日野营……在圣战地,你可以一边杀人一边吃冰淇淋。”佐贝尔是第一个返回法国的圣战士,入狱一年后他自愿加入情报部门,与容易受到极端思想影响的年轻人谈论自身经历,为他们提供“对抗论述。”As Thomson writes, “quietistSalafism professes itself to be vehemently opposed to armed jihad, and its adherents sometimes go so far as to denounce the violent “takfiristsor “khawarijto the police. But the warring currents share the same doctrinal and ideological core. “Zoubeir considers today, that, for him, like the majority of the French he met in Syria, quietism prepared the ground and constituted a stepping stone towards him tipping over into jihadism,he says.汤姆逊写到,“寂静主义”萨尔宣称自己强烈反对武装圣战,其信徒有时甚至向警方会揭发暴力派“塔克菲尔主义者”或者“哈瓦利吉派”。但是,对立思想潮流和他们共享用一学说和意识形态核心。“佐贝尔认为,今天对他、对他在叙利亚遇到的多数法国人,寂静主义在为他们准备、铺设朝圣战主义思想转变的垫脚石。”Thomson’s arguments are aly being mustered by officials as evidence for their policy decisions. The author’s insistence that deradicalization is almost impossible has become increasingly accepted, including by the government’s counter-terrorism establishment that now speaks increasingly of “disengagement.Thomson is also being cited in dispatches in which French authorities argue for the closure of Salafist mosques. Most of all, the journalist is being called upon to explain how and why France and Europe could have for so long missed the warning signs from homegrown jihadis who nearly always made their intentions perfectly clear. But on this question which is less about the jihadis themselves and more about the West he has fewer answers.汤姆逊的论据已经被官方作为政策决定的辅助据。作者极力主张的去激进化不可能实现的观点已经渐为大众接受,包括政府部反恐门现在也更多地提到“脱离”一词。在法国官方争取关闭萨斯主义清真寺的新闻报道中也引用了汤姆逊的观点。最重要的是,记者开始呼吁有关部门解释法国及欧洲长期以来为什么、怎么会忽视本土圣战分子,还是在这些圣战分子目标明确,反恐警告不绝的情况下犯下如此纰漏。至于纰漏的存在——多在于西方自己而少在于圣战分子本身——汤姆逊没有给出更多。“The reality is that no one knows how to solve the problem,Thomson told Slate’s French edition. “The horrors have happened. I know that it can shock some to say it, but Europe is condemned to suffer the consequence of the mistakes it made in 2012, 2013, 2014 to have let hundreds of French leave for Syria and Iraq and create a base there, with terrorist intentions, and to have not seen them leaving, or stopped them from going.”汤姆逊对《批评板杂志法国版》说:“现实就是,没人知道怎么解决问题。恐怖事件已经发生了。我知道接下来的话可能会惊到有些人,不过我还是要说,欧洲活该承受自己012年犯错犯014年导致的苦果——让成百上千心怀不轨的法国人前往叙利亚和伊拉克建立基地,既不监视也不阻止他们离开。”来 /201701/487114

If Hillary Clinton wins the US presidential election in November, three of the world’s five largest economies will be led by women. 如果希拉#8226;克林Hillary Clinton)赢得11月的美国总统选举,那么在世界五大经济体中,三个经济体的领导人都将是女性。Angela Merkel, Germany’s chancellor, Theresa May, UK prime minister, and Mrs Clinton, have all been hailed as role models for women and girls. 德国总理安格#8226;默克Angela Merkel)、英国首相特里萨#8226;Theresa May)和希拉里,都已被誉为妇女与少女的楷模。But the singularity and precariousness of their success raises the question: are women automatically good examples for other women?但是,她们成功的异常性和不稳定性引出了如下疑问:女性会自然而然成为其他女性的好榜样吗?The ability of role models, in portraits and more importantly in the flesh, to influence gender inequality is both encouraging and muddy, says Iris Bohnet, professor of public policy at Harvard University’s Kennedy School.楷模——通过肖像和更重要的身体力行——影响性别不平等的能力既令人鼓舞,又有些含混,哈佛大学(Harvard University)肯尼迪学Kennedy School)的公共政策教授艾里斯#8226;内Iris Bohnet)说。Some evidence on the power of role models is overwhelmingly positive. 有些关于楷模力量的据是压倒性正面的。Ms Bohnet cites the Panchayati Raj act, a constitutional amendment in India introduced in 1993, which stipulated that village councils needed to reserve one-third of their seats, and one-third of their council leader positions, for women. 内特引用了印度993年颁布的一个宪法修正案——《潘查亚特制度法Panchayati Raj act)——该法规定,村委会应保留三分之一的席位、三分之一的领导岗位给女性。Not only did the share of Indian local government posts held by women rise from 5 per cent in 1993 to 40 per cent by 2005, but the new role models the law created had a dramatic impact on families and younger women.993年到2005年,在印度地方政府担任职务的女性比例从5%上升0%。同时,该法造就的新楷模对千家万户和年轻妇女产生了非常大的影响。With the advent of female village leaders, the likelihood that a woman spoke up in a village meeting increased by 25 per cent. 随着女性村领导登场,女性在村会议上发言的可能性提高了25%。Villagers who had been exposed to at least two female chiefs in West Bengal overcame their initial bias against women as leaders and rated male and female leaders equally. 在西孟加拉邦(West Bengal),至少见过两名女长官的村民们克了他们最初对女性领导的偏见,开始对男性和女性领导人平等看待。This category of converts included parents, who were more likely to want their daughters to study past secondary school, thus eliminating the gender gap in aspirations. 改变观念的群体包括父母,他们更可能希望女儿在读完中学后深造,由此消除了男女在抱负上的差距。The Indian legislation, writes Ms Bohnet in her book What Works: Gender Equality by Design, showed that the act of seeing women lead increased women’s self-confidence and their willingness to compete in male-dominated domains, and it changed men’s and women’s beliefs about what an effective leader looked like.内特在她的书《什么管用:用设计来实现性别平等What Works: Gender Equality by Design)中写道,这部印度法律表明,看到妇女担任领导职位,加强了妇女们的自信,使她们更愿意在男性占主导地位的领域展开竞争,这改变了男人和妇女对于有效领导人是什么样子的观念。There is plenty of evidence from elsewhere in the world on the effectiveness of female role models. 世界其他地区也有大量据明了女性楷模的作用。In the US, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission analysed data from more than 20,000 private-sector companies and found that, when the share of female top managers increased, the share of women in middle-management subsequently rose.在美国,平等就业机会委员Equal Employment Opportunity Commission)在分析了万家私营部门公司的数据后发现,当担任高层管理人的女性比例提高时,担任中层管理岗位的女性比例随后也会提高。The US research contains some less good news, though. 不过,美国的研究包含一些不太好的消息。It found that the positive influence of women in top leadership positions on gender diversity at management level diminished over time, suggesting that women at the top play a positive yet transitory role in women’s career advancement.研究发现,随着时间的推移,担任高层领导职位的女性对于管理层性别多元化的正面影响逐渐减小,这似乎表明,高层女性在女性职业进展方面发挥了一种积极但暂时的作用。Richie Zweigenhaft, a professor of psychology at Guilford College in North Carolina, provides one possible explanation for this in his recent book on female and ethnic minority chief executives at Fortune 500 companies. 里奇#8226;威根哈福Richie Zweigenhaft)是北卡罗来纳州吉尔福德学Guilford College)的心理学教授。他在最近一本有关财00Fortune 500)女性和少数族裔CEO的书中对此提出了一个可能的解释。He suggests that the existence of a few trailblazers has allowed companies and political parties to become lazier in promoting women.他提出,少量开拓者的存在,使得公司和政党在提拔女性方面变得懈怠。One of the ironic effects of the past rise in numbers of women at the top, Prof Zweigenhaft argues, may be that the heyday of diversity has come and gone. 威根哈福特教授认为,高层女性人数过往的增长带来的讽刺效应之一,可能是多元化的全盛时代来了又走了。His study found that the number of white women, African-Americans, Latinos and Asian Americans appointed as the chief executives of Fortune 500 companies declined sharply in 2015. 他的研究发现015年,财富500强企业中白人女性、非裔、西语裔和亚裔美国人CEO人数锐减。Now that a few women have made it to the top, there appears to be less, not more, pressure on boards to appoint them.由于已经有一些女性进入最高层,因此董事会继续任命女性的压力似乎减小了,而不是增加了。Such a development is itself open to alternative explanations. 这样的发展本身可能有多种解释。There are just 21 women at the helm of Fortune 500 companies, meaning that even one fewer female chief executive constitutes a large percentage swing. 目前仅有21位女性执掌着财富500强企业,这意味着哪怕减少一位女性CEO也会产生较大的百分比波动。In addition, the fact that women make up just 4 per cent of chief executives may not constitute enough of a critical mass for less senior women to aspire to.此外,女性在CEO中仅%,可能不足以构成让级别较低的女性向往的关键多数。Indeed, having a small number of highly successful women at the top can prove a double-edged sword. 的确,少数极为成功的女性担任最高职务可能是一把双刃剑。Anecdotal evidence suggests that if the women in leadership posts are overwhelmingly white, highly educated and often childless this can deter other women who do not fit these categories.坊间据似乎表明,如果身处领导层的女性绝大多数是受过高等教育的白人——而且往往没有孩子——这可能吓阻不符合这些特征的其他女性。The experience of much-written-about superwomen, such as fund managers Nicola Horlick and Helena Morrissey in the UK, or Sheryl Sandberg, chief operating officer of Facebook in the US, can sometimes discourage as much as encourage those attempting to imitate their success.新闻报道中常常提到的女超人——比如英国的基金经理妮古#8226;霍利Nicola Horlick)和海伦娜#8226;莫里Helena Morrissey)、或者美国的Facebook首席运营官谢里尔#8226;桑德伯格(Sheryl Sandberg)——既有可能鼓舞那些试图效仿其成功的女性,有时也有可能让后者泄气。Brenda Trenowden, chair of the 30% Club, which campaigns globally to increase female representation at senior corporate levels, acknowledges the problem. 在全球推动增加女性在企业高层任职0%俱乐30% Club)的主席布伦达#8226;特雷诺登(Brenda Trenowden)承认存在这一问题。But she also proposes a solution, suggesting that more senior women need to be encouraged to talk authentically and frankly, warts and all about their rise to top positions. 不过她也提出了一个解决方案:需要鼓励更多高层女性真诚、坦癀?毫无保留地讨论她们晋升至顶级职位的过程。There is no normal for how to go about engineering success or what that might even look like; nor is there is one correct model for getting to the top and that needs to be visibly and candidly reflected in society, she says.她称,对于如何取得成功或者怎样算成功,没有什么正常模式;也没有什么晋升至高层的正确模式,而那需要明显而坦白地反映于社会。Deborah Gillis, president of Catalyst, which campaigns to improve gender diversity at work, argues that the presence of more women in senior positions helps to break down the think-leader-think-male mindset. 致力于推进职场性别多元化的组织Catalyst的总裁德波#8226;吉利Deborah Gillis)认为,更多女性出现在高级岗位有助于打破想到领导就想到男性的思维模式。Ms Gillis points out that women such as Ms Merkel and Mrs Clinton often face biting judgments about their gender, experience, likeability and their appearance. 吉利斯指出,像默克尔和希拉里这样的女性往往面对着外界对其性别、经验、亲和度和外表的尖刻评价。Men who run for office or rise to lead companies are largely free from such criticism and benefit from long-held advantages in politics, business and society as a whole. 参加竞选或晋升到掌门人位置的男性在很大程度上不会遭受类似批评,同时受益于男性在政界、商界和整个社会的长期优势。A critical mass of women at the top should slowly change that.高层女性达到关键多数应该会慢慢改变这一现状。来 /201610/469780

  Former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic has been found guilty of genocide and crimes against humanity during the Bosnian conflict and sentenced to 40 years in jail, in Europe’s biggest war crimes judgment since the second world war. 波黑塞族前领导人拉多#8226;卡拉季奇(Radovan Karadzic)被判犯有种族灭绝罪和反人类罪,判0年监禁。这是自二战以来欧洲最严厉的战争罪判决结果Karadzic was convicted of genocide in the massacre of 8,000 Muslim men and boys in Srebrenica in 1995 the worst atrocity on European soil since 1945 and playing a key role in the 44-month siege that brought terror to the Bosnian capital, Sarajevo. 法庭认定,卡拉季奇在1995年在斯雷布雷尼察Srebrenica)杀000名穆斯林男子和男孩的事件中犯有种族灭绝罪——那945年以来在欧洲土地上发生的最大规模屠杀——并在长4个月对波斯尼亚首府萨拉热窝的围困中扮演了关键角色;那场围困使萨拉热窝陷入恐惧The verdict at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia will be seen as finally bringing justice, more than two decades later, for Croatian and Muslim victims of the three-and-a-half year Bosnian war. 前南斯拉夫问题国际刑事法International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia)的这次判决,将被视为在持年半的波斯尼亚战争结0多年后为克罗地亚和穆斯林受害者伸张了正义The conflict killed more than 100,000 people and drove more than 2m from their homes, bringing mass murder, rape and “ethnic cleansingback to the heart of Europe. 那场冲突夺取了0万人的生命,让00万人无家可归,把大屠杀、强奸和“种族清洗”带回了欧洲心脏地区As well as the genocide charge, the former Bosnian Serb president was convicted of nine counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity, including extermination, murder, deportation and terror. He was acquitted of a second charge of genocide in several Bosnian towns in 1992. 除了种族灭绝罪,这位前波黑塞尔维亚共和国总统还被判犯项战争罪和反人类罪,包括灭绝罪、谋杀罪、驱逐罪和恐怖罪。对992年在几个波斯尼亚城镇犯下的第二宗种族灭绝罪指控,他被判无罪The judgment will strengthen the claim of the UN tribunal in The Hague initially criticised for a slow start to have successfully carried out the mandate it was given 23 years ago. The tribunal was the first such court to be convened since the postwar Nuremberg trials. 此次宣判将强化这个位于海牙的联合国法庭的说法,即它成功地履行了在23年前获得的授权。最初该法庭曾被批评行动缓慢。该法庭是二战后纽伦堡审Nuremberg trial)以来成立的第一个此类法庭Zeid Ra’ad al-Hussein, UN commissioner for human rights, said the verdict “should give pause to leaders across Europe and elsewhere who seek to exploit nationalist sentiments and scapegoat minorities 联合国人权事务高级专员扎伊德#8226;拉阿#8226;侯赛Zeid Ra’ad al-Hussein)表示,这一判决“应会让欧洲乃至世界其他地区寻求利用民族主义情绪、把少数族裔当做替罪羊的领导人感到踌躇”Karadzic is the most senior leader to face judgment at the ICTY, after a trial that lasted five years and called 586 witnesses. Former Yugoslav president Slobodan Milosevic, who was accused of fomenting the conflicts, died of a heart attack in his cell in 2006 before his trial could be concluded. 卡拉季奇是在前南斯拉夫问题国际刑事法庭受到审判的最高级别领导人,对他的审判延续年、传唤了586名人。前南斯拉夫总统斯洛丹#8226;米洛舍维Slobodan Milosevic)被指控煽动冲突,他在审判结束之前,于2006年因心脏病发作死于牢房。来 /201603/433533

  South Korean President Park Geun-hye will not attend the Asia-Pacific summit meeting slated for later this month amid a snowballing political scandal involving the presidents longtime confidante and former aides, Seouls foreign ministry spokesman Cho June-hyuck said last Tuesday.随着近日关于韩国总统朴槿惠长期闺蜜及前任助手的政治丑闻愈演愈烈,韩国外交部发言人赵俊赫上周二宣布,朴槿惠将缺席将于本月下旬举行的亚太经合组APEC)峰会。The decision was aly made in September following the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK)s fifth nuclear device test in the month, the spokesman said.这位发言人表示,该决定是在今月份朝鲜第五次核试验之后做出的。The 2016 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Leaders Meeting is scheduled to be held in the Peruvian capital of Lima for two days from Nov 19.2016年APEC领导人会议将19日在秘鲁首都利马举行,为期两天。It would mark the first time since the Asia-Pacific leaders meeting was launched in 1993 that a South Korean president is absent from the gathering.这将是自APEC领导人会993年启动以来,韩国总统首次缺席该会议。The first South Korean female leader fired eight presidential secretaries and named three cabinet members, including a new prime minister, but opposition parties had boycotted the ;unilateral; nomination of the countrys No.2 executive position.这位韩国史上第一位女总统于近期解雇了八名总统秘书,并提名了三名新内阁成员其中包括一名新总理。但是反对党抵制了这一“单方面”对该国第二行政职位的提名。The foreign ministry spokesman told reporters that who will attend the APEC summit on behalf of the embattled president will be announced recently, adding the ministry is bracing for all possibilities.外交部发言人赵俊赫向记者透露称,代表这位现在已经四面楚歌的总统而参加本次APEC峰会的人选将于近日宣布,并表示外交部为任何可能性做好了准备。来 /201611/479121。


  Chinese President Xi Jinping and his Uruguayan counterpart Tabare Vazquez last Tuesday agreed to establish a strategic partnership based on respect, equality and mutual benefit.中国国家主席习近平上周二与乌拉圭总统塔瓦雷·巴斯克斯就在尊重、平等和互利的基础上,建立战略合作伙伴关系达成共识。The two heads of state made the decision during talks in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing following a red-carpet welcome ceremony.在红毯欢迎仪式结束以后,两国首脑在北京人民大会堂举行谈话,在谈话期间做出了建立战略合作伙伴关系的决定。Xi urged China and the Latin American country to maintain high-level exchanges and enhance communication at all levels to promote mutual understanding and trust.习近平主席主张中国和该拉美国家保持高层密切沟通,在各个层次加强交流,增进双方的了解和信任。China appreciates Uruguayan support for the Belt and Road initiative, and hopes both sides will strengthen integration of development strategies to upgrade economic and trade ties, said Xi.习近平主席指出,中国感谢乌拉圭持一带一路倡议,希望双方加强发展战略对接,推动两国经贸合作提质升级。China is willing to encourage more investment in Uruguay, channelled toward infrastructure projects, Xi stressed, adding that the country is also looking forward to expanding cooperation in agriculture, clean energy, communications, mining, manufacturing and finance.习近平主席强调称,中国愿意鼓励更多中国企业赴乌投资,将投资向基础设施项目疏散。他还补充说道,中方期待在农业,清洁能源,传媒,矿业,人工制造和金融业同乌拉圭扩展合作。In addition, Xi called on both sides to promote people-to-people exchanges and lift ties in culture, education, science and technology, Antarctica tourism as well as football sport.除此之外,习近平主席还呼吁双边要密切人文交流,促进文化、教育、科技、南极、旅游、地方、足球等领域交流合作。As for global affairs, Xi said that China is y to strengthen collaboration with Uruguay in climate change, economic governance, UNs 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, peace-keeping and South-South cooperation.在谈到国际事务时,习近平主席表示,中国准备就气候变化、全球经济治理030年可持续发展议程、维和、南南合作等问题同乌方加强沟通和协调。Echoing Xis remarks, Vazquez said that the establishment of a strategic partnership will begin a new chapter of Uruguay-China ties. Uruguay welcomes more Chinese investment in the country and is willing to negotiate a free trade agreement with China.巴斯克斯总统赞同习近平主席的言论并表示,建立战略合作伙伴关系将开启中乌关系的新篇章。乌拉圭欢迎更多来自中国的投资,并且愿意和中国协商自由贸易协定。来 /201610/474962David Cameron will come under pressure at this week’s G7 summit as fellow leaders take the British prime minister to task over his role in relations with China and a global fiscal stimulus.在本周七国集G7)峰会上,戴维#8226;卡梅David Cameron)将承受压力,因为其他几个国家的领导人将会批评这位英国首相在对华关系和全球财经刺激中扮演的角色。Mr Cameron will face opposition from Barack Obama, the US President, and Shinzo Abe, Japan’s prime minister, Britain’s stance as China’s “best partner in the westand its refusal to ease austerity at a time of weak global demand.鉴于英国秉持的作中国“在西方最佳伙伴”的立场、以及其在全球需求疲弱之际拒绝放松紧缩,卡梅伦将遭遇美国总统巴拉#8226;奥巴Barack Obama)和日本首相安倍晋Shinzo Abe)的反对。European diplomats have also criticised Britain’s approach to China, although Angela Merkel, Germany’s chancellor, will lead a large delegation there next month and France also has big commercial interests in the country.欧洲外交官也对英国的对华政策持批评态度,尽管德国总理安格#8226;默克Angela Merkel)下月将率庞大代表团访华、而法国在中国也有着巨大的商业利益。Mr Abe is set to make relations with China one of the main topics of the G7 summit, which will be held on the island resort of Kashikojima in central Japan on Thursday and Friday. The subject of “international politicswill cover Beijing’s increasingly assertive role in the region.安倍将把对华关系设定为此次G7峰会的主要议题之一。此次会议将于周四、周五两天在日本中部贤岛(Kashikojima)度假村举行。会议的“国际政治”主题将讨论中国在该地区扮演的日益强硬的角色。Japan’s premier, recognising that the summit comes as Mr Cameron seeks international support ahead of Britain’s EU referendum, is unlikely to single out his UK counterpart. But the Pacific powers of Japan and the US want to stiffen European spines when it comes to relations with Beijing.安倍明白,此次峰会是在卡梅伦于英国脱欧公投前寻求国际持之际召开的,他不大可能将矛头专门指向卡梅伦。但日本和美国这两个太平洋强国希望,欧洲在面对对华关系问题时脊梁能硬起来。According to one of his aides, MrAbe wants to build a consensus on defending the rule of law at sea, especially in regard to China’s island-building in the South China Sea. Beijing has said it will not abide by a UN tribunal’s forthcoming decision on 15 islands, reefs and shoals claimed by China, arguing that the tribunal has no jurisdiction to rule on the case.安倍的一名助手称,安倍想构建在海上捍卫法治的共识,尤其是涉及中国在南中国海的造岛行为时。中国已表示,其不会遵守联合国一仲裁庭即将对中国声称拥有主权5座岛、礁和浅滩作出的仲裁。中方辩称,该仲裁庭对此案无管辖权。Mr Abe wants world leaders to oppose attempts to change the status quo by force, such as Russia’s 2014 annexation of Crimea or a Chinese seizure of islands.安倍希望,世界领导人能反对以武力改变现状的努力,比014年俄罗斯吞并克里米亚,或者中国夺取某些岛屿。There will also be a push to increase transparency about infrastructure investment in developing countries, where Japan often competes with China.安倍还将要求提高在发展中国家搞基础设施投资的透明度。在这方面,日本往往与中国存在竞争关系。However, according to several people involved in preparing the summit, the South China Sea may have a low profile in the G7 communiqué. Tokyo wants to win western support, rather than antagonise Beijing publicly.然而,据几名参与峰会筹备工作的人士表示,南中国海问题或许会低调地出现在G7峰会的公报中。日本想要的是赢得西方的持,而不是公开与中国为敌。Britain’s courtship of Beijing has caused irritation in Washington last year the Obama administration warned of a “constant accommodationof China by London.英国讨好中国的举动已惹恼了美国——去年,奥巴马政府曾对英国“不断迁就”中国发出警告。George Osborne, the UK chancellor, has led Britain’s China policy, including jumping the gun to become the first main western backer of Beijing’s new Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. The US and Japan have not joined.英国财政大臣乔治#8226;奥斯George Osborne)主导了英国对华政策,包括抢先一步成为西方主要国家中首个加入亚洲基础设施投资(AIIB,简称:亚投行)的国家。美国和日本并未加入中国发起的亚投行。Mr Osborne followed that up with a high-profile visit to China last September, including a trip to Xinjiang, where Beijing is accused of repressing alleged Uighur Muslim “separatists随后,奥斯本于去月高调访华,包括访问了新疆。有些人谴责中国政府在新疆压迫所谓的维吾尔族穆斯林“分离主义分子”。In an interview with the FT during that visit, Mr Osborne said he wanted “to take a bit of a risk with the China relationship, pushing it so it really brings jobs and growth to our country奥斯本在那次访问中接受英囀?金融时报》采访时称,他想“在对华关系上冒点险,促使其给我们的国家带来实实在在的就业和增长”。The British government has worked hard to try to allay US concerns. Hugo Swire, minister of state at the Foreign Office, gave a speech in Washington last month in which he praised the US role in pushing back against Beijing in the South China Sea.英国政府费了很大力气来化解美国的担忧。上月,英国外交部国务大臣雨#8226;斯怀Hugo Swire)在华盛顿发表演说,赞扬了美国在南中国海对抗中国方面发挥的作用。He said that, forBritain, freedom of navigation and overflight were “non-negotiableand added that “we recognise and support the US role in defending those principles in Asia Pacific他说,对英国来说,航行与飞越自由是“没有商量余地的”。他接着说,“我们认识到并持美国在亚太捍卫这些原则方面发挥的作用”。Mr Abe’s main goal for the summit is making the G7 more open to fiscal stimulus, which would give him international cover for a delay in raising Japan’s consumption tax from 8 to 10 per cent.安倍为此次峰会设定的主要目标是,让G7成员国以更开放的态度对待财政刺激,这将为他拖延把日本消费税率%上调0%制造一个国际借口。The US, Canada, France and Italy support this, but Germany is strongly against and Mr Cameron’s aides said he believed that “every country should design its economic policies according to its own situation美国、加拿大、法国和意大利持这一目标,但德国强烈反对。卡梅伦的助手们表示,卡梅伦认为“各国应根据本国国情设计自己的经济政策”。Mr Cameron’s support for Berlin ensures that Ms Merkel will not be isolated on the issue. Mr Cameron called on the German chancellor’s support for his recent EU renegotiation.卡梅伦对德国的持确保了默克尔不会在这个问题上受到孤立。卡梅伦呼吁这位德国总理持他近来与欧盟(EU)之间的重新谈判。At the G7 finance ministers meeting in Sendai on Friday and Saturday, Mr Osborne lined up with Wolfgang Sch#228;uble of Germany to oppose fiscal stimulus, according to people present at the discussions. Mr Osborne wants to run a budget surplus by 2020.出席有关讨论的人士表示,在上周五、周六于仙台(Sendai)举行的G7财长会议上,奥斯本与德国财长沃尔夫冈#8226;朔伊布勒(Wolfgang Sch#228;uble)一道反对财政刺激。奥斯本希望英国020年时预算为盈余状态。Following the summit, Mr Obama will make a historic trip to Hiroshima with Mr Abe, becoming the first sitting US president to visit the site of the atomic bombing.G7峰会后,奥巴马将在安倍陪同下对广岛进行历史性访问。他将成为首位访问这一核爆地的在任美国总统。来 /201605/445610

  It can be easy to see the worlds most powerful and influential people as occupying a sphere far removed from the rest of us.人们很容易认为世界上最有权势和影响力的人生活在我们不能企及的世界。But even some of the most successful people started off working odd jobs to earn money and learn the ropes.但即便是一些最成功的人,也是从琐碎的工作开始赚钱和熟悉各个行业的。These 10 successful people prove that the path to success doesnt have to be linear.下面0位成功人士明,通往成功的道路并不一定是条直线。Donald Trump collected bottles唐纳特朗普捡瓶子The president-elect and billionaire real-estate mogul grew up wealthy, but he says his father wanted him to learn the value of money early on.刚当选总统的亿万富翁、房地产大亨特朗普出生于富裕家庭,但他说父亲希望他从小就能明白金钱的价值。As a child, his father, real estate developer Fred Trump, would take him to construction sites and have him and his brother pick up empty soda bottles to redeem for cash, Trump tells Forbes.特朗普对《福布斯》表示,父亲弗雷特朗普是房地产开发商,在他还是个孩子时父亲就带他到建筑工地上,让他和弟弟捡空饮料瓶换钱。He says that he didnt make much, but it taught him to work for his money.他没赚到多少钱,但这教会了他通过工作赚钱。Hillary Clinton supervised park activities希拉克林顿管理公园活动Clinton writes in her autobiography ;Hard Choices; that she got her first paying job, other than babysitting, at 13, supervising a small park a few miles from her home in the Chicago suburb of Park Ridge.希拉里在她的自传《艰难的选择》中写道,除3岁时当保姆外,她的第一份工作是看管离她家几英里的芝加哥郊区帕克里奇的一家小公园。The former secretary of state says she had to lug a wagon full of balls, bats, and jump ropes back and forth three days a week that summer.这位前国务卿称,那年夏天,她每周有三天必须拖着一个装满球、球拍和跳绳的小车,往返于两地之间;My parents believed in self-reliance and hard work, and they made sure we kids learned the value of a dollar and appreciated the dignity of a job well done,; she writes.她写道,“我父母相信自力更生和辛勤工作,他们让我们这些孩子们懂得了一美元的价值、领会到做好一份工作的自豪感。”President Barack Obama scooped ice cream贝拉奥巴马总统卖冰淇淋Even the leader of the free world once had an unglamorous summer job.就连自由世界的领导人也曾做过乏味的暑期工作。As a teenager growing up in Honolulu, Obama got his first gig working the counter at Baskin-Robbins, Time reports.据《时代》杂志报道,在火奴鲁鲁长大的奥巴马的第一份工作是在芭斯罗缤(美国一家冰淇淋零售店)做务生,当时他还是个十几岁的少年。Bernie Sanders worked as a carpenter and documentary filmmaker伯尼.桑德斯当过木匠和纪录片导演After receiving a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science in 1964 from the University of Chicago, where he was an active member of the local civil-rights movement, the Vermont senator held a number of odd jobs, including carpenter and documentary filmmaker, before being elected mayor of Burlington, Vermont, in 1981, at the age of 39.桑德964年获得芝加哥大学政治学文学学士学位,在大学里他是当地民权运动的积极分子981年,39岁的桑德斯当选佛蒙特州伯灵顿市市长。此前,这位佛蒙特州参议员曾做过很多临时工,如木匠和纪录片导演。Madeline Albright sold bras马德奥尔布赖特卖内衣Albright became the first female secretary of state, serving under President Bill Clinton. She made it into the US as a political refugee from Czechoslovakia.奥尔布赖特在比尔.克林顿时期成为美国第一位女性国务卿。她是来自捷克斯洛伐克的政治避难者。She got her first job selling bras at a department store in Denver, she tells Forbes, and adds that she probably made next to nothing but learned how to deal with people in difficult situations.她对《福布斯》称,自己的第一份工作是在丹佛的一家百货商店卖胸罩,还说她没赚到什么钱,但是学会了如何与难搞的人打交道。Michael Bloomberg was a parking-lot attendant迈克布隆伯格曾是停车管理员The former mayor of New York City is now worth an estimated .7 billion, according to Forbes, but he comes from a middle-class family.据《福布斯》称,这位前纽约市市长的身价约为427亿美元,他只不过来自一个中产阶级家庭。As a student at Johns Hopkins University, he worked as a parking-lot attendant to help pay his loans for tuition.布隆伯格在约翰霍普金斯大学读书时,为了付学费贷款曾做过停车管理员。Mark Cuban sold garbage bags马克.库班卖垃圾袋When the Dallas Mavericks owner and entrepreneur asked his dad if he could get a new pair of expensive sneakers, his dad told him he could go get a job. So he did, selling garbage bags door-to-door.当达拉斯小牛队老板、企业家马克.库班向父亲询问能否买一双昂贵的新运动鞋时,父亲告诉他可以去找份工作。库班这么做了,他挨家挨户兜售垃圾袋。Cuban was 12 at the time, and he asked his dad how he was supposed to find a job. Thats when one of his dads friends stepped in. He said he had some garbage bags he needed to sell, so Cuban went door-to-door selling the bags for three dollars more than he paid for them.库班当时12岁,他问父亲应该如何找到一份工作。父亲的一位朋友当时插了一嘴,称他有一些垃圾袋需要出售,所以库班就美元的差价上门出售这些垃圾袋。Warren Buffett was a paperboy沃伦.巴菲特曾是报童Buffett has been interested in making and saving money since he was a kid. Today, the chairman and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway is worth an estimated .6 billion, according to Forbes, making him one of the worlds wealthiest people.巴菲特在儿时就很喜欢赚钱和攒钱。据《福布斯》显示,作为伯克希尔.哈撒韦公司的董事长和首席执行官,如今巴菲特身价约96亿美元,这使他成为世界上最富有的人之一。At the age of 13, Buffett spent his mornings delivering copies of The Washington Post. That same year, he invested ,200 of his savings into 40 acres of farmland.13岁时,巴菲特每天早上都为《华盛顿邮报》送报纸。那一年,他用1200美元的积蓄投资了40英亩农田。Oprah Winfrey worked at a corner grocery store奥普温弗瑞曾在一家街角杂货店工作Winfreys media empire made her the first female black billionaire - shes worth an estimated .9 billion today, according to Forbes. Before she made it to the top, she struggled her way out of a difficult, impoverished childhood.据《福布斯》称,温弗瑞的传媒帝国让她成为首个黑人女性亿万富翁,如今其身价约9亿美元。在温弗瑞成功之前,她曾有过一段艰苦、贫穷的童年。When she was living with her dad in Nashville as a young teenager, she worked at a corner grocery store next to her dads barbershop, Forbes reports.《福布斯》报道,温弗瑞少年时和父亲居住在纳什维尔,当时她在父亲理发店旁边的一间街角杂货店工作。Michael Dell washed dishes迈克戴尔洗盘子As founder and CEO of Dell Inc., Dell enjoyed a rise to power during the heyday of the personal computer. Today, Dell is worth an estimated .5 billion, according to Forbes.作为戴尔公司的创始人和首席执行官,戴尔在个人电脑的鼎盛时期建立起他的帝国。据《福布斯》称,戴尔现在身价约05亿美元。But before he helped make PCs mainstream, Dell got his first job scrubbing dishes for a Chinese restaurant at the age of 12.但在戴尔推动个人电脑成为主流之前,他的第一份工作是12岁时在一家中餐馆洗碗碟。来 /201611/480250




  It takes seven minutes.整个过程需要七分钟。A dusting of Clinique Stay-Matte powder in honey. 扑上倩碧Stay-Matte蜜粉。A hand-stitched wig. 戴上手工缝制的假发。Eyebrows glued up into tiny peaks. 给眉毛粘出小小的眉峰。The rest is left to Alec Baldwin: the puckered lips, a studied lumbering gait and a wariness of humanizing a man he reviles.剩下的就靠亚历克#8226;鲍德Alec Baldwin)自己了:撅起的嘴唇,刻意的笨拙步态,还要留神不要让自己憎恨的这个人显出人情味。The transformation of Baldwin, an outspoken liberal, into the president-elect, Donald Trump, for his running parody on N’s Saturday Night Live, entails a tangerine hairpiece and a tricky tightrope walk. 鲍德温是一个毫不掩饰的自由主义者,为了在N台《周六夜现场Saturday Night Live)中的戏仿节目里变身候任总统唐纳#8226;特朗Donald Trump),他需要一顶橘色假发,同时还要小心面对一种很复杂的局面。It means balancing a veteran actor’s determination to merge his identity into a character, even as, in his offstage life, he is firm in his belief that the man about to take office is a dangerous figure.这意味要调整一个老戏骨的决心,从而把个人身份融入到角色中去,尽管在现实生活中,他坚信这位即将上任的总统是个危险人物。The key to a convincing Trump, the actor said, are puffs his word for the pregnant pauses in the president-elect’s speech. 这位演员说,要想让自己饰演的特朗普令人信,关键就在于喘 着说话―他用这个词来形容候任总统在演讲时酝酿言辞时的停顿。I see a guy who seems to pause and dig for the more precise and better language he wants to use, and never finds it, Baldwin said in an interview on Saturday in his dressing room at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in Manhattan, six hours before show time, his eyebrows aly peaked. 我看到一个人似乎停下来,寻找自己想要的更精确、更好的语言却从来没有找到它,鲍德温周六在曼哈顿洛克菲勒广场30号内的更衣室里接受采访时说,此时距离节目开始还有六个小时,他的眉峰已经做好了。It’s the same dish it’s a grilled-cheese sandwich rhetorically over and over again. 这是同一道菜――这是同一道烤奶酪三明治,只是用虚夸的方法说了一遍又一遍。Much has been made of Trump’s hands. 鲍德温在特朗普的两只手上花了很大功夫。For Baldwin, they are a focus, but for their movements. 对于鲍德温来说,它们非常重要,主要是因为特朗普的手势。Before the actor’s first appearance, he watched hours of rallies and campaign appearances to mimic Trump’s style.第一次出演之前,为了模仿特朗普的风格,他观看了几个小时的集会和竞选活动录像。His Trump is as much censure as impersonation. 他带来的特朗普既是谴责又是模仿。He does not write the sketches. 小品本身不是他写的。He is paid ,400 for each appearance on the show, he said.他说,自己每次在节目中出场可以得400美元的报酬。I’m not interested much by what’s inside him, he said, but in how he moves and takes up space. 我对他的内心不感兴趣,他说,他感兴趣的是特朗普如何移动,如何占据空间。Baldwin then amplifies the gestures, and distills them. 接下来,鲍德温把特朗普的手势进行夸大与提炼。An emphatic wave becomes a goofy wax-on, wax-off movement, he said, the simple hand motion reducing a candidate to an essence: pitchman. 一个表示强调的挥手动作变成了滑稽的打蜡,去蜡的动作,他说,这个简单的手势概括出总统候选人的本质:一个推销员。Saturday Night Live happens at a lightning pace: Those minutes of preparation include dusting the sunset color across Baldwin’s face but not around his eyes, where raccoon circles of white are drawn, he said.《周六夜生活》的进行节奏是极快的:前几分钟的准备工作包括在鲍德温脸上喷洒落日般的颜色――只有他的眼睛除外,他说,他的眼周要涂上浣熊式的白眼圈。The wig, which on Saturday night rested high on a shelf next to the actor Kate McKinnon’s Hillary Clinton hair, is custom made for Baldwin’s head, 星期六晚上,为他量头定制的假发和希拉#8226;克林Hillary Clinton)的假发并排放在一起——克林顿由演员凯#8226;麦金Kate McKinnon)饰演。via seven vectors measured forehead to nape, according to Jodi Mancuso, the show’s hair designer.该节目的发型设计师朱#8226;曼库Jodi Mancuso)说, 假发是根据从前额到脖颈测出的七个数值定制的。It helps him transform instantly, Mancuso said. 它帮他在瞬间变身,曼库索说。The minute it goes on with the makeup, it’s like, ‘Oh, I get it. 化妆过程中把它戴上去的那一刻,感觉就像是,‘哦,我明白了’。Baldwin said that he planned to continue playing Trump on Saturday Night Live and perhaps elsewhere, but that his work schedule he is about to film two movies would mean his performances would be intermittent. 鲍德温说,他计划继续在《周六夜现场》饰演特朗普,或许还会在其他地方出演,但他即将拍摄两部电影,这个工作安排意味着他的表演会是断断续续的。Besides, he said, it might start to get old for audiences.此外,他说,观众可能会开始厌倦。It has been suggested that Baldwin, 58, is uniquely able to portray Trump and to rankle him because of their similarities. 鲍德温今8岁,他和特朗普的相似之处让一些人觉得他是饰演——以及惹怒——特朗普的不二人选。In 2011, Baldwin mulled running for mayor of New York City. 2011年,鲍德温仔细考虑过竞选纽约市市长的可能性。They can both appear thin-skinned. 他和特朗普都显得有些敏感易怒。Antagonized by paparazzi and feeling harassed by what he says are false accusations that he uttered slurs, Baldwin has at times publicly denounced the media. 鲍德温有时会公开谴责媒体,因为仔队令他恼怒,关于他使用侮辱性言辞的指责也令他烦恼(他声称这些指责是假的)。On Twitter, he can be pugilistic, notably with Trump and with his brother Stephen Baldwin, over their divergent political views.在Twitter上,他可能显得很好斗,特别是针对特朗普和他的兄弟史蒂#8226;鲍德Stephen Baldwin)这两个和他存在政治分歧的人。Such a comparison profoundly pains Baldwin, whose father was a public-school teacher from Long Island, N.Y. 这样的比较令鲍德温深感痛苦,他的父亲是来自纽约州长岛的公立学校教师。He says he has striven not to let his financial success mar his values, and he vehemently denies the racist and homophobic slurs that have been ascribed to him. 他说,自己努力不让财务上的成功破坏自己的价值观,他强烈否认自己曾经使用过那些同他挂上勾的种族主义与同性恋歧视的侮辱性言辞。The difference is, with Trump, it’s incontrovertible that he has said the things he’s said, Baldwin said. 我们之间的区别是,特朗普说过那些话是不可否认的,鲍德温说。And he ran on them.他滔滔不绝地抛出那些话。As a candidate, Trump protested the Saturday Night Live portrayal of him, calling it part of a rigged media campaign to undermine him. 竞选总统期间,特朗普曾经抗议《周六夜现场》塑造的这个形象,称其属于受到操纵的媒体运动,以此破坏他的竞选。Baldwin said that Lorne Michaels, the creator and executive producer of Saturday Night Live, has countered that the sketch show has long been an equal-opportunity heckler.鲍德温说,《周六夜现场》的主创和执行制片人洛恩#8226;迈克尔斯(Lorne Michaels)反驳说,这个小品节目向来对所有人一视同仁。As president-elect, Trump has continued to tweet his displeasure. 成为候任总统之后,特朗普继续发推表示不满。Just tried watching Saturday Night Live unwatchable! Totally biased, not funny and the Baldwin impersonation just can’t get any worse. 试着看了看《周六夜现场――没法看!彻底的偏见,不好笑,鲍德温的模仿没法更糟糕了。Sad, he posted just after midnight on Dec. 4可悲,他2日午夜之后发推说。Baldwin said that he considered the reprobation funny, even as a fake news article has circulated since his first appearance as Trump, mourning the actor’s death.鲍德温说,他认为这个斥责很搞笑,尽管从他第一次出演特朗普之后,就有哀悼这位演员已经死亡的假新闻流传开来。As the call to dress for rehearsal sounded in the eighth-floor corridor at 30 Rock, Baldwin ducked into his dressing room with his wife, Hilaria, and 3-year-old daughter Carmen, who had stopped by to kiss him good night, shutting the door.洛克菲勒30号的八楼走廊上传来叫声,要大家穿好衣去排练鲍德温和妻子希拉莉亚(Hilaria)以及三岁的女儿卡Carmen)一起走进更衣室,她们是顺便过来和他道晚安的,鲍德温关上了门。Suddenly, he popped it back open.突然,他猛地把门推开了。Whoever it is, wouldn’t it be great to be the person who pulls the sword out of the stone? Who gets rid of this guy? Baldwin said into the hallway. 无论是谁,成为那个把剑从石头上拔出来的人不是很好吗?成为除掉这个家伙的人,鲍德温站在走廊里说。Wouldn’t that be thrilling? 那肯定很刺激吧?He closed the door and put on his suit.他关上门,穿上他的西装。来 /201612/485386


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