即墨无痛人流安全的医院乐视大夫

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 即墨无痛人流安全的医院求医报
The heat on McDonald’s just got turned up a notch.对麦当劳的热议愈演愈烈。On Monday the company reported a 2.2% decline in global same store sales for the month of November, with the U.S. market taking the biggest hit (-4.6%). The Wall Street Journal reported that the drop in the U.S. was the biggest in more than 14 years.该公司周一公布,11月份全球同店销售额下降2.2%,美国业务跌幅最猛(下跌4.6%)。《华尔街日报》(The Wall Street Journal)报道,这是逾14年来麦当劳美国同店销售额的最大下滑。I detailed McDonald’s woes last month, noting that the pressure was mounting on CEO Don Thompson to turn around the fast food giant. But with no relief in sight, investors may soon turn their attention to the McDonald’s board.上个月我详细介绍了麦当劳的困境,并且指出,为让这家快餐巨擘扭转颓势,首席执行官唐o汤普森正面临巨大的压力。而由于看不到任何缓解的迹象,投资者的注意力可能很快就会转向麦当劳董事会。Leading the group is Andy McKenna, the company’s non-executive chairman since 2004 and a director since 1991. McKenna is a Chicago heavy hitter, who has been called “the power behind the throne” by the hometown press. Chicago Magazine has put him on its list of the 100 Most Powerful Chicagoans, describing him as “a bigwig other bigwigs seek out for advice.” He has chaired the White Sox and Cubs, and is now on the board of the Chicago Bears. He has also sat on countless other civic and corporate boards, including the University of Notre Dame and the Big Shoulders Fund of the Archdiocese of Chicago.作为董事会首脑人物,安迪o麦肯纳1991年当选公司董事,2004年成为非执行董事长。在芝加哥,麦肯纳是个大人物,当地媒体称他为“王座背后的力量”。《芝加哥》杂志(Chicago Magazine)把麦肯纳评为100名最有影响力的芝加哥人之一,并将他描述为“其他大人物寻求建议的大人物”。他是芝加哥白袜(White Sox)和芝加哥小熊(Cubs)棒球俱乐部的董事长,现在又进入了橄榄球俱乐部芝加哥熊队(Chicago Bears)的董事会。他还在众多民间机构和公司担任董事,包括美国圣母大学(University of Notre Dame)和天主教芝加哥总教区Big Shoulders基金。According to company filings, McKenna planned to leave the board in 2003 when he reached McDonald’s mandatory retirement age for directors of 73. But in the interim the company went through a CEO handoff, and the board asked McKenna to stay on to aid in the transition.公司文件显示,麦肯纳原计划于2003年退出董事会,那一年他73岁,到了该公司规定董事退休的年龄。然而,由于当时麦当劳正在更换CEO,董事会邀请麦克纳留任,以协助完成交接。The following year McDonald’s loosened the retirement rule in its proxy, saying that the board “may nominate existing members of the board over the age of 73 as candidates in exceptional circumstances.” McDonald’s was then struck by misfortune in its leadership ranks. CEO Jim Cantalupo died of a heart attack while in the job. His successor, Charlie Bell, was then diagnosed with colon cancer and resigned.2004年,麦当劳放宽了董事退休限制,称董事会“可以在特殊情况下提名年龄超过73岁的现任董事”。那一年,麦当劳高层厄运连连。CEO吉姆o坎塔卢波因心脏病突然离世。继任者查理o贝尔也因诊断出结肠癌而辞职。By 2007, when two additional board members hit 73, the language about mandatory retirement had disappeared. McKenna has now overlapped with the tenures of six different McDonald’s CEOs.2007年,又有两名麦当劳董事到了73岁,而强制退休规定已经了无踪迹。现在,麦肯纳已经和六位不同的CEO共过事。As of the most recently filed proxy, three board members were over 73: McKenna (listed as 84), Walter Massey (76), and Roger Stone (79). MSCI ESG Research, which provides data on governance, found that the average age of a director at McDonald’s is about 63, the oldest in its peer group. Compare the figure with Burger King (about 50), Starbucks (about 58), and Yum Brands (about 59). McDonald’s directors also have a longer tenure (12 years) than those on other big restaurant company boards (eight years).麦当劳提交的最新名单显示,超过73岁的董事有三名,分别是84岁的麦肯纳、76岁的沃尔特o马瑟和79岁的罗杰o斯通。公司治理数据供应商MSCI ESG Research发现,麦当劳董事会的平均年龄为63岁,高于其他任何同类企业,比如汉堡王(Burger King,约50岁)、星巴克(Starbucks,约58岁)和百胜餐饮集团(Yum Brands,约59岁)。和其他大型餐饮企业8年的董事任期相比,麦当劳董事的任期也更长,达到了12年。A similar sp can be found when one compares McDonald’s with an even bigger corporate universe, such as the Samp;P 500. Larry Fauver of the University of Tennessee’s Corporate Governance Center found that the average number of years served by a director at McDonald’s was 12.5 versus 9.5 for the broader index. “That’s a fairly significant difference,” he told me.将麦当劳和更大的企业群体,比如标普500指数(Samp;P 500)成分股公司相比,类似的差异同样存在。田纳西大学企业治理中心(University of Tennessee’s Corporate Governance Center)研究员拉里o福韦发现,麦当劳董事的平均任期为12年半,而这个数字在标普500指数成分股公司中为9年半。他说:“这个差距相当大。”Why does this matter? In a few words: connection to the company’s customers. While octogenarian and late septuagenarian directors may have more seasoning and worldly experience than young Turks, there is an argument to be made that they may not be quite as in touch with the two demographic segments that McDonald’s really needs and is struggling to attract: millennials and young families. “That’s why you need a refreshed board,” says Charles Elson, director of the John L. Weinberg Center for Corporate Governance at the University of Delaware. “You need to take fresh looks.”这一点为什么很重要呢?简而言之就是,这关乎与顾客的联系。尽管和年轻人相比,年逾七八旬的董事可能经历了更多也更有经验,但他们和千禧一代以及年轻家庭的联系也许不像前者那么紧密,而这两个群体正是麦当劳真正需要并且正在竭力争取的目标顾客。特拉华大学John L. Weinberg企业治理中心(John L. Weinberg Center for Corporate Governance at the University of Delaware)主任查尔斯o埃尔森指出:“这就是为什么需要给董事会注入活力,他们需要有崭新的面貌。”Fauver adds another concern: Board members who have been around that long may not have enough distance from management to be objective about the company’s performance and challenges. “How independent are you after 23 years?” Fauver asks.福韦还有另一层顾虑:长期任职的董事会成员和管理层的距离可能不足以让他们客观看待公司的表现及其面临的挑战。他问道:“当了23年的董事后,你还会有多少独立性呢?”I spoke with McDonald’s chair McKenna briefly for my November story, in which he told me that the board is “very supportive” of CEO Thompson. I also asked McKenna about the board and its tenure. He replied that that he didn’t think length of service had deprived any of the directors of their independence. McDonald’s did not respond to a request for comment in time for publication of this story.撰写11月份的文章时,我和麦当劳董事长麦肯纳进行了短暂的交流,他告诉我,董事会“非常持”CEO汤普森。我也向他提出了关于董事会和董事任期的问题。他回答说,他觉得任职时间并不会削弱任何董事的独立性。直到本文发表时,麦当劳没有应要求就此发表。In its proxy, the company notes that 12 of 13 of its directors are independent—Thompson being the exception. But there are a couple of interesting connections between the company’s directors that go beyond the McDonald’s boardroom:麦当劳在名单上指出,除汤普森外,该公司13位董事中有12名独立董事。不过,除了同为董事会成员,这些成员之间还存在一些有意思的关联。–The vast majority of McDonald’s board members are based out of Chicago. (That’s not very geographically diverse for a truly global company.)- 绝大多数麦当劳董事的办公地点都在芝加哥以外(这样的地理分布对一家真正的全球化企业来说并不是非常多元化)。–According to the proxy, in 2013 Inter-Con Security Systems, whose CEO is McDonald’s director Enrique Hernandez, provided physical security systems for the company’s home office campus. McDonald’s payments to Inter-Con totaled .3 million (less than 1% of Inter-Con’s revenue).- 名单显示,由麦当劳董事恩里克o埃尔南德斯担任CEO的安保公司Inter-Con Security Systems在2013年为麦当劳的家庭办公室园区提供了安保系统。麦当劳为此付了130万美元(不到后者收入的1%)。–Jeanne Jackson, a Nike executive, overlapped on the Nordstrom board with Hernandez from 2002-2009. Hernandez became Nordstrom’s non-executive chairman in 2006. They have overlapped on the McDonald’s board together since 1999.- 2002-2009年,耐克公司(Nike)高层珍妮o杰克逊和埃尔南德斯都在零售企业诺德斯特龙(Nordstrom)担任董事。2006年,埃尔南德斯成为诺德斯特龙非执行董事长。两人均于1999年进入麦当劳董事会。–Directors Roger Stone and McKenna at one time both ran companies that were suppliers to McDonald’s, even as they sat on McDonald’s board of directors.- 尽管担任了麦当劳董事,但罗杰o斯通和麦肯纳都曾经营公司作为麦当劳的供应商。–McDonald’s CEO Don Thompson was a director of the utility company Exelon from 2007 to 2013, overlapping with McDonald’s director and Ariel Investments CEO John Rogers. Rogers is a current Exelon director who joined the board in 2000. Exelon’s proxy notes that McDonald’s is a customer, paying Exelon million in 2013.- 麦当劳CEO唐o汤普森曾于2007-2013年在电力公司Exelon担任董事,当时和他一起在Exelon担任董事的还有麦当劳董事、投资公司Ariel Investments首席执行官约翰o罗杰斯。罗杰斯2000年进入Exelon董事会,一直任职至今。Exelon的资料显示,麦当劳是该公司客户,2013年向其付1400万美元。–McKenna served as Aon’s longest-tenured director, stepping down in 2012 after more than 40 years. McDonald’s director Rogers joined the Aon board in 1993, serving also until 2012. Rogers has been on the McDonald’s board since 2003.- 麦肯纳是风险管理及再保险公司怡安(Aon)资格最老的董事,任职时间超过40年,于2012年退出董事会。麦当劳董事罗杰斯1993年进入怡安董事会,也在2012年卸任。罗杰斯从2003年开始担任麦当劳董事。–McDonald’s director Cary McMillan, CEO of True Partners Consulting, is chairman of the Board of Governors for the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. Fellow McDonald’s director Walter Massey is president of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago.- 麦当劳董事、税务及商业咨询公司True Partners Consulting首席执行官凯瑞o麦克米伦是芝加哥艺术学院(School of the Art Institute of Chicago)监事会主席。另一名麦当劳董事沃尔特o马瑟则是该学院院长。–Director Richard Lenny joined private equity firm Friedman, Fleischer amp; Lowe as an operating partner in 2011 and is now a senior advisor. This September his fellow McDonald’s board member Robert Eckert became an operating partner. They’ve overlapped on the McDonald’s board since 2005.- 2011年,麦当劳董事理查德o伦尼进入私募公司Friedman, Fleischer amp; Lowe担任经营合伙人,目前为高级顾问。今年9月份,另一位麦当劳董事罗伯特o埃克特也成为该公司经营合伙人。两人从2005年起开始在麦当劳董事会共事。Corporate governance expert Nell Minow notes that Chicago has historically had more inbred boards than other cities, and she believes that may very well still be the case. “What you see at McDonald’s is what we expect from boards circa 1990, not circa 2014,” she says. “It’s like McDonald’s hasn’t gotten the message that most boards have about how important it is that you demonstrate a very clear picture of independence to the shareholder community.”公司治理专家内尔o米诺指出,以前芝加哥的“熟人董事会”就比其他城市多,她相信现在很可能依然如此。米诺说:“麦当劳董事会的情况应该出现在1990年前后,而不是2014年。大多数公司董事会已经认识到,非常清楚地向股东表明自身的独立性有多么重要,而麦当劳好像还没有意识到这一点。”Elson of the University of Delaware says that the closer directors get outside of the board room, the more concerning it is. These relationships have the potential to introduce elements into the mix that might make it hard to be objective. He adds, “Any time you see significant length of tenure and interrelationships between directors, it raises questions of effectiveness.”特拉华大学的埃尔森认为,董事们在公司以外的关系越密切,就越让人担心。这些关系有可能把别的因素带进董事会,而这样的因素或许会让董事们难以保持客观。他还说:“只要存在任职时间特别长以及董事之间关系密切的情况,董事会的效用就可能成问题。”(财富中文网) /201412/348280One night last month, Lesley King received a Facebook message that reflected what she considers one of the finest qualities of Old Greenwich: a connected community.上个月的一天晚上,莱斯利·金(Lesley King)收到一条Facebook讯息,这件事体现出老格林威治(Old Greenwich)在她看来最好的一面:这是个很团结的社区。Her new business, Back 40 Mercantile, an upscale general store for the eco-conscious, had opened that day in the small commercial center called ;the village.; (Ms. King is an owner with family members.) She had closed up shop only a few hours before. The Facebook message arrived around 9: A man she barely knew wanted her to know that he had spotted a candle still burning in the shop.她新开的Back 40 Mercantile是一家高级杂货店,客户多为有环保意识的人群。这家商店那天刚刚在一个名为the village的小型商业中心开业(店主是金和她的家人)。她在几个小时前才刚刚结束营业,收到这条Facebook讯息的时候大约是9点:那是一个她不大认识的人。他就是想让她知道,他看见她的店里还点着一只蜡烛。A resident of Old Greenwich since 2001, Ms. King says that sort of neighborly outreach is the custom in a community where people#39;s yards don#39;t extend much beyond their houses.金从2001年起就成了老格林威治的居民。她说,在这样一个各家的屋外庭院都伸不出多远的社区里,那种从邻里间延伸出来的相互关照,已经成了一种风俗。At the home she shares with her husband, Bill, and their four children, the swing set sits in the front yard, an open invitation to youngsters walking by. That might not pass muster in the parts of Greenwich that take pride in pristine, gated isolation, but the culture of Old Greenwich is better expressed by the prevalence of front porches.在她与丈夫比尔(Bill)及四个孩子共同居住的家里,前院安装了一副秋千,这对于路过的孩子们来说就是个公开的邀请。那样的设施在格林威治一些以古朴守旧、门禁森严为傲的地方,可能是不合要求的;但在这里,随处可见的前院门廊却更好地体现了老格林威治的文化。;The best thing about Old Greenwich,; Ms. King said, ;is that everybody lives in houses close to each other.;“老格林威治最好的地方,”金说,“就是大家都住得很近。”A census-designated place with its own ZIP code, Old Greenwich occupies the southeastern edge of the town of Greenwich, bordering Stamford and extending into Long Island Sound. A summer beach resort in the 19th century, it takes in a large peninsula that tapers into a spit prized townwide as a public recreation area. Officially, the 147-acre site is called Greenwich Point Park; unofficially, it is known as Tod#39;s Point, after a banker who once had an estate there.老格林威治社区位于格林威治镇的西北部边缘,与斯坦福德(Stamford)交界,并伸入长岛湾(Long Island Sound),是一个有单独邮政编码的普查指定居民区。这里作为19世纪的夏季海滨度假地,下辖一座渐成细长岬角的大半岛,是全镇居民都钟爱有加的一处公共场所。这片占地147英亩(约60公顷)的地方,正式的名称是“格林威治岬角公园”(Greenwich Point Park);而私下里,人们则称之为“托德岬角”(Tod#39;s Point),名称取自一位曾在此地置业的家。If Old Greenwich feels less guarded than some other areas of town, it is hardly bohemian. Single-family homes in decent shape start at around million, with the occasional exception; new construction can run millions more. Private neighborhood associations maintain their own beach areas and put fence sections in their roads to slow traffic. Local tastes are reflected in the wares at Back 40 Mercantile like Himalayan pink salt and flip-flops.老格林威治虽然感觉上没有该镇其它区域那么戒备森严,但也不是很波西米亚。那些独门独户、打理得非常体面的房屋,起价大约为100万美元(约合人民币614万元),偶有例外;而新建的房屋则有可能高达数百万美元。一些民间社区协会维护着他们自己的海滩区域,并在道路上设置了一些路障来减慢车速。当地人的品味反映在诸如Back 40 Mercantile这样的小店里,比如喜马拉雅粉红岩盐,和价格64美元(约合人民币393元)的人字拖。The housing market is just now emerging from a nearly two-year slump induced by Hurricane Sandy. Flooding in low-lying areas and a wind-driven fire that destroyed three waterfront mansions ;left a bit of a scar,; said Gary Cunningham, a former stockbroker who now develops single-family homes in Old Greenwich and is the managing partner of Core Properties.这里的房地产市场经历了飓风桑迪(Hurricane Sandy)造成的将近两年的疲软,现在正慢慢复苏。低洼地带的洪涝灾害,与一场摧毁了三栋海滨豪宅的借风起势的大火,“给这里留下了一点伤疤,”曾担任股票经纪人、如今在老格林威治开发独栋房屋并担任Core Properties地产公司执行合伙人的盖里·坎宁安(Gary Cunningham)说。Uncertainty around the Federal Emergency Management Agency#39;s flood zone remapping and new insurance rates also caused buyers to temporarily back off. These fears appear to be easing, however, Mr. Cunningham said. And he is further encouraged by recent revisions to the town#39;s building regulations for flood zones.联邦紧急事务(Federal Emergency Management Agency)的洪水区域重新勘测工作仍未确定,而新的保险费率也导致买家们暂时退避三舍。然而,这些担忧似乎正在减轻,坎宁安说。而且该镇最近为洪水区修改的建筑规程,也让他愈发受到鼓舞。If the last three months are any indication, buyer confidence is back in a big way. Since June, at least four waterfront properties have traded above million; the most expensive, a 7,700-square-foot colonial on Greenwich Cove, closed at .05 million.如果最近三个月的情况是一种预兆的话,那么可以说,买家的信心正在大幅提升。自6月份起,至少有四栋海滨房产的交易金额超过600万美元(约合人民币3686万元);其中售价最贵的是一栋位于格林威治湾(Greenwich Cove)、面积7700平方英尺(约715平方米)的殖民地风格住宅,成交金额为1305万美元(约合人民币8017万元)。What You#39;ll Find这里有什么?The heart of Old Greenwich (population 6,600) is its business district on Sound Beach Avenue, the main thoroughfare. The look is small-town America: rows of shops beneath colorful awnings, benches for sitting, plentiful flowerpots. Most of the businesses are independently owned.老格林威治(人口6600人)的中心地带,是位于主干道桑德海滩大道(Sound Beach Avenue)的一片商业区。那里看上去是典型美国小镇的样子:一排排商店挂着五颜六色的雨棚,到处都是长椅可供坐下休息,还有大量的盆栽花卉。那些店面大多数是独立经营的。;People get very upset when they get a hint of national chains coming in,; said David Rafferty, the president of the Old Greenwich Association. The district has seen its share of empty storefronts over the years; maintaining enough support to keep businesses going is a challenge, Mr. Rafferty said. These days, however, more residents are opening businesses themselves. In addition to Back 40, the district has gained a dog groomer and a bakery and cafe, Sweet Pea#39;s Baking Company.“人们一旦得知有哪个全国连锁店要进驻,就会变得很不满,”老格林威治委员会(Old Greenwich Association)的主席戴维·拉弗蒂(David Rafferty)说。该区域这些年来一直存在一定比例的空置店面;维持足够的消费水平以保这些店面的运营是一项挑战,拉弗蒂说。但是近来,有更多居民开始自己营业了。除了那家Back 40商店之外,该区域还新增了一家爱犬美容店和一家烘焙食品与咖啡店Sweet Pea#39;s Baking Company。The area also has its own train station, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and the privately run Perrot Memorial Library. Nearby is 32-acre Binney Park, a green oasis with a duck pond and footbridges.这个区域还有一座自己的火车站,已被列入国家史迹名录(National Register of Historic Places),另有一座私人运营的佩洛特纪念图书馆(Perrot Memorial Library)。附近还有一座面积32英亩(约13公顷)的宾尼公园(Binney Park),那里是一片绿洲,有一座鸭子池塘和几座人行小桥。Interstate 95 and Route 1 slice through Old Greenwich. Properties above Route 1 are generally less grand and less expensive than those below, which are closer to both shopping and the water.95号州际公路(Interstate 95)和1号线(Route 1)都贯穿了老格林威治。1号线下游的房产一般比上游的更贵、更豪华,因为那里更靠近购物区,离海边也更近。What You#39;ll Pay要花多少钱?Of the 2,260 housing units in Old Greenwich, about 2,000 are single-family detached houses, according to ed States census data. As of the end of July, 78 sales had closed year to date, down slightly from the same period last year, according to data provided by Charles Nedder, an agent with Coldwell Banker. The median sales price was up about 3 percent over the same period last year, at .379 million.据美国的普查数据,在老格林威治的2260栋房屋之中,大约有2000栋是单户式的独立住宅。而据科威国际不动产(Coldwell Banker)的一位经纪人查尔斯·内德(Charles Nedder)提供的数据,至7月底,今年上半年已经成交了78笔交易,比去年同期略有下降。而房屋销售的中间价格为137.9万美元(约合人民币847.2万元),比去年同期上涨了大约3%。North of Route 1, the postwar subdivision of Havemeyer Park retains many of its original Capes and colonials, though teardowns are increasing. Older homes start in the high 0,000s, Mr. Nedder said. Below Route 1, million is the more likely entry point for the four- or five-bedroom homes commonly sought by young families, said Rob Johnson, an agent with Halstead Property.在1号线上游路段的哈夫迈耶公园(Havemeyer Park)战后住宅区,虽然遭到拆除的房屋数量还在不断增加,但也保留了许多原来的科德角(Capes)风格与殖民地风格的房屋。老式住宅的起售价接近80万美元(约合人民币491.5万元),内德说。而在1号线的下游路段,通常适合年轻家庭的那些四居室或五居室住宅,更有可能以200万美元(约合人民币1228.7万元)的价格起售,哈尔斯泰德地产公司(Halstead Property)的一位经纪人罗伯·约翰逊(Rob Johnson)说。New construction is another story. A quarter-acre lot with a teardown property goes for .2 million to .5 million, which means builders must price their properties at upward of million, Mr. Cunningham said.新开发的住宅则是另一种情况。一块四分之一英亩(约合1012平方米)的土地带一栋拆迁房,售价在120万美元(约合人民币737.2万元)至150万美元(约合人民币921.5万元)之间。这意味着承建商们必须将他们的房产价格抬高至300万美元(约合人民币1843万元),坎宁安说。Condominiums at Old Greenwich Gables range from one-bedrooms, generally priced in the 0,000s, to three-bedrooms in the 0,000s, according to Mr. Johnson. At the Common, a ‘70s-era complex, unrenovated alcove studios go for as low as 0,000, and renovated two-bedrooms go up to the high 0s, according to Peter Hoyt, an agent with William Raveis.在老格林威治的盖大厦(Old Greenwich Gables),共管公寓的一般价格从单卧室的50万美元(约合人民币307万元),至三卧室的90万美元(约合人民币553万元)不等,据约翰逊说。而在Common这栋70年代的综合大楼中,壁龛大小的未翻修单间公寓,售价可低至27万美元(约合人民币165.9万元),而翻修过的两居室公寓的售价要将近50万美元(约合人民币307.2万元),据William Raveis房地产公司的一位经纪人彼得·霍伊特(Peter Hoyt)说。What to Do可以做什么?Greenwich Point is the hub for outdoor activity. With panoramic views of the Sound, the park is used for swimming, fishing, sailing, picnicking, hiking and cycling. Seasonal park passes are available to town residents for ; for those without passes or for nonresidents, daily entry is a vehicle plus a person.格林威治岬角(Greenwich Point)是户外运动的集散地。这座公园拥有海湾的全景,被用于游泳、钓鱼、出海、野炊、徒步和骑行。镇上居民购买公园季票的价格为31美元(约合人民币190.5元);对于非本地居民或没有季票的人,一日的门票是25美元(约合人民币153.6元)/车,6美元(约合人民币36.9元)/人。格林威治岬角公园的海滩上。A seasonal farmers market is held Wednesday afternoons in the parking lot of the Presbyterian Church.每周三下午,在基督教长老会教堂(Presbyterian Church)的停车场会有当季的农贸市场。The private Innis Arden Golf Club has an 18-hole golf course, swimming pools and tennis. The Rocky Point Club, also members-only, offers swimming and sailing.私营的高尔夫俱乐部Innis Arden Golf Club,有一座18洞的高尔夫球场,还有几座游泳池和网球场。同样是会员制的“岩石岬角俱乐部”(Rocky Point Club)可供游泳与航海。The Commute通勤方式The Metro-North train ride to Grand Central Terminal takes about an hour. A monthly pass is 6 at the station. Parking permits at Old Greenwich station cost 7 annually. It takes two to three years for applicants to get to the top of the waiting list, according to a spokesman for the town#39;s department of parking services.地铁北线(Metro-North)的列车大约1小时可到达中央车站(Grand Central Terminal)。北线车站的月票售价为276美元(约合人民币1695.6元)。老格林威治车站的停车许可年费为407美元(约合人民币2500.4元),但据该镇停车务办的一位发言人说,申请者要花2至3年时间才能排入候选者清单的前列。The SchoolsAbout 370 students in kindergarten to Grade 5 attend the Old Greenwich School. Eastern Middle School, with about 780 students, serves Grades 6 through 8. Greenwich High School, with an enrollment of about 2,600, offers more than 300 courses, including 25 advanced placement classes, and fields 42 varsity teams.老格林威治学校(Old Greenwich School)从幼儿园至五年级有大约370名学生。中东学校(Eastern Middle School)提供6至8年级的教育,约有780名在校生。格林威治高中的在校生约为2600名,该校提供了超过300门课程,包括25个进阶选修课程,并成立了42校队。Mean SAT scores for the class of 2013 (the most recent year available) were 559 for ing, 585 for math, and 571 for writing, compared with the state means of 499, 503 and 504. Ninety percent of the class of 2013 went on to attend college, according to a spokesman for the school district.2013届学生的平均SAT成绩(目前可查的最新数据)是阅读559分,数学585分,写作571分,而这几项成绩的州平均分为499,503和504。据该校区的一位发言人说,2013届的学生有90%都进入了大学。The History历史沿革Old Greenwich, which was the original town of Greenwich, as it was the first area settled by Europeans, has undergone several name changes. According to the town historical society, in the mid-1800s, Greenwich was used to designate the central part of town, and the original Greenwich was renamed Greenwich, Old Town.老格林威治经历了几次名称变更,此地就是最初的格林威治镇,因为这里是第一处欧洲人定居地。据该镇历史协会(town historical society)的资料,在19世纪中期,“格林威治”常指的是小镇的中心地带,于是最早的格林威治就更名为了“格林威治老城区”(Greenwich, Old Town)。In 1872, to draw summer tourists to the shoreline inns, the area was called Sound Beach. But public access to the shoreline gradually diminished, and in 1931 the beach moniker was dropped in favor of Old Greenwich.到了1872年,为将夏季游客吸引到海边旅馆来,该地区被称为桑德海滩(Sound Beach)。但后来,公共海滩的面积逐渐减少,于是到了1931年,海滩的称号逐渐被“老格林威治”取代了。 /201409/325535

The conventional wisdom among public health authorities is that the Ebola virus, which killed at least 10,000 people in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea, was a new phenomenon, not seen in West Africa before 2013. (The one exception was an anomalous case in Ivory Coast in 1994, when a Swiss primatologist was infected after performing an autopsy on a chimpanzee.)在利比里亚、塞拉利昂和几内亚肆虐的埃拉疫情已经造成至少1万人死亡。公共卫生机构的惯常思维是,埃拉病毒的流行是一种新现象,在2013年前没有在非洲西部出现过。(有一个例外,1994年在科特迪瓦出现过一例反常病例,当时一名瑞士的灵长类动物学家在对黑猩猩的尸体进行解剖后感染了病毒。)The conventional wisdom is wrong. We were stunned recently when we stumbled across an article by European researchers in Annals of Virology: “The results seem to indicate that Liberia has to be included in the Ebola virus endemic zone.” In the future, the authors asserted, “medical personnel in Liberian health centers should be aware of the possibility that they may come across active cases and thus be prepared to avoid nosocomial epidemics,” referring to hospital-acquired infection.这种惯常思维是错误的。我们最近偶然发现了《病毒学年鉴》(Annals of Virology)上的一篇文章,令我们颇为惊讶:“研究结果似乎说明,需要将利比里亚纳入埃拉病毒流行区。”文章作者强调,将来,“利比里亚卫生机构的医务人员应该意识到,他们可能会遇到活跃病例,因此应该做好准备,避免疾病在院内传播。”What triggered our dismay was not the words, but when they were written: The paper was published in 1982.让我们感到不安的并非文字本身,而是写下这些文字的这篇论文发表于1982年。As members of a team drafting Liberia’s Ebola recovery plan last month, we systematically reviewed the literature on Ebola surveillance since the virus’s discovery in central Africa in 1976. We learned that the virologists who wrote that report, who were from Germany, had analyzed frozen blood samples taken in 1978 and 1979 from 433 Liberian citizens. They found that 26 (or 6 percent) had antibodies to the Ebola virus.作为上个月拟定利比里亚后埃拉时期恢复计划的团队成员,我们系统地查阅了自1976年首次在非洲中部发现这种病毒以来的有关埃拉疫情监控的文献。我们得知,撰写上述报告的德国病毒学家分析了一些冻存血样——于1978年到1979年间取自433名利比里亚人。他们发现,其中26人(即6%)体内携带埃拉病毒抗体。Three other studies published in 1986 documented Ebola antibody prevalence rates of 10.6, 13.4 and 14 percent, respectively, in northwestern Liberia, not far from its borders with Sierra Leone and Guinea. These articles, along with other forgotten reports from the 1980s on antibody prevalence in neighboring Sierra Leone and Guinea, suggest the possibility of what some call “sanctuary sites,” or persistent, if latent, Ebola infection in humans.另有三篇发表于1986年的论文显示,在利比里亚西北部,距离该国与塞拉利昂及几内亚边境不远的地方,埃拉抗体的携带率分别为10.6%、13.4%和14%。上述文章,以及那些发表于20世纪80年代的被遗忘的有关邻国塞拉利昂和几内亚的埃拉抗体携带率的报告都说明,可能存在一些人所说的“避难所”,也就是持续携带潜藏的埃拉病毒的人体。There is an adage in public health: “The road to inaction is paved with research papers.” In a twist of fate, the same laboratory that confirmed the first positive Ebola test results in Guinea last year, the Pasteur Institute, was the publisher of Annals of Virology. Yet the institute’s April 2014 report said, “This subregion was not considered to be an area in which EBOV was endemic” (using the medical term for the Ebola virus).公共卫生领域有一条格言:“通往无所作为的道路上铺满了研究报告。”命运弄人的是,去年确认几内亚第一例检测结果为阳性的埃拉病例的实验室——巴斯德研究所(Pasteur Institute)——正是《病毒学年鉴》的出版方。然而,这家研究所在2014年4月发表的报告称,“该分区并未被认为是埃拉病毒的流行区。”Part of the problem is that none of these articles were co-written by a Liberian scientist. The investigators collected their samples, returned home and published the startling results in European medical journals. Few Liberians were then trained in laboratory or epidemiological methods. Even today, downloading one of the papers would cost a physician here , about half a week’s salary.造成这一问题的部分原因在于,这些论文都不是由利比里亚科学家合写的。研究人员采集样本,带回去,然后在欧洲的医学期刊上公布惊人的研究结果。那时候,几乎没有利比亚里人受到实验室或流行病学研究方法的培训。就算到了今天,利比里亚的医生下载一篇论文可能要花费45美元(约合280元人民币),几乎相当于半周的薪水。The story is not an unusual one. As it happened, the subjects in the 1986 antibody studies worked on the world’s largest rubber plantation (which then supplied 40 percent of the latex used in the ed States). During the current outbreak of Ebola, we saw rubber trees stretch as far as the eye could see from clinics in rural Margibi County — clinics shuttered after nurses died after supplies of latex gloves and other protective gear ran out. The way this part of Liberia was trawled for vital medical knowledge thus mirrored the way the West extracted the rubber it needed.这个故事并不罕见。事实上,1986年开展的抗体研究的受试对象是世界上最大的橡胶园的工作人员(当时美国使用的40%的乳胶产自该橡胶园)。在最近这轮埃拉疫情爆发期间,从马及比县的那些诊所——橡胶手套及其他防护装备的缺乏导致护士死亡后,诊所被关闭——看去,橡胶树不断延伸,一望无际。我们在利比里亚的这个地区获取重要医疗信息的方式,与西方国家获取他们所需的橡胶的方式别无二致。Sierra Leone’s and Liberia’s recent histories of civil conflict made it difficult to confirm an outbreak of the disease. Public health laboratories were not functioning in either country; it was months before Ebola was identified as the culprit pathogen. That made it impossible for the region’s few doctors and nurses to deliver effective care.塞拉利昂和利比里亚近期进行的内战使得医护人员难以确认疫情的爆发。这两个国家的公共卫生实验室均未良好运转;拖了好几个月的时间埃拉病毒才被确定为罪魁祸首。因此,该地区本已稀缺的医生和护士无法进行有效的医疗务。In all recognized Ebola epidemics to date, the disease has been transmitted primarily in the course of caring for the sick or burying the dead — hence the 1982 warning about transmission within hospitals and clinics. It was just as the German scientists had predicted: Liberia’s under-resourced health facilities became the fault lines along which Ebola erupted across the country and the wider region.在迄今为止所有被确认的埃拉疫情中,这种疾病都主要是在护理患者或掩埋尸体的过程中传播的。所以,1982年的论文提醒人们注意医院和诊所内部的感染。情况正如德国科学家所预测的那样:利比里亚捉襟见肘的卫生设施成为了软肋。埃拉沿着它们向全国乃至更广阔的地区扩散。To our knowledge, no senior official now serving in Liberia’s Ministry of Health had ever heard of the antibody studies’ findings. Nor had top officials in the international organizations so valiantly supporting the Ebola response in Liberia, including ed Nations agencies and foreign medical teams.据我们所知,利比里亚卫生部在职的高级官员中,没人听说过前述抗体研究的发现。在利比里亚勇敢地持抗击埃拉活动的国际组织,包括联合国机构和外国医疗团队,它们的高层官员也没听说过。When the history of this epidemic is written, it will chronicle the myriad ways that — from Guéckédou and Monrovia, to Geneva and Dallas — we were not prepared. But none of us can in good conscience say there was no warning.如果有人撰写这种传染病的历史,我们缺乏准备的无数个地方都会被计入其中,从盖凯杜和蒙罗维亚,到日内瓦和达拉斯。但我们谁都不能凭良心说没有过警告。Ebola was here aly. Understaffed and underequipped hospitals and clinics were sure to intensify, rather than stop, a major outbreak. And among its primary victims would be health care professionals. Had the virologists’ findings been linked to long-term efforts to train Liberians to conduct research, to identify and stop epidemics, and to deliver quality medical care, the outcome might have been different.埃拉病毒早就来到了这里。人手不足、设备匮乏的医院和诊所肯定会加剧,而非阻止一场大规模的疫情爆发。主要受害者将包括医护专业人士。如果那些病毒学家的发现,能和训练利比里亚人开展研究、辨认并阻止疫情、提供优质医疗护理的长期行动结合在一起,结果或许会有所不同。We all had friends and co-workers fall ill during this epidemic. But the fates of the afflicted reflect grotesque disparities. Of the 10 Americans infected with Ebola, all were airlifted to specialist hospitals with excellent clinical care in the ed States. Nine have recovered, and the 10th is, we pray, well on his way to a full recovery. At the start of the last major chain of transmission recorded in urban Liberia, last month, 11 of 11 people in one cluster perished.我们都有朋友或同事在这场疫情中病倒。但被传染者的命运却反映出了奇特的悬殊差异。10名感染了埃拉的美国人,全都被用飞机送到了美国的专科医院,那里有极好的临床护理。其中九人已康复,我们祈祷剩下那名患者也能尽快地完全康复。而上月,利比里亚城市地区有记载的最后一次大规模连锁传染刚刚开始,其中一个集体病例中的11人就全部死亡。A lasting legacy of this terrifying health crisis must be a new architecture for global health delivery, with a strong focus on building local capacity to respond effectively to such crises. Equity must be an indispensable goal in protecting from threats like Ebola, and in the quality of care delivered when prevention fails. Only then can we leave behind the rubber plantation model of international health and draw on the science that must inform these endeavors.这场骇人的卫生危机的持久影响之一,是必须为全球卫生救护建立新的架构,着重建设当地有效应对这类危机的能力。在预防埃拉等威胁,以及预防失败后提供的医护务的质量方面,公平必须成为一个不可或缺的目标。只有这样,我们才能丢弃国际卫生的橡胶种植园模式,利用必须与这些努力联系在一起的相关科学研究。 /201504/369445

Pity Chinese policy makers. They must deal with an unbalanced economy in more ways than one. China’s population ranges from the millions of rural poor to hundreds of entrepreneurial billionaires, with an expanding middle class in between. Activity growth is still dependent on fixed asset investment, and consumers, in spite of the hordes of Chinese shoppers worldwide, are not spending enough at home. Efforts to stamp out corruption are not helping.可怜的中国政策制定者们。他们得从不止一个方面应对不平衡的经济。中国人口中,既有数以百万计的农村贫困人口,也有数百个身价过亿的企业家,中间还有一批日益壮大的中产阶层。经济活动的增长仍依赖于固定资产投资,同时虽然全球都有中国购物者的身影,但他们在本国市场的消费不够。反腐败斗争也对提振消费没有帮助。And so it was that last week Premier Li Keqiang hinted that the 2014 gross domestic product growth target of 7.5 per cent – once unthinkably low – might be missed. August data confirmed a slowdown in industrial production, retail sales and fixed asset investment. Little is going right.中国总理李克强上周暗示,2014年可能无法实现7.5%(一度被认为低得难以想象)的国内生产总值(GDP)增长目标。8月的数据实了工业生产、零售销售和固定资产投资领域的放缓。几乎没有一项数据令人振奋。On Wednesday the People’s Bank of China appeared to save the day. A report on sina.com, a Chinese portal, leaked news of the central bank’s move to inject Rmb500bn (bn) into the top five Chinese banks. The liquidity will be available for three months. Analysts expect that the loans will be rolled over – this move is the first of a new wave of stimulus measures. Hong Kong-listed H shares, after dropping 6 per cent since Mr Li’s cautious outlook, bounced 1.5 per cent in relief.周三,中国人民似乎出台了措施,出手救市。中国门户网站新浪网(sina.com)上的一篇报道透露,央行将向中国五大注入5000亿元人民币(合810亿美元)流动性,期限为3个月(中国人民拒绝实此事——编者注)。分析者预计,这批贷款将被滚转——此举是新一轮刺激的首个动作。香港上市的H股在李克强发布谨慎的经济预测后下跌6%,现在如释重负反弹1.5%。But in spite of this joyful jump from financial instruments, more stimulus is not necessarily a good thing for China. It perpetuates the reliance on low-grade means of pumping up growth. And it is not sustainable. China wants markets to play a more decisive role in the economy. It knows that freer markets are necessary to aid rebalancing.然而,虽然金融工具出现喜人涨势,更多的刺激对中国未必是好事。它延续了对促进经济增长的低质量手段的依赖,而且是不可持续的。中国希望市场在经济中扮演更为决定性的角色。它知道更自由的市场对推动再平衡是必要的。So maybe the market is wrong. In two weeks, China celebrates national holidays. Its citizens get on the road for one of the largest annual human migrations. Shops have Golden Week sales. The demand for cash jumps. So the PBOC’s move may just be as short-term as the three-month tenor implies. Craftily, with this manoeuvre, China does not need to commit either way.也许市场反应是错的。两周后,中国将迎来国庆假期。中国人将踏上路途,进行每年最壮观的人类迁徙之一。商店将展开黄金周促销活动。对现金的需求猛增。所以,中国央行此举可能是临时性的,就像3个月期限所暗示的那样。中国官方此举巧妙避免了在刺激和不刺激之间的任何一方面作出承诺。 /201409/329623

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