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2019年08月22日 15:56:00|来源:国际在线|编辑:88媒体
The news has been full of stories in recent years about police killing unarmed African-Americans. Those reports have been disturbing.The nation watched of Eric Garner repeat over and over again, ;I cant breathe,; as New York City police put him in an apparent choke hold to arrest him.In Baltimore, Freddie Gray died after being arrested and thrown in the back of a police van.In Cleveland, captured images of 12-year-old Tamir Rice as he was shot by a Cleveland officer.And in Ferguson, Missouri, 18-year-old Michael Brown was shot dead in the street.That shooting in the summer of 2014 led to 17 days of protests.Outraged people marched in and around the St. Louis suburb carrying signs which ;Hands Up, Dont Shoot.; Night after night they faced a huge police presence. On both sides, it was not always peaceful.These events and others have increased racial tensions in cities across the nation in a way not seen since the 1960s.One woman in Ferguson, who only gave her name as Keyla, explained that summer why so many people protested this latest shooting death.;I believe it was because youve had so many within maybe the last two years. This was the straw that broke the camels back. Like, this is it. Im done. Im tired. Something needs to be done,; she said.Nearly two years later, Ferguson residents are still concerned that police are too quick to shoot unarmed black people.On a recent spring night, people lined up to attend a city hall meeting. As usual, there were more people than seats. Police used metal detectors to scan everyone who entered until capacity was reached.Winfred Cochrell has been speaking out at city hall meetings again and again because he thinks racial bias might have been behind the shooting of Michael Brown.;Stop looking at me, the color of my skin, judging me. Everybody stop. Just stop. And lets figure this out,; he said to city council members, adding, ;We got to make things better for each other.;Cochrell was trying to persuade the Ferguson City Council to accept a Department of Justice agreement to better train officers to work with the community.The Ferguson officials were resisting because of concerns about the cost. A week later, the council did approve the agreement, joining about 20 other cities operating under the supervision of the U.S. Justice Department.The largest police force—one of the 50 departments at the Ferguson protests—is the St. Louis County Police Department. The County Police Department leads the areas police academy. Although his department is not required to, Police Chief Jon Belmar has been talking with the U.S. Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services about how police could have handled police actions better during the protests.Belmar told reporters he asked the feds, ;Well, where do we focus the areas?;They discussed policy and procedures regarding the shooting, and a review of ;after actions; concerning the protest.That ;after action; by police was highly criticized. A report from the Department of Justice found police actions inflamed tensions by deploying dogs, putting snipers on armored tactical vehicles, and inappropriately deploying tear gas without warning.The Department of Justice is also encouraging ;bias-free policing.;Some researchers believe this different kind of police training can reduce the number of shootings of unarmed people of color.This fairly recent idea is based on research which first appeared in a Florida State University study. It found some people have an implicit or unconscious racial bias.;I think that theres implicit bias research and shooter bias research that make it clear that there is a majority of people, disproportionately white, that view black people as a danger, as a threat, as a body that needs to be controlled,; explained Blanche Cook, an assistant professor of law at Wayne State University.That ;shooter bias; research found during computer simulations, some officers were initially more likely to mistakenly shoot unarmed black suspects than unarmed white suspects.But Cook says the researchers also found with extensive training, officers were able to eliminate the bias. It can be reversed once its recognized.;If the flip side of the argument is that people cannot control their implicit bias, then that means they cant educate us, they cant police us, they cant ever have any kind of authority over us because theyre going act on that implicit bias at a subconscious level and never be able to control it and we simply cant have that kind of world,; Cook said.Back in Ferguson, Missouri, talking just outside city hall, Winfred Cochrell said beyond police shootings, he thinks theres a larger matter for the nation to discuss.;My thoughts of it is its time to finally put the big issue on the table: race. We keep avoiding it like the plague. Its time to talk about it. It really is. We need to sit down and have this conversation. Its long overdue,; Cochrell said.Thats a conversation thats desired by many African-Americans across the nation.Kwasi Akwamu is an activist, small business owner, and former journalist in Detroit.;Theres never been a period when weve never been lynched, weve never been slain in the streets for suspicion of an act. You know, the lynchings and the accusations of rape, those things are part of our history. It hasnt changed. Its just changed form,; Akwamu said.He believes the recent protests are not a new black uprising. They are African-Americans continuing a struggle theyve been fighting for a very long time.;They come from the 60s and 70s. You know, we struggled against brutality. This is not the first era of the struggle against police brutality and violence,; he said.The racism that causes that struggle is never fully discussed by the nation as a whole.And all evidence indicates the struggle is not over. Thats especially true in predominantly white suburbs with growing black populations. The racial make-up of the police force often does not reflect the racial make-up of the community.Blanche Cook at Wayne State says that implicit bias, the unconscious bias, of some white people leaves them wary of people of color.;Youve got people who feel threatened by black and brown bodies,; Cook said.Much of white Americas vision of home has been predominantly white people of a certain class. Thats been dramatically changing in some suburbs over the last couple of decades.;They feel particularly threatened when theyre seeing their world become more diverse. Their workplaces are becoming more diverse. Their neighborhoods are becoming more diverse. Their communities are becoming more diverse. And their claims to supremacy are also being challenged,; Cook said.Getting to the heart of societys issues with race cant be solved by retraining police alone. But, the police might be the most important starting point.Cook says testing police applicants for implicit bias might be considered. She suggests when there are killings by police, special investigators should be appointed, as well as special prosecutors, and perhaps special grand jurors. Cook sees a conflict of interest when law enforcement investigates law enforcement and when law enforcement prosecutes law enforcement.The larger issue is this: Americans have to honestly come to grips with the racial tension, white attitudes toward black and brown people. If that doesnt happen, the nation is doomed to see a repeat of these cycles of unarmed people of color being killed and outraged citizens taking to the street because there seems to be no other way to make the powerful listen.;Until we deal with the way in which white supremacy, racism, and implicit bias frames the way in which we look at the world around us, were going to continue replicating this problem again and again and again,; Cook concludes.Assistance with the report came from St. Louis Public Radio.Support for the Detroit Journalism Cooperative on Michigan Radio comes from the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, Renaissance Journalisms Michigan Reporting Initiative, and the Ford Foundation.201604/438493Online entertainment网上A craze too foreign热潮太洋China tries to restrict foreign entertainment online中国要限制网上的国外产品FOR young professionals in Chinas cities, watching television online has become a part of daily life. In Shanghai, for example, many office workers watch their favourite TV shows at their desks during lunch-hours, on the metro on the way home, or even while walking on the citys crowded pavements.在网上看电视节目已经成为中国城市上班族日常生活的一部分。譬如说在上海,许多白领会午休时在桌子上看他们最爱的电视节目,而乘地铁回家时候也要看,甚至走在熙熙攘攘的人行道上还要看。Foreign TV dramas are a particular attraction. They are strictly controlled on terrestrial television stations, but can be watched free on Chinas -streaming websites. This year Chinese viewers have been gripped by “House of Cards”, an American political drama series, as well as by several South Korean shows and the Bs “Sherlock”, which was available with an authorised Chinese translation hours after being shown in Britain.外国电视剧尤其吸引人。这些剧在本土被电视台牢牢把持,不过反而可以在中国的视频网站上免费观看。今年中国观众就迷上了美国政治剧《纸牌屋》,还有几部韩剧。B制作的《夏洛克》也受到追捧,这部剧在英国本土播出数小时后,就会有经过授权翻译的版本出现在中国的网络上。Yet viewers may soon find their choices more limited. Last week Chinas TV regulator said that, from April, any foreign series or film would need approval before being shown online. Chinese media say that regulators are also considering limiting the number of foreign series shown online to a specific proportion of total output. The new rules appear aimed at closing one of the biggest loopholes in Chinas control of its media: on terrestrial TV, for example, foreign dramas are banned in prime time. Many are forbidden altogether.但观众可能马上就要感觉到选择受限了。上周,中国的电视监管部门表示,从今年四月起,所有电影或电视剧都需要许可方能在网上播放。同时中国媒体报道称,监管部门也在考虑限制网上播出的外国电视剧数目,将其限定在占总量的某一比例。新规则似乎也意在堵上中国媒体管控中最大的漏洞:比方说,电视台就是在黄金时间禁止播放外国节目。有许多电视台更是完全放弃播出。It is not clear how strictly the content of foreign programmes shown online will be vetted. But the regulators call for “healthy, well-made” works which “showcase good values” seems to echo a recent tightening of controls on terrestrial TV. These include bans on dramas dealing with topics such as superstition, espionage and—bizarrely—time travel. Earlier this year Chinese websites were ordered to remove several American TV series; at least one of these, it was announced, would be shown, edited, on state TV instead. In a hint of what may follow, the government broadcaster recently screened the fantasy drama “Game of Thrones”—minus nudity and violence (ie, the point).对网上外国节目内容审查有多严格,目前还不清楚。但监管部门呼吁要有「展现良好价值观」的「健康,精良」的作品,似乎是对最近官方收紧电视台控制的呼应。如今电视台里禁止播放以迷信,谍战为题材的节目。莫名其妙的是还禁了穿越剧。今年早些时候,官方命令网站将几部美剧下架;后来宣布说其中至少有一部将会在国家电视台播出,不过是编辑过的版本。为了示范接下来会怎么做,政府的电视台最近播出了奇幻剧《权力的游戏》——少了躶体与暴力(本剧的关键点)。The new controls may simply push younger viewers away from authorised providers and towards pirate sites instead, says a Chinese academic specialising in media studies. At a time when China has at last begun to bring copyright infringements under control—the countrys main -streaming websites now pay foreign producers for their TV shows—that would be a step backwards.一位专于研究媒体的学者表示,新的管制可能只会把比较年轻的观众从有授权的网站赶到盗版网站去。如今中国终于开始管控侵犯版权的行为,而主要的视频网站现在也给外国生产商的电视剧付费。管制真是开倒车啊。译者:周鼎烨 译文属译生译世 /201505/376040

NASCAR:(National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing)的简称,即全国运动汽车竞赛。美国纳斯卡车赛是一项在美国流行的汽车赛事。每年有超过1.5亿人次现场观众观看比赛,电视收视率更是远远超过棒球、篮球和橄榄球等体育运动,因此有人称它为美国人的“F1”比赛。只要你来到美国,你会发现NASCAR无处不在。NASCAR,它将赛车运动带入了一个革命性的时代。201508/393384

Gas prices燃气价格Fuel on the fire能源产业之争Another cheap shot at energy firms misses the mark又一次对能源企业的失败“算计”GIVEN the parlous state of Britains energy system, it is hard to think that Ed Davey, the energy secretary, would want more publicity. Yet on February 10th newspapers published a letter he had written to regulators who are reviewing the market. He urged them to investigate whether energy companies are making excessive profits from selling gas, which he said earns higher margins than flogging electricity. He singled out British Gas, which in 2012 supplied gas to about 40% of Britains households at a profit margin of more than 11%.难以想象,在英国能源系统受到威胁的情况下,能源大臣艾德·戴维还想要更多的公众影响力。然而2月10日的报纸刊登了他写给市场监察机构的一封信。他敦促他们去调查能源企业是否通过售卖天然气攫取暴利,按他所说,这比出售电力能获得更多利润。他单独指出了“英国燃气”,该公司在2012年为大约40%的英国家庭提供燃气,并且获得了超过11%的利润率。Energy buffs have long moaned about the strong position British Gas—owned by Centrica, a big energy firm—enjoys in the domestic gas market. It inherited a huge number of customers from its days as a state monopoly, some of whom could be paying over the odds because they have never looked for a better deal. But by focusing narrowly on gas, Mr Davey overstates Centricas success. In 2012 the firm lost money selling electricity, bringing the margin across its domestic supply business down to 6.6%.热衷能源业的人早就抱怨英国天然气公司的强势地位—森特理克麾下的大能源企业,占领了国内天然气市场。该公司从作为国家垄断企业时便继承了一批庞大的客户数量,其中一些客户甚至能出高价付而从来不寻找更实惠交易。但仅将目光锁定在天然气市场方面,戴维先生夸大了森特理克的功绩。2012年,该企业赔了钱售卖电力,使其国内供应业务的毛利率降低到6.6%。This figure is high; but it is not extraordinary, or certain to be sustained. Nor do Centricas competitors seem to be banking exuberant rents. The “Big Six” retailers earned an average margin on domestic energy sales of 4.3% in 2012. Three of them did better supplying electricity than gas. British households continue to pay less for energy than many Europeans.该数据是惊人的,但情况并非特殊也不一定会持续。且森特理克的竞争对手们似乎也没受益多少。六大零售商在2012年获得了4.3%的国内能源销售的平均利润率。其中三家零售商的电力销售额都优于天然气。英国家庭仍然在能源付上少与许多欧洲人。The simplest way to erode Centricas grip on the gas market is to encourage long-standing customers to move elsewhere. The number of households switching supplier has fallen sharply since 2008, in part because regulators have curbed doorstep selling. The government enthuses about community switching schemes, in which neighbours find new suppliers together; Ofgem, the regulator, now requires energy firms to contact customers who are paying more than they should.打破森特理克集团对天然气市场控制的最简单方式是鼓励老客户转移他处。变更供应商的家庭数量自2008年大幅下滑,部分原因是监管机构遏制了上门销售。政府热衷于新的社区转换方案,该方案倡导住户们一起寻找新的供应商;监管者Ofgem如今要求能源企业去联系那些“冤大头”客户。It will be some time before that has an effect. Yet what most vexes critics of the market is not hefty retail margins but fear that energy firms are making outsized profits elsewhere, for example in power generation. This is difficult to prove, which is why the government last year asked regulators to carry out a broad assessment of the market. Their report, due next month, could lead to a more thorough investigation by the Competition Commission.市场调控取得成效将需要一段时间。然而最引发市场批评的并非丰厚的零售利润,而是对能源企业在别处—例如在发电领域攫取过多利润的担心。难以明为什么政府去年要求监管机构开展对市场的广泛评估。他们下月的评估报告可能会导致竞争委员会组织一个更彻底的调查。That is starting to look like an attractive outcome to some energy executives, who have repeatedly been battered by politicians. Shares in Centrica dipped 3.5% following publication of Mr Daveys letter; they are a quarter lower than in September, when Ed Miliband, leader of the Labour Party, promised to freeze energy bills if elected. The regulators report, and any inquiry that follows, may give Mr Davey reason to set the market ablaze. Until then he should resist poking the coals.对于一些不断被政客抨击的能源部行政人员来说,这似乎开始看上去是一个很有吸引力的结果。戴维的信被公开之后森特里克的股价下跌了3.5%;相比9月下降了四分之一,当时工党领袖——艾德·米利班德承诺一旦当选将冻结能源账单。监管机构报告及之后的任意询问,也许会给戴维先生刺激市场的理由。但在那之前,他须抵制垄断煤炭。译者:王童 校对:曾擎禹 译文属译生译世 /201510/405318

Iraqs Christians伊拉克的基督徒Nearly all gone几近消失The conquering jihadists are evicting or killing Mosuls last Christians圣战者乘胜追杀苏尔的基督徒At least hes alive—among the Kurds至少他还活着—作为一个库尔德人FEW of the Christian women fleeing to safety in northern Iraq arrived wearing rings in their ears or on their fingers. Fighters of the Islamic State, the self-proclaimed new name of the Islamic State of Iraq and Greater Syria (ISIS), the jihadist group that captured Mosul last month, relieved them of just about everything valuable—except their lives.在那些能成功逃亡到伊拉克北部安全区的女性基督徒当中,你几乎看不到有任何一个戴着戒指或耳环。上个月攻占了苏尔的极端圣战组织伊拉克与大叙利亚伊斯兰国更名后变成了伊斯兰国斗士,这帮人留下了那些逃难者的命却掳走了他们身上所有值钱的东西。A week ago the Christians in the city were told they had until July 18th to convert to Islam, pay a special tax, leave, or, in the words of a statement by the jihadists, they would have “nothing but the sword.” But then the jihadists changed their mind: paying the tax was no longer an option. All Christians were told by loudspeaker on July 18th that they all had to leave by the next day—or be killed.一周之前,城里的基督徒们被告知在7月18号之前,他们要么改信伊斯兰教要么上缴特殊税款要么离开,否则用圣战者的原话讲他们面对的将“只有武力”。但后来圣战者们改变了主意:交特别税将不再被接受。7月18号那天基督徒们在扬声器里听到的是第二天必须离开,否则就会面临死亡。The Arabic letter for N for Nassarah, meaning Christian, was spray-painted on their houses, with stencils declaring them to be “Property of the Islamic State”. Monks from the monastery of Mar Behnam, near Qaraqosh, south-east of Mosul, were allowed to take only the clothes they were wearing. “You have no place here any more,” the jihadists are reported to have said.在阿拉伯语里N代表Nassarah,也就是基督徒的意思,而这个符号被用漏字板喷印在了基督徒们的房子上以表明这是“伊斯兰国财产”。来自坐落于苏尔东南部靠近Qaraqosh地区的马尔本赫纳姆修道院的僧侣们只被允许携带随身衣物离开。“这地方不属于你们了。”圣战分子们在报道中这样说到。Some reckon that a decade ago there were around 60,000 Christians in Mosul; by June this year that figure is said to have fallen by half. Now, for the first time in over 1,600 years, the city will have been emptied of Christians. The Mar Behnam monastery dates from the 4th century. Other sects, including Shia Muslims and Yazidis, who follow an ancient religion linked to Zoroastrianism, are being equally harshly treated.一些人认为十年前苏尔有约六万基督徒;而到今年六月份为止这数字可能已经降了一半。如今,这是一千六百多年以来这座城市第一次一个基督徒都不剩。马尔本赫纳姆修道院的历史可以追溯到公元四世纪。其他诸如什叶派、雅兹迪派这些与拜火教的古老信仰有关联的宗派都被严厉地对待。Most of Mosuls Christians have fled east and north to the nearby autonomous region of Kurdistan. “Here is the last chance Christians have for survival,” says Kaldo Ramzi Oghanna of the Assyrian Democratic Movement, a political party tied to one of the worlds most ancient Christian denominations.大部分苏尔城里的基督徒都向东或向北逃亡到附近的库尔德斯坦下辖的自治区内。“这是基督徒们最后的求生机会,”一位名为Kaldo Ramzi Oghanna来自亚述民主运动的人士如是说。此组织是一个与世界上最古老的基督教教派有关连的政党。译者:许宝明译文属译生译世 /201505/374556

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