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楼主:医苑爱问 时间:2019年11月21日 08:52:09 点击:0 回复:0
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Compared to the whitewater streams that tumble down mountainsides,the meandering rivers of the plains may seem tame and lazy.But mountain streams are corralled by the steep-walled valleys they carve.their course are literally set in stone.Out on the open plains,those stony walls give way to soft soil,allowing rivers to shift their banks and set their own ever-changing courses to the sea:courses that almost never run straight.同山顶飞流直下溅出银白水花的湍流相比,平原上蜿蜒的河流就太无趣了点。不过,山间的湍流被困于它们蚀刻出的深谷。水流游走于巨石之间。到了开阔的平原,石壁被柔软的土壤取代,河岸地势逐渐提高,并由此奔向大海:但奔流时从不走直路。At least not for long.because all it takes to turn a straight stretch of river into a bendy one is a little disturbance and a lot of time.And in nature,there#39;s plenty of both.Say,for example,that a muskrat burrows herself a den in one bank of a stream.Her tunnels make for a cozy home,but they also weaken the bank,which eventually begins to crumble and slump into the stream.即使有时间也不长,因为,如果想把直流扳弯只需细微的干扰和极长的时间。自然中,这二者可不缺。比如,一只麝鼠在河岸某侧打出一个洞。这地道是为温暖小窝造的,但削弱了河岸,使其破裂并落入水流中。Water rushes into the newly-formed hollow,sweeping away loose dirt and making the hollow even hollower,which lets the water rush a little faster and sweep away a little more dirt...and so on,and so on.As more of the stream#39;s flow is diverted into the deepening hole on one bank and away from the other side of the channel,the flow there weakens and slows.水流冲入刚形成的洞中,带走松散的泥土,让洞更深,这也使水流流速加快,带走更多的泥土,周而复始,由于有深坑一侧的河水流量更多,在河的另一侧,水流流速有所降低。And since slow-moving water can#39;t carry the sand-sized particles that fast-moving water can,The dirt drops to the bottom and builds up to make the water there shallower and slower,and then keeps accumulating until it becomes new land on the inside bank.Meanwhile,the fast-moving water near the outside bank sweeps out of the curve with enough momentum to carry it across the channel and slam it into the other side,where it starts to carve another curve.由于缓流携带砂砾的能力不及湍流,泥土便落在水底,逐渐堆积,使该处河水更浅,流速更慢,泥土继续积聚,直到内岸变成新的土地。与此同时,外岸处的湍流,冲出弯曲处,带着足够的冲力横穿河道,撞在河岸另一侧,并开始割出另一道弧。And then another,and then another,and then another.The wider the stream,the longer it takes the slingshotting current to reach the other side,and the greater the downstream distance to the next curve.In fact,measurements of meandering streams all over the world reveal a strikingly regular pattern:the length of one S-shaped meander tends to be about 6 times the width of the channel.一道又一道,一处接一处。河流越宽,弹弓般的水流到达岸的时间就越长,弧间沿流距离也越长。实际上,对全世界蜿蜒河流的测量结果,展现了一个惊人的规律:S形曲流的长度大约为河道宽度的6倍。So little tiny meandering streams tend to look just like miniature versions of their bigger relatives.As long as nothing gets in the way of a river#39;s meandering,its curves will continue to grow curvier and curvier until they loop around and bumble into themselves.When that happens,the river#39;s channel follows the straighter path downhill,leaving behind a crescent-shaped remnant called an oxbow lake.所以,小弯流看上去正像是大弯的“迷你版”。若河流弯曲时不受外界阻碍,其弯曲处的弧度会越来越大直到形成环绕回自己身上,此时,河道会沿一条直路流下山,留下新月状的“牛轭湖”。Or a billabong.Or a lago en herradura.Or a bras mort...We have lots of names for these lakes,Since they can occur pretty much anywhere liquid flows,or used to.which brings up an interesting question:what do the Martians call them?或说“死河”(澳洲说法)“马蹄湖”(西语)“回水”(法语)……这种湖的叫法很多,在水流曾过的地方都可能发生。这也引出了另一个奇妙的问题:火星人该怎么说呢? Article/201503/365622国际新闻讲义:The president and corporations总统与商业How Donald Trump is changing the rules for American business美国的新商业模式The president-elect has a new approach to dealing with corporate America. It is not all good news特朗普正在改写配总统和公司之间的关系准则——但却不是变得更好 HIS inauguration is still six weeks away but Donald Trump has aly sent shock waves through American business. Chief executives—and their companies’ shareholders—are giddy at the president-elect’s promises to slash burdensome regulation, cut taxes and boost the economy with infrastructure spending. Blue-collar workers are cock-a-hoop at his willingness to bully firms into saving their jobs.距离就职尚有六周,但特朗普冲击波已经传遍了整个美国商界。首席执行官们及其公司股东被这位当选总统的承诺搞得头晕目眩——他说要大幅减少繁重的监管,要减税,还要通过增加基础设施出促进经济。蓝领工人们则志得意满,因为特朗普愿意威逼公司保住他们的饭碗。Inauguration n.就职- inauguration speech- inaugurate v. 就职,开创(begin)- inaugurate a new programShareholder n.股东Giddy adj.头晕目眩的Slash v.削减,砍Burdensome adj.麻烦的Boost v.增加cock-a-hoop adj.得意洋洋 (in high spirits) In the past few weeks, Mr Trump has lambasted Apple for not producing more bits of its iPhone in America; harangued Ford about plans to move production of its Lincoln sports-utility vehicles; and lashed out at Boeing, not long after the firm’s chief executive had mused publicly about the risks of a protectionist trade policy. Most dramatically, Mr Trump bribed and cajoled Carrier, a maker of air-conditioning units in Indiana, to change its plans and keep 800 jobs in the state rather than move them to Mexico. One poll suggests that six out of ten Americans view Mr Trump more favourably after the Carrier deal. This muscularity is proving popular.过去几周里,特朗普已痛斥了苹果没在美国本土生产更多的iPhone部件;喋喋不休地训斥福特搬迁林肯SUV工厂的计划;在波音首席执行官公开对贸易保护主义政策的风险表示忧虑之后不久,他又炮轰了波音。最戏剧化的是,特朗普收买利诱了空调设备生产商开利(Carrier),迫使它改变计划,将800个工作岗位留在印第安纳州而不是转移到墨西哥。一项民意调查显示,十分之六的美国人在这项交易后对特朗普的看法更加正面了。这种强悍做法正受到欢迎。Lambast v.斥责Harangue v.高盛阔谈 (speech in a forceful or angry way)- harangue n.高昂的言论 (a forceful or angry speech)lash out (at)抨击Muse v.仔细考虑 (think carefully)Cajole v.哄骗(persuade by making promises or saying nice things)muscularity n.强悍- muscular adj.强壮的Popular but problematic. The emerging Trump strategy towards business has some promising elements, but others that are deeply worrying. The promise lies in Mr Trump’s enthusiasm for corporate-tax reform, his embrace of infrastructure investment and in some parts of his deregulatory agenda. The dangers stem, first, from the muddled mercantilism that lies behind his attitude to business, and, second, in the tactics—buying off and attacking individual companies—that he uses to achieve his goals. American capitalism has flourished thanks to the predictable application of rules. If, at the margin, that rules-based system is superseded by an ad hoc approach in which businessmen must take heed and pay homage to the whim of King Donald, the long-term damage to America’s economy will be grave. 虽受人欢迎却也问题多多。特朗普对商界的策略逐渐显现,有些因素充满希望,其他的则令人深感忧虑。希望在于特朗普对公司税改革的热情、积极推动基础设施投资,以及放松监管的某些主张。而危险则源自:第一,导致他对商界采取这种态度的混乱的重商主义;第二,他为了达到目的所采取的手段,即收买或攻击某些公司。美国资本主义的繁荣得益于规则贯彻的可预见性。从边际角度看来,如果这个基于规则的体系被代之以即兴的解决方式,商人必须小心听命于特朗普的突发奇想,那么对美国经济的长期损害将非常严重。problematic adj. 有问题的promising adj. 有希望的embrace n.拥抱,接受Deregulatory adj.放松管制的Stem n.植物的根茎- stem from 源于Muddle v.使混乱Mercantilism n.重商主义tactic n.策略buy off 收买Flourish v.繁荣发展Supersede v.取代ad hoc 临时的Heed n./v.留意 (pay attention to)Homage n.尊重- pay homage to 表达敬意Whim n.一时想法 (sudden decision)- quit job on a whimGrave adj.严重的 Article/201612/485722栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghai#39;s English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。 Article/201510/405149

【新闻精讲】Fake news items are not the only problem facing the social network虚假新闻并非社交网络面临的唯一问题 Whatever happens, Facebook’s heft ensures that it will remain in the firing-line. It has nearly 1.8bn monthly users, or about half of the internet population, and it serves up much of what people online. Whereas Google dominates the market for ads related to online search, Facebook rules the one based on consumers’ online profiles. Together both firms accounted for all new online ad spending this year, according to Mr Wieser. 不管发生的会是哪种情形,Facebook的影响力必然会令其遭受持续的批评。它的月活跃用户将近18亿,大约相当于整个互联网用户数的一半。人们在线阅读的内容有相当一部分是由Facebook提供。谷歌主导了与在线搜索相关的广告市场,而Facebook则配着基于消费者在线资料的广告市场。按照威瑟的说法,这两家公司包揽了今年所有的新增在线广告出。Heft 重量,影响力Firing-line 炮轰区域Dominate 占据主要位置Account for 占比With immense size comes intense scrutiny. Yet it is not clear whether Mr Zuckerberg fully grasps this. When first asked about the role of fake news in the American election campaign, he said it was a “pretty crazy idea” to think Facebook had an impact on voters. Only when Google said last week that it would bar fake-news sites from using its ad services, did it take the same step. 巨大的规模必然会引致严格的审视,但扎克伯格是不是完全领会了这一点,目前还不太好说。一开始被问及假新闻在美国总统竞选活动中所扮演的角色时,他说,认为Facebook会影响到选民是个“非常离谱的想法”。直到上月谷歌宣布将阻止假新闻网站使用其广告务时,Facebook才采取了同样的措施。Grasp v.抓住In a blog post on November 19th Mr Zuckerberg both set out how the social network would deal with the problem and insisted that Facebook itself does not want to decide whether something is fake or not. But it emerged a few days later that Facebook has aly developed a censorship tool, to be used in China should the firm be allowed back into the country, underlining that it knows precisely how to filter its content when it wants to. 在11月19日的一篇文中,扎克伯格既阐述了Facebook将如何应对假新闻这一问题,但也坚称Facebook本身并不想去裁定某件事是真是假。但几天后的情形表明,Facebook已经开发了一款审查工具,如果公司获准重返中国,这一工具将会在该国使用。这显示,Facebook完全了解该如何过滤其内容——只要它想这么做。set out 着手Emerge v.出现,暴露Censorship n.审查Filter v.过滤Some of these issues are easier to deal with than others. It should be straightforward enough to deal with any suggestion that Facebook is tricking advertisers. Answering the accusation that it is hurting democracy and violating people’s privacy raises far harder problems. In America almost half of adults now get their political news on Facebook. No other online firm, not even Google, has more data about consumers. More transparency would improve things across the board. So would an acceptance by Mr Zuckerberg of just what a heavy responsibility he now bears.以上种种问题中,某些会比其他的更容易应对一些。在面对有关蒙骗广告主的质疑时,解决方法应该很简单直接。但要回应损害民主、侵犯人们隐私权的指控,要面对的问题则要严峻得多。在美国,如今几乎有一半的成年人都是从Facebook上获取政治新闻。没有哪家互联网公司(甚至包括谷歌在内)拥有的消费者资料会比Facebook更多。更高的透明度会全面改善状况。如果扎克伯格肯承认自己如今责任重大,也会达到同样的效果。straightforward adj.直接了当的Trick v.欺骗Accusation n.指责- accuse v.指责(blame)- She was accused of lying.Transparency n.透明度Bear v.忍受承担 Article/201701/487127

This diet does not provide enough energy for modern humans.这样的膳食并不能为现代人类提供足够能量You feel full, but not sort of satisfied.你会觉得饱 但是不会满足I#39;m used to eating a lot more cheese我通常会吃很多奶酪和薯片and crisps and things that make you feel properly full up.还有其他一些东西让你感觉真的很撑Whereas I don#39;t feel hungry, but I don#39;t feel full up either.现在是我不会饿 但也没有感觉很撑By the end of the two weeks,两个星期过后the volunteers lost an average of nearly five kilos in weight.志愿者体重平均减少5公斤Though in the short term they might enjoy the weight loss,短期内他们会为减肥而欣慰in the long term they might well have starved to death.但是常此以往 却会有饿死之虞It appears that modern humans just cannot survive for any length of time显而易见 当代人类单靠生吃蔬果by eating ONLY raw fruit and vegetables.无论多久都是无法生存的The pilot study showed这个试验性研究表明that something must have happened to change our bodies since Australopithecus.从南方古猿进化到现在的我们 其间一定发生过什么But what was it?但是究竟是什么呢 Article/201504/370786

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