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2020年02月17日 02:46:47来源:39信息

Many children who have milk and egg allergies对牛奶和蛋类过敏的儿童are potential candidates for developing allergies可能在儿童时期更容易出现to other highly sensitizing food such as peanuts对易引发过敏反应的食品的过敏现象during childhood.比如花生However people who have a peanut allergy但是,对花生过敏的人do not usually react to other legumes such as反而可以接受一些其他的豆类食品green beans, lima beans or navy beans and比如绿豆,青豆或者海军豆are also likely to tolerate soy.也可能可以接受大豆This shows that some individuals are这表明一些人genetically more susceptible to从基因上就更容易出现develop food allergies.食物过敏的现象Now let#39;s examine some treatment options现在我们来讨论一下for food allergy.食物过敏的治疗方法There is currently no cure for food allergy目前对于食物过敏and the American Academy of Pediatrics并没有治愈的方法and the Food and Drug Administration advise美国儿科学会和食物和药品those with the condition to completely avoid建议食物过敏的人远离the susceptible foods.可能引发过敏的食品However there are several promising treatments但是确实有一些很有发展前景的in the process of development or are in testing.治疗方法正在研究实验过程中Next we will look at a few of these options.下面我们就来看看这些方法中的几种The first is sublingual immunotherapy第一种是舌下免疫疗法and oral immunotherapy are based on the concept和口腔免疫疗法,它们基于这样一种概念that the contact of the antigen with the oral mucosa通过口腔黏膜and gut associated lymphoid system leads to tolerance.和内脏淋巴系统接触抗原可以导致耐受性With these treatments patients are given用这种治疗方法的病人通过口腔minute amounts of the allergen orally and over time接触了很小剂量的过敏原,随着时间推移the quantity is increased.他们可以接受得过敏原的剂量增加了Only a few uncontrolled trials have been reported.已报告的失败的案例只有几例And although OIT and SLIT for egg, milk虽然对蛋类,牛奶和榛子的过敏and hazelnut appear to provide desensitization用这两种治疗方法在治疗期间during therapy long term tolerance可以达到脱敏的效用has yet to be validated.但是这是否长期有效尚未得到验The second treatment option we will examine is第二种治疗方法是the anti-IgE therapy.抗IgE疗法In one research study on peanut allergy在对花生过敏的一项实验研究中treatment TNX-901,给接受实验者使用一种抗IgE的名为an anti-IgE antibody was administered to individualsTNX-901的抗体,剂量从150毫克in varying doses from 150 to 450 milligrams到450毫克不等each week for 4 weeks.时间长度为4周Results showed that the 450 milligram dose实验结果表明 450毫克剂量的人significantly increased the threshold response from可以接受的花生数量从平均半个about one half of a peanut to 9 peanuts on average.上升到了9个The increased threshold would be enough to protect上升的数量足以使against accidental ingestion of peanuts and对花生过敏的人,在意外吃到花生后potentially protect the patient from a life不受影响,也可以使他们threatening reaction.免于遭受生命威胁However the results were inconsistent但是实验结果也有不一致的地方and the therapy would require bimonthly且这种疗法需要两月一次or monthly injections for life.或者一月一次接受注射Still it may be useful for those可能它对那些对花生who have severe reactions to peanuts.严重过敏的人较为有效The third treatment option we will examine is第三种疗法也是again for peanut allergy and is针对花生过敏the engineered recombinant protein.是工程重组蛋白The three major proteins that elicit可以引发过敏反应的三种an allergenic response have been isolated主要的蛋白质已经被分离出来to identify the allergenic components of peanuts.从而查明花生中可以导致过敏的部分The proteins have been modified to这些蛋白被进行了重组,降低它们reduce their ability to bind with the IgE antibodies在人体内与IgE抗体的联系能力within the human body therefore从而减少reducing the allergenic response.过敏反应The recombinant proteins have been shown to be重组蛋白在抑制过敏症状发生significantly more effective at blocking symptoms.方面作用显著This treatment is undergoing further testing before这种疗法目前正在being submitted for an application试验阶段,今后会向for approval by the Food and Drug Administration.食物和药品申请批准Another treatment option that is being researched另外一种疗法是is the food allergy herbal formula.采用植物配方This herb blend contains 9 Chinese herbs这种植物配方中包括9种中草药and has been shown to block anaphylactic symptoms在对老鼠进行的临床试验中and provide protection against symptoms of在抑制花生过敏的过敏性反应peanut allergy in a clinical study performed on mice.方面效果显著The FDA has recently approved the application食物和药品最近批准了这项申请and a Phase I clinical trial will soon be underway.一期临床试验即将开始In summary, food allergies are an autoimmune response总结下来,食物过敏是一种自身免疫反应that is often mistaken for food intolerance.经常被误认为是食物不耐症Research and reporting has found that peanut allergy研究及报告显示尤其是in particular appears to be increasing and theories花生过敏的数量一直在增加as to why this is happening are still being examined.而这其中的原因还未找到Genetic, environmental and immunological influences人们进行了基因,环境和are being examined to explain免疫系统方面的研究来解释食物过敏是how food allergies develop and many research studies如何产生发展的,目前仍然有很多实验研究are underway to find this answer.正在进行中来寻找Improved diagnosis, allergy management and成功诊断,过敏管理和患者教育patient education have improved in recent years近年来都得到了发展,对食物过敏的人and foods that elicit allergenic responses应该远离should be avoided.可能引发过敏反应的食物While a cure is not available numerous虽然目前没有可行的治愈方法treatment options are being examined.但是有很多疗法正处于研究试验阶段Reading food ingredient lists and asking questions目前对食物过敏的人来说about the foods you plan to consume are最好的方式是阅读食物成分表currently the best defense for those以及询问你要吃的食物的with food allergies.成分包括什么 Article/201506/380621。

  • I don#39;t think there is a certain point in anyone#39;s life where they grow up. I think that we#39;re growing up all the time, and we always will be.我不认为任何人的一生中有一个他们成长的特定时刻。我认为我们一直在成长,而我们会永远如此。My name is Jon Novick. I#39;m 20 years old, and I#39;m a dwarf with achondroplasia. Before I was even born, my mother studied genetics in graduate school. Specifically, she had an interest in achondroplastic dwarfism that she did a study on. Achondroplastic dwarfism is the kind of dwarfism that I have, so when I was born, she had a lot of extra information and she had a lot of books to help her parent me.我的名字是 Jon Novick。我 20 岁,我是一个有软骨发育不全症的侏儒。在我还没出生前,我的母亲在研究所研究遗传学。特别是,她对她论文研究的软骨发育不全侏儒症有兴趣。软骨发育不全侏儒症就是我罹患的那种病症,所以当我出生时,她有很多额外的资讯而且,她有许多书籍帮助她养育我。The definition for dwarfism is the abnormal underdevelopment of the body characterized predominantly by extreme shortness of stature. There#39;s a lot of different kinds of dwarfism, as I mentioned before, and the most common kind is the kind that I have, which is achondroplasia. Achondroplasia is characterized by disproportionately short limbs, a normal-sized torso, large head, and with a depressed nasal bridge, right here, a small face, and stubby hands, as well as the curvature of the spine.侏儒症的定义,是主要以极短体型为特徵的身体异常发育不良症状。有许多不同种类的侏儒症,像我先前提到的,而最常见的种类就是我得到的那种,也就是软骨发育不全。软骨发育不全症以不符比例的四肢、正常大小的躯干、巨大的头、以及扁平的鼻柱--在这儿--小的面孔、以及粗短的手、还有弯曲的脊椎为特征。The term is dwarf or little person. One or the other is totally fine, just not ;midget.; A lot of times, midget is thrown around as the term to describe someone who has dwarfism. And not only is that incorrect but it#39;s incredibly offensive. I moved to New York City about a year ago. And although I considered it ultimately a good experience, it was made a lot more difficult because of my dwarfism.一般的名称是侏儒或小小人。两者之中择一都没问题,只要不是“小矮子”。很多时候,小矮子被随意说出口当成形容某个有侏儒症的人的词。但这不只不正确,而且还非常冒犯人。我大约一年前搬到纽约市。尽管我认为这绝对是段美好的体验,一切还是因我的侏儒症而困难许多。I grew up in a small town, and I would have, you know, negative encounters every now and then, but for the most part, I had friends and I had family who supported me. School wasn#39;t a nightmare, and I just was able to have a pretty average childhood. A year ago when I moved to the city, I noticed that there was a lot of people. There was a lot, a lot of people. And because of that, I had a lot of encounters. I would have people to take pictures of me on the subway. I would have people that would harass me. And just all these things, all these almost daily occurrences, they would continue happening—continue happening until it got to a point where I just got fed up with it.我在一个小镇长大,而我会有,你知道,偶尔一些不快的遭遇,但大多情况下,我有朋友、和持我的家人。学校生活并不是噩梦,而我正好能有个蛮普通的童年。一年前当我搬到这城市时,我注意到有很多人。有很多、很多人。因为那样,我有许多遭遇。我会遇到人们在地铁拍我的照片。我会遇到骚扰我的人。而就是这所有的事,所有这些几乎每天发生的事,它们会不断发生--不断发生直到到达一个我真的受够了的程度。I wanted to stop telling people what happened to me, and I wanted to start showing people what happened to me. I wanted to show everyone what a day in my life was like.我想停止告诉人们发生在我身上的事,然后我想开始展示给人们看发生在我身上的事。我想给每个人看我生活中的一天是怎样的。I was fortunate enough to be able to use this camera, which is actually known as a button camera, because the lens I#39;m gonna be using is so tiny. It has a button cover-up that I#39;m gonna be slipping through a shirt that will be completely unnoticeable. So we#39;re all packed up. The camera is all y and going. I#39;m gonna turn it on right now.我真够幸运能使用这个摄影机,这其实被称做钮扣摄影机,因为我即将要用的镜头是如此小。这有个钮扣掩饰,我要把它穿过一件衬衫,这样就完全不会被查觉。那么我们全着装完成了。摄影机都淮备好然后开录了。我现在要把它打开。It#39;s rolling.这在录了。And we#39;re gonna go see what we can capture, so let#39;s head out.然后我们要出发看看我们能捕捉到什么画面, 那我们出去吧。What is he?他是什么东西?Have you been on TV?你有上过电视吗?I have not.我没有。You know who you look like?你知道你看起来像谁吗?Who?谁?Have you ever seen that show Little People Big World?你有没有看过那个节目《小矮人大世界》?Yeah.有。Yeah. You look like the son, man.对啦。你看起来像那个儿子,老兄。I do?我像吗?Yeah.是的。Why do you say that? I just do? Do you see a lot of little people?你为什么那样说?我就是像吗?你看过很多小小人吗?Man, I#39;m from Oklahoma.老兄,我是从奥克拉荷马州来的。Little midget! Big man, big penis.死小矮子!大个头、大鸡鸡。What? What did you say?什么?你说什么?Hey! Short stuff!嘿!矮东西!Wow.哇。Man, I hope I didn#39;t offend you.老兄,我希望我没冒犯到你。Oh, no, no, it#39;s okay. I appreciate that. No, it#39;s fine.喔,不、不会,没事的。我很感谢你的关心。不,没关系。Hey, can I get your picture?嘿,我可以照一张你的相片吗?No.不。Are you from one of the shows with the little people?你是从一个有小矮人的那节目来的吗?Not that I know of. No, I#39;m not.就我所知不是。不,我不是。You look identical with the guy.你和那人看起来一模一样耶。I don#39;t want to tell anyone what to do, or what to think, or how to feel. But instead, what I#39;ll do is I#39;ll ask. I#39;ll ask that the next time you see someone who is different than you, think about what their day might be like, think about all the events of their life leading up to that point, then think about their day, and think about what part of their day do you want to be.我不想告诉任何人该做什么、或该想什么、或该如何感受。但取而代之地,我会做的是我会请求各位。我会请求各位,下次你看到一个和你不同的人,想想看他们的日子可能像怎样、想想看他们生命中所有的事件引导到那个临界点,然后想想他们的一天,并想想你想要参与他们一天中的哪个部分。 Article/201411/341014。
  • 比尔#8226;斯通是一位非比寻常的探险家,他曾探究过地球最深的深渊。他要讨论他为寻找太空飞行新能源而开采月球冰层的努力,并想要开发一个自动机器人以研究木卫二号行星。 Article/201503/362135。
  • If you want to do well,如果你想要表现好I feel that should be a personal achievement我认为就应该靠个人努力as opposed to enhanced by artificial mechanisms.而不是通过来人为的机制来提高If a lot of people took it,如果大量的人用它then people would have to那么人们就必须用take it to be able to compete with their peers.这样才能和同龄人竞争To be perfectly honest, doing what it does, if it was legal,坦诚地说 如果这么做是合法的and it was safe, everyone would be doing it.并且安全的 那么每个人都会用Aly it#39;s being put to use among professionals.现在一些专业人士已经开始用了Professors are using it to help them work,教授们用它们来帮助工作and surgeons are looking at it外科医生们用它as a way of staying alert during long and complex surgery.是为了在长时间复杂手术中保持敏锐But for Professor Sahakian但是对于萨哈金教授the question remains依然存在一个问题 will it actually make our lives better?它真的能改善我们的生活吗Suppose we took cognitive enhancing drugs假如我们用提高认知的药物and we got all our work done in a short period of time,我们在短时间内把工作做完we could go home, spend time with our我们就可以回家 和家人在一起family and improve our work/life balance. That would be great.改善工作与家庭之间的平衡 那很不错But it#39;s more likely with the但是 当今社会type of society that we seem to be moving towards正朝向无休止地工作发展that it will be this 24/7因此更有可能出现的情况是society so we#39;ll take these drugs so we can我们用这些药物work longer, so we can travel more and do是为了让做工作时间更长 旅行更多more work so it will然后做更多的工作disrupt our work/life balance even more.因此会使工作与生活的平衡变得更糟 Article/201501/357279。
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