明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年02月26日 09:39:09
Science and technology科学和技术Allergy to wine红酒过敏The oenophiles lament酒鬼们的烦恼An explanation for a most unfortunate condition.这件不幸的事现在有解释了。ONE of life’s sadder statistics is that about 8% of people get sneezy and stuffy-headed after drinking wine.这世上有一个统计数据令人伤心,那就是大约有8%的人在饮用红酒以后会产生打喷嚏和头昏脑涨的症状。This mild allergic reaction is often blamed on preservative chemicals called sulphites, but they are responsible for only an eighth of cases.这种轻微过敏反应常常和作为防腐添加剂的亚硫酸盐有关联。The reason for the rest is obscure. Giuseppe Palmisano of the University of Southern Denmark, however, thinks he knows the answer.但是此类过敏症况只有1/8的情况是由亚硫酸盐造成的,其他7/8的情况一直病因不明。不过南丹麦大学的Giuseppe Palmisano认为他搞明白这是怎么回事了。As he and his colleagues report in the Journal of Proteome Research, the culprits are glycoproteins—compounds composed, as their name suggests, of sugar and protein. That is not a complete surprise.他和他的团队在蛋白组学研究期刊上发表文章称,罪魁祸首是糖蛋白顾名思义,就是由糖类和蛋白质组成的一类蛋白质。Glycoproteins are implicated in several other allergies.这倒也不算意外。糖蛋白也涉及其他的过敏症。But Dr Palmisano thinks he has identified the ones specific to wine.不过Palmisano士认为他找到了与红酒过敏特定相关的那几个糖蛋白。To do so he started with a cheeky little chardonnay, treated it with ice-cold trichloroacetic acid and ethanol to precipitate any glycoproteins, then digested those glycoproteins into smaller molecules called peptides that can be analysed by mass spectroscopy.为了找到这个过敏原,Palmisano士将一些白葡萄酒用冰凉的三氯乙酸和酒精处理以沉淀出所有的糖蛋白,之后将它们消化成叫做多肽的小分子以便用质谱仪分析。He screened the results against a database of known allergenic proteins. Three stood out.他拿检查结果和已知过敏原的数据库对比。有三个糖蛋白引入眼帘,One is similar to allergenic proteins found in latex and pears.其中一个过敏性蛋白相似,该蛋白可以再乳胶和梨中发现;Another looks like a second latex protein and an olive protein, both known allergens.第二个与另一个乳胶蛋白以及一个橄榄蛋白相似,这两个蛋白也是已知的过敏原;The third resembles one of the most rampant allergens of them all, a ragweed protein that causes hay fever.第三个与造成花粉过敏的豚草蛋白类似,该蛋白可说是过敏原里最厉害的一个了。Whether winemakers will be able to act on this knowledge is moot.酿酒商们会不会因为这个发现而改进产品这未有可知。But it might be possible to tweak the production process to reduce the presence of the allergens.不过通过调节生产流程来减少过敏原的产生倒是很有可能的。In any case, you can now blame that stuffy feeling that comes after drinking on glycoproteins, not alcohol. Honest.不管怎么说,说真的,下次你又喝红酒头疼的时候就不用怪酒了,应该怪糖蛋白么。 /201302/225920

How do we get into wars in the first place? The framers of our Constitution had a clear idea: They gave Congress, the branch closest to the people, the power to declare war, and the President the right to prosecute it.我们如何发起战争呢?立宪者们描述得很清楚:代表人民群众的国会有发起战争的权利,总统有执行战争的权利。Going to war, the founders of our nation believed, should be a shared responsibility. By the time of the Vietnam War, however, Congress had watched a series of presidents send U.S. forces overseas with little or no consultation beforehand. So, in 1973, over President Nixons veto, Congress passed the War Powers Resolution, to claim a stronger role in the decision to send our troops into combat.我们国家的创始人相信,参加战争应是一份共同的责任。然而到越战时,多任总统在向海外输送兵力之前很少或没有与国会协商。因此在1973年,国会在尼克松总统反对的情况下,仍然通过了《战争权力决议案》,要求在决定是否派兵出战上给予国会更大权利。The legislation has proven to be seriously flawed, however. Nothing in it actually requires joint deliberation before going to war, and it contains loopholes that presidents have been only too happy to exploit.然而事实明,这项立法具有严重的缺陷。实际上,在开战前没有任何事项需要共同的协商。而且总统也很乐意利用其中含有的漏洞。Only once, after the Navy ship the Mayaguez was captured by Cambodia in 1975, has a President actually acted pursuant to the War Powers Resolution. Congress has been unable to address the ambiguities in the measure. So despite its noble attempt more than 30 years ago to restore some balance when it comes to making war, the power remains largely with the President.在1975年美国海军船马亚圭斯号在柬埔寨被俘时,总统才依照《战争权力决议案》行动过一次,仅此一次。国会一直没能处理好这种分歧。虽然30年多前国会曾试图缓和这种失衡的现状,但一涉及到战争,总统仍然掌握着大部分权力。原文译文属!201211/209973


  Sailendra Nath Manna, a saint among footballers, died on February 27th, aged 87足球场上的圣徒,赛伦德拉·纳斯·曼纳,2月27日逝世,终年87岁THE game of football regularly produces playboys, celebrities, racists, billionaires, fashion models and spoilt brats. What it does not produce is saints; with one exception. When Sailen Manna died, 2,000 people followed his body to the Keoratala burning ghat in Kolkata, on the banks of the Hooghly river that flows out of the Ganges. They acknowledged they had lost rather more than a decent player.足球这项运动往往让人联想到、时尚名流、种族主义者、亿万富翁、时装模特和纨绔子弟。在圣者寥寥的足球场上,赛伦·曼纳(Sailen Manna)却是个例外。他去世后,两千人簇拥着他的遗体,陪伴他从加尔各答顺着恒河流胡格利(Hooghly)河畔,送他到Keoratala陵园。对于送葬者而言,他们失去的远不止一名令人尊敬的球员。With Manna-da—third from left above—tall and strong in defence, newly independent India almost beat France at the London Olympic games in 1948. Under his captaincy, it won its first international football gold medal at the Asian games in 1951. For a very short while, in his time, it walked in the sun as a world-class footballing nation. And it walked barefoot, because, in those years, that was how Mr Manna and his colleagues played.1948年伦敦奥运会上,凭借后卫线上身高体壮的曼纳(图中左起第三),新近独立的印度险些击败法国。在曼纳的带领下,印度又在1951年的亚运会上第一次在国际赛事中摘得足球项目的金牌。虽然仅昙花一现,但印度也曾跻身国际足坛前列,头顶世界级强队的光环,而且可以说是赤脚打天下,因为在那个年代,曼纳和他的队友都是球场上的“赤脚大仙”。Yes, he acknowledged later, it often hurt. Bare feet were all very well on the thin, baked surface of the vast Maidan at the centre of Kolkata, where his club, Mohun Bagan AC, had its playing field, and where the worst hazards were straying goats and glass. But on an early away trip to Maharashtra he noted with horror that his rivals had boots, and knew how to use them. In the waning years of Empire, British and Anglo-Indian teams were the worst, aiming for his knees and ankles, or simply trampling him. He lost track of the times his toenails were uprooted. Anklets and plasters helped, or sometimes socks. Pain was muted by the joy of beating the go rasahibs at their own game.当然,他后来承认光脚踢球经常疼得厉害,不过也因地而异。在加尔各答市中心广阔的麦丹(Maidan)公园的草地稀疏炙热,在那里赤脚踢球尚无大碍。曼纳的球队莫罕巴干俱乐部(Mohun Bagan AC)在那里训练,最倒霉不过是踩到山羊粪或者玻璃碴儿。然而,有一次他们去马哈拉施特拉邦(Maharashtra)比赛,对手都是穿球鞋的而且用鞋对付赤脚的莫罕巴干队。多年后回忆起来,他仍心有余悸。大英帝国日渐削弱的年代,英国队和那些英印混血儿队的球风最为下作,对准他的膝盖和脚踝踢,或者直接踩上一脚。他不得不连根拔掉脚趾甲,具体是什么时候,他已经不记得了。护踝套和创可贴长带在身上,有时候穿上袜子也可以缓解疼痛。每当在“白人老爷”的地盘赢了球,他满心喜悦,丝毫不知道痛了。The reasons for the naked feet varied, even in his own mind. Like most Bengali boys, he could not dream of affording boots. There was no money in football then; Mohun Bagan did not pay him, and he had to buy the maroon and green strip with his own hard-earned cash. But when pretty Princess Margaret asked him whether he wasn’t afraid to play that way, as he balanced a sandwich and a cup of tea at Buckingham Palace after the team’s glorious 1-2 Olympic loss to booted France, he would not mention poverty. They just preferred it, he told her. It was easier to keep the ball under control.他赤脚足球原因是各种各样的,甚至曼纳脑子里也有多种版本。像大多数孟加拉邦的孩子一样,他不敢奢望能买得起球鞋。那时候,足球运动员没有钱赚;曼纳在莫罕巴干俱乐部没有工资,他的茶色和绿色条纹队也是用自己的血汗钱买的。印度队在奥运会上1比2虽败犹荣输给穿鞋的法国队后,他有幸在白金汉宫(Buckingham Palace)得到了公主玛格丽特公主(Princess Margaret)的接见。美丽的公主问道,他是不是不怕赤脚踢球。当时,他泰然自若地一手拿着三明治,一手托杯茶,在答话中对穷困只字不提。他告诉公主,他们更喜欢光脚踢球,这样更容易把球控制住。Myths gathered round that conversation. Some said Manna-da had told the princess that “Strength is in the mind.” Others said that the king, George VI, had made him roll up his trousers to see if his legs were made of steel. Later versions said that he had played in snow, and certainly he remembered he had at the next Olympics in Helsinki, where ice flakes had been shifted from the field before they played. By then, boots were compulsory; but several players still got frostbite as they lost 1-10 to Yugoslavia, even though it was July. And to his fans Manna-da seemed to play barefoot—agile, skilful and deadly on the free kicks—all through his career.关于曼纳和公主的谈话,民间有各种传言。有的说,曼纳告诉公主“是意志的力量”。其他版本说,英王乔治六世(George VI)让曼纳卷起裤管,要看看他的腿是不是钢做的。之后发展的说法是,曼纳在雪地里踢过球。他当然记得芬兰赫尔辛基(Helsinki)1952年奥运会,但是比赛之前先要除掉球场上的雪。那时候,上场比赛必须穿球鞋了。他们1比10输给了当时的南斯拉夫(Yugoslavia)。虽然正值7月,但是曼纳好几个队友一场比赛下来还是得了冻疮。曼纳的球迷普遍认为他一生都是赤脚踢球的,而他的任意球更是灵活熟练,足以给对手致命一击。The empty cupboard空空的橱柜His feet were a metaphor for other virtues. He played carefully, like a gentleman. In a 20-year career he was never booked, never swore, and fouled no one. As captain, he did not raise his voice to players. He disciplined by example, and would refuse to take food before they had eaten theirs. Though he seldom let opponents past him, he was good friends with them off the pitch—even if they played for MB’s great local rival, East Bengal. He had no enemies. On one occasion the Border Security Force team so hobbled Mohun Bagan with vicious tackling in the drawn semi-final of the Durand Cup that MB could not take the field for the replay. Manna-da calmed down the furious crowd of 20,000 who had come to see the game, and then wished BSF good luck for the final.他的双脚也是他诸多美德的象征。他在球场上谨慎小心,像个绅士。20年的足球生涯中,他从来没有受到裁判的警告,从不骂骂咧咧,更从不犯规。身为队长,他从不大声呵斥队友。他严于律己,以身作则,在队中总是最后一个吃饭。他很少让对手轻易过人,但是在场下他和很多球员都是好朋友,包括莫罕巴干的头号劲敌东孟加拉队(East Bengal)的球员们。他没有敌人。有一次在杜兰杯(Durand Cup)抽签决定的半决赛中赛中,边防保安队(Border Security Force)队凭着恶意攻击,让莫罕巴干队个个一瘸一拐不能上场重新比赛,激起了全场观众的愤怒。曼纳平息了两万名观众的怒火,并绅士般地祝对手决赛好运。Nor did he care about any of the trappings of the game, or vaunt his glories. Loyally, he played for Mohun Bagan, or coached for it, or acted as assistant secretary and general sounding board, for five decades. He reckoned his total earnings at 19 rupees, or about 20 cents, for travel expenses for forcing his way through the tangled mass of hawkers and buses and rickshaw wallahs on the Howrah bridge when he first joined the club, in 1942. Otherwise, he lived on the money he earned working for the Geological Survey of India.对于比赛中的陷阱他也不放在心上,更不自吹自擂。他为莫罕巴干尽忠整整50年,要么在队里踢球,要么当教练、秘书助理或总参谋。他回忆,在1942年刚刚加入俱乐部的时候,他的工资是19卢比,约20美分。这点钱仅够从家到俱乐部的路费。长长的豪拉(Howrah)桥上,小贩、公共汽车和人力车夫交织得密密麻麻,他要创出一条路去踢球。如果不去踢球,他可以在印度地理勘测局(Geological Survey of India)的供职,生活本不必如此辛苦。His flat in Salt Lake, in eastern Kolkata, did not look like a great footballer’s. He had donated his Asian games gold medallion to the government, even though Pandit Nehru himself had pressed it into his hand. His team ties and blazers he had given to charity. What remained was a photograph or two, and an empty cupboard scratched with messages from friends who had come to call on him.他的房子在加尔各答东部的盐湖(Salt Lake),看上去不是著名足球运动员应该住的地方。他把尼赫鲁总理(Pandit Nehru)亲自交到他手里的亚运会金牌捐给了政府。他把球队的西和领带捐给了慈善事业。空空的橱柜中只剩下一两张照片,和朋友做客时在柜子上写下的问候。Memories were his wealth, he told interviewers in his old age. He so loved the game that almost all of them were good; he needed no more. He still regretted missing the first penalty kick against France in the London Olympics, and turning down the chance of taking the second penalty because he was afraid of missing again. It still rankled that India had not gone to the 1950 World Cup in Brazil, with him as captain, because the Indian Football Federation had not realised its importance. He was sorry, too, that India was not even doing well in the Asian games. But he lived in hope of a return of national footballing confidence. No, he was not religious, he would say with a smile. But he kept a picture of Goddess Kali, barefoot conqueror of demons, tucked away in his pocket.回忆是他的财富,他在晚年接受采访时这样说道。他太热爱足球了,在他眼里足球的一点一滴都是好的;他有了足球心满意足。不过他仍然后悔在奥运会上错失对法国队的点球,也后悔因为害怕再次失手而不敢面对第二次点球机会。作为队长,心痛的还有看着印度退出1950年的巴西世界杯,因为印度足协对世界杯的重要性不以为然。他也为印度在亚运会上也黯然失色感到遗憾。但是他还是心存希望,希望有朝一日印度足球重整旗鼓。当被问到是否信教时,他会微笑地说,不。但是他会把迦梨女神(Goddess Kali)的照片妥帖地珍藏在衣袋里。201205/182642。


  Fat is fat, right? Theres belly fat, leg fat, even neck fat. But when all is said and done, fat is fat. And the less of it you have the better. Except…for brown fat. Unlike white fat cells that store energy, brown fat burns energy. Its typically found in hibernating animals and human babies. When its cold, brown fat burns calories, which releases heat to keep the body warm. Until recently, scientists thought that as people grew, their brown fat melted away. But it turns out that human adults have some brown fat, too.脂肪就是脂肪,对吗?肚子上有脂肪,腿上有脂肪,即使是脖子上也会长脂肪。归根结底,脂肪就是脂肪。并且脂肪越少越好。除了褐色脂肪以外。不同于用于储存能量的白色脂肪细胞,褐色脂肪能燃烧能量。特别是在冬眠的动物和人类宝宝的体内能够找到它们的身影。天气寒冷时,褐色脂肪会消耗能量,并释放出热量来抵御寒冷。直到近年来科学家们才发现,随着年龄的增长,褐色脂肪也在逐渐消失。不过事实明,成年人体内仍含有一些褐色脂肪。This discovery is pretty new, so scientists are still figuring out what it means, and whether brown fat can somehow be used to help people lose weight. But there are some promising signs. Studies have shown that lean people tend to have more brown fat, and that the fat is most active in cool temperatures. So its possible that people become obese partly because they dont have enough brown fat to burn excess calories. Scientists are now working on ways to help obese bodies create more brown fat.这个发现很新奇,所以科学家仍然在研究这个问题,他们要研究出棕色脂肪是否能够帮助人类减轻体重。 但也有一些令人鼓舞的迹象。研究表明,身材苗条的人体内含有更多褐色脂肪,并且在凉爽的气温下这种脂肪最活跃。所以人会变肥胖有部分原因可能是由于体内没有足够的褐色脂肪来消耗多余的热量。目前科学家正在研究帮助肥胖患者体内生成更多褐色脂肪的途径。Experimenting with proteins, Harvard researchers have managed to ramp up production of brown fat cells in mice. Brown fat is no miracle cure for obesity. Its not clear whether having more brown fat actually does or could lead to more weight loss. And scientists are a long way from being able to increase brown fat stores in people. But at the very least, weve learned that not all fat is necessarily bad. Down the road, brown fat may help make peoples lives better.哈佛大学研究人员用蛋白质做实验,成功地逐步提高了小鼠体内褐色脂肪的含量。褐色脂肪不是治疗肥胖者的奇迹。至于含有更多的褐色脂肪是否能减掉更多的体重这一点还不确定。且在人们体内存储更多的褐色脂肪方面,科学家们还有很长的路要走。但至少我们了解了一个事实:并不是所有的脂肪都是不好的。也许在不久的将来,褐色脂肪会让人们的生活更加美好。原文译文属!201301/219947

  You know how sometimes things that happen in the real world can affect your dreams?你知道现实生活发生的事情是怎么影响你的梦境吗? Like you might think fleetingly of someone and then have that person pop up in a dream. Or a noise like an alarm clock sounding figures in a dream narrative.比如说,你可能会觉得有人一闪而过,又突然在梦里出现。或者你感觉在梦中的故事情节里一直回荡着像闹铃似的噪音。Now, dream researchers in Germany have found that odors, too, can affect dreams. Nice smells, like roses, tend to result in happier dreams, while repugnant scents like rotten eggs more often result in bad dreams.现今,德国的释梦研究者者发现臭味也能影响梦境。香味,比如说玫瑰花香,有利于引发快乐的梦,然而像坏鸡蛋这样的刺鼻的味道更容易引发消极的梦。The researchers studied several young women in their twenties, a group known to have the best sense of smell.研究者以20几岁的年轻女孩为对象做了实验,她们被公认为有着非常灵敏的嗅觉。While sleeping, the women breathed in air through tubes taped to their nostrils.在她们睡觉的时候用气管插在鼻孔呼吸。During REM sleep, when most dreams occur, the subjects received rose-scented air, then rotten egg-scented air, and then plain air.梦境经常发生在快速眼动睡眠阶段,在这个时候让研究对象闻玫瑰香味,然后是臭鸡蛋味,最后让她们正常呼吸。When awakened a few minutes after the infusion of rose air, nearly all of the women reported having pleasant dreams.在吸入玫瑰香味之后几分钟把她们叫醒,几乎每个人都说做了很美好的梦。When awakened after receiving the foul-smelling air, most women reported having dreams with a negative cast.在吸入臭味之后醒来时,大多数都说做了很消极的梦。To be clear, none of the women reported actually smelling roses or rotten eggs in their dreams.首先说明一下,没有人说她们在做梦的时候闻到了玫瑰香或者臭鸡蛋味。The researchers believe that smells influence dreams indirectly by altering the dreamers emotions.研究者相信,这明了味道可通过改变做梦人的情绪来间接地影响梦境。After all, smell is governed largely by the brains limbic system, which also controls emotion and behavior.毕竟,味觉是由大脑边缘系统配的,并且大脑边缘系统也同时控制着人的情绪和行为。The researchers reason that if smell can influence our emotions when were awake, it could just as easily affect emotions while were asleep and in the throes of a dream. 研究者推理,如果味道可以在人们清醒时影响情绪,那么它也可以在人们睡着或者做梦时轻易地影响人们的情绪。201205/181394


  Finance and Economics;The Big Mac index;Calories and currencies; 财经;巨无霸指数;货币卡路里;What burgernomics says about five years of turmoil汉堡经济学解读“危机五年”Our Big Mac index is back. Normally a beefy bundle of exchange rate fun, this year it is marking a sombre anniversary: five years since global money-markets seized up in the summer of 2007. What does burgernomics reveal about todays exchange rates, and about the impact that five years of distress, from credit crunch to euro crisis, have had on currencies?《经济学人》的巨无霸指数又回来啦!与往常拿厚厚一叠汇率开玩笑不同,今年是为了黯然纪念“2007年夏全球金融市场失灵”五周年。汉堡经济学该如何解读现今的汇率形势,以及五年混乱——从信贷紧缩到欧元危机对货币的影响?The Big Mac index is The Economists burger-based measure of whether currencies are over- or undervalued. The recipe comes from the theory of purchasing-power parity, which says that exchange rates should eventually adjust to make the price of a basket of goods the same in each country. Our basket contains just one item: the Big Mac hamburger, which is pretty much the same around the world.巨无霸指数是《经济学人》以汉堡价格为基础来衡量一国货币是否被高估或低估。其理论依据是购买力评价学说,该学说认为应使汇率最终调整到使各国一篮子商品的价格相同。《经济学人》的篮子里只有一样商品:巨无霸汉堡,该商品在全世界卖的几乎是一样的。The index works by calculating the exchange rate that would leave a Big Mac costing the same in each country. Take the rouble and the real, the currencies of Russia and Brazil respectively. At current exchange rates a Big Mac, which sells for 4.33 dollor in America, costs just 2.29 dollor (75 roubles) in Russia, whereas in Brazil it sells for a sliver under 5 (10 reais) dollor. So the dollar buys a lot of burger in Russia, signalling that the rouble is cheap and the real rather pricey. A selection of other currencies is included in the chart (the full index can be seen here).巨无霸指数的作用在于计算出使各国汉堡价格相同的汇率。以俄罗斯货币卢布和巴西货币雷亚尔为例。在当前汇率下,一个巨无霸在美国售价为4.33美元,在俄罗斯仅售2.29美元(75卢布),然而巴西的售价略低于5美元(10雷亚尔)。所以美元在俄罗斯可以买到许多汉堡,这说明卢布比较便宜而雷亚尔相当昂贵。该图表显示了其他代表性货币情况(要看完整的巨无霸指数请点这里)In addition to the real, several other currencies look dear, according to the latest Mcdata. A group of rich European countries—none of them in the euro zone—sit near the top of the pile. At the other end, the yen, the pound and the Canadian dollar all look cheap. But it is in Asia that you get the most burger for your buck: China, Indonesia and Hong Kong are all more than 40% undervalued.根据美国麦迪数据公司最新数据显示,除了雷亚尔,其他几种货币也表现得昂贵。一批富裕的欧洲国家——都没有加入欧元区——处在排行的前列。另一端,日元、英镑、以及加拿大元都表现的廉价。然而在亚洲买汉堡才是最划算:中国、印度尼西亚、和中国香港的货币都低估了40%以上。There have been some big shifts in fortune since the first rumblings of the crisis, five years ago. The Australian dollar has strengthened, moving from 14% undervalued to 8% overvalued. In the early part of the crisis Australias well-capitalised banks proved remarkably resilient; more recently, the currency has benefited from a spike in commodities prices (see article), and from strong exports to China. Japan and Brazil also have beefier currencies than five years ago.自五年前经济危机伊始,全球财富进行了一些大洗牌。澳元走强,从低估40%升至高估8%。在危机早期,澳洲资本雄厚的显著地明了自己具有弹性。最近,澳元又受益于大宗商品价格飙升,以及对中国强劲的出口。日本和巴西的货币也比五年前更坚挺。Others have weakened. The British pound is a shadow of its former self: since 2007 it has moved from 18% overvalued to 4% undervalued. Britains experience has been the opposite of Australias: its financial industry, a big chunk of the overall economy, was at the heart of the financial turmoil (the pound depreciated sharply in 2008) and its biggest export market, the euro zone, is in a dful mess.其他货币则变得疲软。英镑沦落为从前自己的影子:自2007年起从高估18%跌落至低估4%。英国的经历恰与澳大利亚相反:占英国总体经济大部分的金融业处于金融风暴的中心(2008年英镑急剧贬值),而它最大的出口市场欧元区正一团糟。Being at the bottom of the Big Mac index need not be all bad, though. A cheap currency means exports look attractive to foreigners. Slipping down the index should, in theory, boost net exports. China manages its currency using exactly this logic: to keep the yuan cheap and demand for yuan-priced exports high.不过处在巨无霸指数的底部也不全是坏事。便宜的货币意味着出口在外国人眼里更有吸引力。理论上,巨无霸指数上的下滑可以促进净出口。中国对人民币的管制正是出于这一逻辑:保持人民币价格低,就可以保以人民币计价的出口需求大。Now the biggest exchange rate move economists are hoping to see is a marked fall in the value of the euro. The euro zone, in particular its sickly peripheral economies, including Spain and Greece, craves a calorific boost from the currency.如今经济学家期望看到的最大汇率变动是欧元价值的显著下滑。欧元区,特别是糟糕的经济体(包括西班牙和希腊)渴望货币能释放巨大能量,来推动经济复苏。 /201302/226857。

  What a difference a day makes!一天的变化竟然如此之大!Just yesterday, Japans markets were cheering the US debt deal ending up, but today, markets closed down to 1.2%. Why?就在昨天,日本丰田股市还沉浸在处理完美国债务的喜悦中,但是今天股市收盘却降至1.2%。为什么呢?Lingering concerns about the real US economy as well as the value of the US dollar versus the surging Yen.对美国经济现状以及美元对日元贬值的疑虑一直挥之不去。Despite the passage of the house deal, the markets reacted negatively to a manufacturing report, weak dollar is especially hurting corporate Japan, eating into corporate profits, when that money is repatriated back here in Japan.即使不考虑已经通过的外汇买卖,股市仍然很排斥制造业。尤其是在资金遣返回日本时,疲软的美元会危及日本的经济,蚕食企业的收益。We saw the currency issue play out at Toyotas first quarter earnings, Toyota saying that its net income for the months from April to June of this year fell 99.4% year on year.与第一季度的财政收入对比一下,我们就可以看出丰田目前的情况。丰田公司称他们今年从四月到六月这三个月的净收入比去年同期下降了99.4%。Toyota did raise earnings forecast for the full fiscal year though.然而之前丰田却预测今年的财政年收入会增加。Toyota says it is still hurting in the aftermath of the tsunami and the earthquake, but also hurting the company severely is a weak US dollar versus a surging Yen.日本丰田称他们的市场仍然遭受着海啸和地震后的不利影响,同时美元对日元的贬值也严重威胁着丰田公司。An executive after earnings called the currency exchange “too much for manufactures to bear”.丰田一位财政官员称外汇是“制造商难以承受之重”。“I understand that it is a fate to adapt to ever changing exchange rates, but this situation where the Yen has passed 80 yen and it is now at 76 yen, for our exporters, its extremely tough.”“我明白我们必须适应不断浮动的汇率,但是在有些地区美日汇率已经超过了1:80,而现如今达到1:76,对那里的出口商而言,这样的情形是极其严峻的。”He also added that they are having trouble: Toyota that is having trouble keeping up with the currency trend of the US dollar versus the yen.他也补充了亟待解决的难题,即丰田公司很难做到与美日汇率保持同步。So now all eyes are turning to the Bank of Japan who meets on Thursday of this week, Thursday and Friday amid heavy speculation that there could be some intervention on the yen.所以现在所有人都在关注日本的举动,他们将在这个星期三举行会议。会议之后的星期四和星期五将会充斥着各界对是否会出台政策干预日元的猜测。Kyung Lah, CNN, TokyoKyung Lah,美国有线电视新闻网,东京文本来源于普特论坛201205/180512


  Don:Hey Yael, why are you wearing safety goggles?唐:嘿,雅艾尔,你为什么戴着一副护目镜?Yael:In case I run into any spitting cobras, Don.雅艾尔:唐,以防碰上吐毒液的眼镜蛇。Don:Spitting cobras? I didnt know there were any wild cobras in the ed States.唐:吐毒液的眼镜蛇?我一直以为在美国没有野生的眼镜蛇。Yael:There arent. Cobras live in Africa and Asia where they kill thousands of people each year, but Im going to the reptile exhibit at the zoo. The scary thing is, some cobra species dont even have to bite you to injure you. They can spit poison a distance of three feet and they always aim for the eyes. Their poison is a neurotoxin that causes pain and can damage the mucus membranes and cornea. It can even cause blindness.雅艾尔:这里没有。眼镜蛇生活在非洲和亚洲,每年有上千人死于这种蛇。但我要去动物园的爬行动物馆参观。可怕的是,有些种类的眼镜蛇不用咬你就可以伤到你。它们能在三尺以内吐出毒液,目标往往是眼睛。它们的毒液是一种神经毒素,能导致疼痛并使粘液隔膜和角膜毁坏。甚至能导致失明。Don:Wow.唐:哇。Yael:And thats not all. Scientists have found that they can hit a target about two feet away with one-hundred-percent accuracy.雅艾尔:那还不是全部。科学家们还发现,它们能在两尺远的地方百分之百地击中目标。Don:I dont think I could spit that well.唐:我想我都不能吐唾液到那么远。Yael:The snakes dont really spit. The poison is released from openings in the front of their fangs. As its released, they expel air from their lungs to blow the poison outward. Researchers used high-speed photography to find out how they hit their target every time. Instead of holding their head still to spit, the snakes rotate it from side to side, sping the poison over an area.雅艾尔:蛇不会真的喷射唾液。毒液是从毒牙前部的张口处分泌出来的。毒液释放时,肺部迅速排出空气,将毒液注射到外界。研究人员用高速摄像机捕捉到它们每次是如何命中目标的。与其保持头部静止,蛇会一边旋转头部,一边将毒液散播出去。Don:So, its like using a shot gun with lots of pellets instead of a rifle with a single bullet.唐:那么,这就像使用一杆有很多子弹的散弹,而不是只有一发子弹的步。Yael:Exactly. The snakes dont need to aim perfectly, they just need to be close.雅艾尔:正是。蛇并不需要瞄准的多么精确,离得够近就行了。Don:That is interesting, Yael. But arent the zoo snakes in glass enclosures?唐:雅艾尔,那很有趣。但是动物园里的蛇不是被玻璃墙挡着吗?Yael:I imagine so. But better safe than sorry.雅艾尔:我想是的。但是安全起见,以免后悔。原文译文属!201208/197507

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