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2019年07月22日 05:44:35|来源:国际在线|编辑:网上解答
A city best known for its millionaires and factories churning out everything from buttons to lightbulbs is now better known in China for its unintelligible dialect.温州,这个以百万富翁以及工厂产品从纽扣到灯泡无所不包而闻名的城市,现在又以当地难懂的方言出了名。That#39;s according to a post titled #39;China#39;s Top 10 Most Difficult Dialects#39; -- known as fang yan in Mandarin -- that#39;s been trending on Weibo, China#39;s microblogging service. Wenzhou, the free-wheeling commercial metropolis in Zhejiang province, took the crown.根据微上流行的一个名为“中国十大最难懂方言”的帖子,地处浙江省的这个商业城市拔得头筹。#39;Even if you#39;re not afraid of the sky or the earth, you#39;re afraid of the Wenzhou devil-language,#39; wrote the author of the top 10 list.帖子的作者写道:天不怕地不怕,就怕温州人说鬼话。The author, who posted the list anonymously, writes that the Wenzhou dialect is so notoriously difficult that during the war against Japan, the Chinese Communist Party#39;s Eighth Route Army used Wenzhou speakers to relay messages by foot or by phone so that Japanese intelligence officers would not be able to understand them. The author likens Wenzhou people to characters in Hollywood movie #39;Windtalkers,#39; which featured U.S. soldiers who used the Navajo language as a code to prevent the Japanese from listening in during World War II.这位未具名作者写道:据说在抗日战争中,八路军部队相互之间联系由于保密需要,都是派两个温州人,进行电话或者步话机联系,而日本的情报部门,总也翻译不出发音极为复杂的温州话;可以说当时的温州人就像美国大片中的风语者一样。电影《风语者》讲述的是二战期间美国士兵利用纳瓦霍语传递情报,以防日本人监听的故事。Cantonese comes in at an unsurprising second place. The post notes that while Cantonese is #39;trendy#39; and many people can say at least a few words of it, the fact that it has its own written characters -- and that in Guangzhou public announcements, Cantonese is often broadcast before Mandarin -- highlight the huge gulf between the two languages. Such a gap also continues to persist in Hong Kong, which returned to Chinese control in 1997 but continues to operate using Cantonese. #39;Some people in Hong Kong can#39;t even understand Mandarin,#39; the author adds.广东话不出意外地被排在第二。作者说:广东话可以说现在是流传广泛,很多人都会说几句简单的广东话,但是我把广东话排名第二的原因是,广东话不只有自己独特的发言,还有自己的文字,而且在广州的公交车上都是先用广东话再用普通话进行报站的,有些广东人包括香港人甚至听不懂普通话,这足以说明广东话和普通话的差别之大。The status of Cantonese in southern China has been an emotional issue, even sparking protests in Guangdong in 2010 following a plan by the government to switch some television programs to Mandarin.广东话在中国南方的地位一直是个情感问题,甚至还于2010年在广东引发了抗议活动,抗议的导火索是当地政府计划将部分电视节目改用普通话播出。In addition to the Wenzhou dialect, another linguistically related tongue of the wu family from the city of Suzhou comes in in the top three. Wu denotes the region which includes Zhejiang, Shanghai and parts of Jiangsu province. According to the post#39;s author, the Suzhou dialect has an air of #39;bookishness#39; and sounds especially mellifluous when spoken by Suzhou women -- and no wonder, as the city is known throughout history for being a center of culture, while its women are celebrated as among the most beautiful in China.和温州话一样属于吴方言语系的苏州话排名第三。吴指的是包括浙江省、上海市和江苏省部分地方在内的地区。据该帖子的作者称,苏州话有种古意和书卷气,苏州女孩子说苏州话时更为温软动听。这也不足为奇,因为苏州历来都是文化中心,也是盛产美女的地方。Suzhou shares third place with southern Fujian province#39;s Minnan dialect, also widely spoken in Taiwan and among diaspora populations in Southeast Asia. #39;If one doesn#39;t have a talent for languages, one could live their entire life in Fujian and still not understand Minnan,#39; says the post.和苏州话并列第三的是福建省的闽南话。很多台湾人和东南亚华侨也说闽南话。该帖称,估计没有语言天赋的人,就是在福建待上一辈子可能都听不懂闽南话。In a country as large and linguistically diverse as China, how easy or difficult a particular dialect is a contentious issue. The author#39;s post prompted a storm of replies on the puzzling nature of the country#39;s languages.像中国这样一个幅员辽阔、语言多样的国家,判断某种方言的难懂程度存在一定争议。该帖子引来大量网友回帖,对费解的中国语言吐槽。#39;The distance between Wuhan and Xianning is less than 100 kilometers, but the dialects are mutually unintelligible. Yet I have no problems understanding the dialect in Enshi, which is 500 kilometers away,#39; wrote one Weibo user.一位微用户说,武汉和咸宁相距不到100公里,但却听不懂对方的方言,但他听500公里之外的恩施的方言却没有问题。Other users questioned whether the author of the post had missed other dialects also worthy of being listed, including that spoken on Hainan island, China#39;s southernmost province, where the dialect is part of the Minnan family of dialects but said to be incomprehensible to other Minnan speakers.其他用户质疑作者是否漏掉了其他也应上榜的方言,其中包括海南岛的方言。海南方言也属于闽南方言,但据说其他说闽南话的人却听不懂海南方言。The full list:整个排名:1. Wenzhou dialect1. 温州话2. Cantonese2. 广东话3. Suzhou and Minnan dialects3. 苏州话和闽南话4. Shanghainese4. 上海话5. Shaanxi dialect5. 陕西话6. Changsha dialect6. 长沙话7. Sichuan dialect7. 四川话8. Shandong dialect8. 山东话9. Tianjin dialect9. 天津话10. Northeast dialect10. 东北话 /201405/300349London’s West End has regained its status as the world’s most expensive office market, according to research.市场研究显示,伦敦西区(West End)现已再次成为全球最贵的写字楼市场。The cost of high-end office space in the West End has risen nearly 15 per cent over the past year, driven by the UK economic recovery and demand from resurgent financial services companies, according to the study by real estate services group CBRE.房地产务咨询公司世邦魏理仕(CBRE)的一项研究显示,受英国经济复苏以及重获活力的金融务公司对办公空间的需求驱动,伦敦西区高端写字楼的价格水平在过去一年中上涨了近15%。On average, prime West End office space now costs #163;100 per square foot for rent alone, not including service charges and business taxes.平均而言,目前伦敦西区高端写字楼仅租金费用一项就达到了每平方英尺100英镑,还不包括务费以及商业税费。The London market overtook Hong Kong, which has been the most costly market since the financial crisis.伦敦写字楼市场的价格水平现已超过了香港,后者自金融危机以来一直是全球最贵的写字楼市场。Beijing’s central business and finance districts were the third-priciest locations in the world, followed by Moscow, New Delhi, Tokyo, the City of London and Paris.北京的中央商务区以及金融区是全球价格水平第三高的办公区域,排在其后的是莫斯科、新德里、东京、伦敦金融城以及巴黎。Two main groups of companies are pushing West End prices upwards, according to Kevin McCauley, CBRE’s head of central London research: small financial businesses, such as hedge funds and private equity groups, and oil and gas companies.世邦魏理仕的伦敦中心区研究主管凯文#8226;麦考利(Kevin McCauley)表示,推高伦敦西区写字楼价格的主要是两类公司:一类是小型金融公司(例如对冲基金以及私募股权公司),另一类是石油和天然气企业。“Twelve months ago, these types of firms weren’t willing to be seen taking on this type of expensive space at a time when the financial services industry’s reputation was not strong,” he said.他说:“一年前,这类公司不太愿意进驻此类高端写字楼,因为当时金融务业的名声不太好。”“For this segment of the financial services market it’s a sign that things are getting back to normal and they are feeling positive again.”“对金融务市场的这一领域来说,上述迹象表明形势正在重回正轨,人们对未来的预期重新变得乐观。”The key factor behind rising prices in most markets was a lack of high-quality office space in the best locations, CBRE said.世邦魏理仕表示,对绝大多数写字楼市场而言,价格上涨的关键原因在于,处于最佳地带的高质量写字楼资源稀缺。The West End has strict planning rules that limit new construction, and a large number of old, period buildings that can attract particularly high rents.伦敦西区严格的区划规则限制了新楼建设,而现存的大量古老大楼还能够吸引到愿意付极高租金的租户。Typical West End occupiers take on up to 10,000 sq ft to house fewer than 50 employees and are very geographically focused, Mr McCauley said: “These rents are achieved in the absolute core West End areas such as Mayfair and St James, and apply to a very limited and specific range of addresses.”通常而言,伦敦西区的典型租户会租用1万平方英尺以内的办公场所,容纳的员工不超过50名,并且它们非常在意地段。麦考利称:“只有梅费尔(Mayfair)、圣詹姆斯(St James)等伦敦西区的绝对中心区域能够达到这种租金水平,而且仅限于非常有限的几个特定地段。”CBRE’s research also found that economic recovery was leading to higher rents around the world, with those in North America growing fastest.世邦魏理仕的研究还发现,经济复苏带动了全球范围内的租金水平上升,其中,北美地区写字楼的租金上涨速度最快。By contrast, rents in some Spanish and Italian markets fell year on year; high-end office costs in Milan dropped more than 7 per cent.相比之下,西班牙与意大利的部分写字楼市场租金水平较上年有所下降,米兰的高端写字楼价格水平较上年下降了逾7%。 /201312/269471

As the Chinese stock market slumps, the country’s government has stepped in boldly, unveiling a series of measures to prop up shares. But those efforts have done little to stabilize the market, with stocks continuing to slide on Wednesday.上海——中国股市暴跌之际,该国政府积极介入,已经推出了一系列托市措施。但是这些努力几乎没有起到稳定市场的效果,周三,中国股市继续收跌。The losses create a political and economic challenge for the nation’s leadership.对于中国领导层来说,这种暴跌带来了政治和经济上的挑战。Beijing could face social unrest if the sell-off accelerates, since tens of millions of ordinary investors have plowed their savings into the market. The psychological toll on investors, in turn, could erode consumer confidence, dragging down growth in the aly slowing economy.如果抛售加速,北京可能会面临社会动荡,因为数以千万计的普通投资者把自己的储蓄投入了股市。投资者承受的心理压力,可能会削弱消费信心,拖累已经放缓的经济增长。“The stock market is connected to the real economy,” says Fraser Howie, a longtime Asia banker and co-author of “Red Capitalism: The Fragile Financial Foundation of China’s Extraordinary Rise.” “When you see such violent moves, you don’t know what kinds of ripples are going to come down.”“股市与实体经济相连,”侯伟(Fraser Howie)说。“当你看到这种剧烈的动荡,就不知道会有何种影响蔓延开来。”侯伟长期在亚洲业工作,是《红色资本主义:中国非凡崛起之下的脆弱金融基础》(Red Capitalism: The Fragile Financial Foundation of China#39;s Extraordinary Rise)一书的合著者。The Chinese government is moving swiftly to prevent any broader fallout.中国政府正在迅速采取行动,防止产生影响更加广泛的后果。The country’s central bank has made extra cash available to fund share purchases. Brokerage houses have been ordered to pump billions of dollars into the market. And government-backed funds have earmarked billions more to prop up the shares of flagging companies.中国央行提供了额外的现金以供买入股票。经纪公司受命将数亿资金注入股市。由政府撑的一个基金则另外拨付了巨额资金,为股价低迷的公司护盘。The mess in China has not roiled global markets. That is partly because the “Chinese financial system is largely sealed off from the global financial system,” Derek Scissors, an analyst at the American Enterprise Institute, said in a report.全球市场并没有因为中国的混乱而陷入动荡。美国企业研究所(American Enterprise Institute)分析师史剑道(Derek Scissors)在一份报告中称,这在一定程度上是因为“中国的金融体系在很大程度上与全球金融体系相隔绝”。For now, the action is domestically focused. China’s Communist Party leaders are trying to restore confidence and stabilize the market before things get too ugly at home, introducing new fixes nearly every day. On Wednesday, China’s Ministry of Finance pledged to “adopt measures to safeguard the stability of capital markets,” and in particular protect state-owned financial enterprises. The move signals that this broad-based effort is being directed from the very top echelons of the state.目前采取的行动主要集中在国内。中国共产党的领导人几乎每天都出台新的解决措施,试图在国内情况变得太不堪之前,恢复投资者的信心、稳定市场。周三,中国财政部甚至发誓要采取措施,以保障资本市场的稳定,特别是保护国有金融企业。这显示出,这场广泛的运动是由国家最高领导层指挥的。“There are no buyers, only sellers,” said Francis Cheung, a market analyst at CLSA, the brokerage house. “So the government is buying, and they’ll ramp up buying to stabilize the market.”“市场上没有买盘,只有卖盘,”里昂券(CLSA)的分析师郑名凯(Francis Cheung)说。“因此政府正在买入,他们还会进一步买入股票,来稳定市场。”Trouble is, they haven’t found the right formula. Despite the latest batch of moves, China’s markets were battered on Wednesday. In Shanghai, prices plunged 5.9 percent. In Shenzhen, they fell 2.5 percent. The damage is also sping regionally, to Hong Kong and Japan, where shares also fell sharply.麻烦的是,他们还没有找到正确的办法。尽管采取了这批新的措施,周三中国股市还是遭受重挫。沪市跌5.9%,深市跌2.5%。影响还蔓延到了周边地区,香港和日本股市也大幅下跌。While the markets are up over all for the year, the recent downward spiral is creating substantial pain. Both major exchanges are off between 30 percent to 40 percent in six weeks, putting them in bear market territory.虽然从一年的周期来看,股市仍然有涨幅,但近期的下跌行情造成了巨大打击。在过去六周里,这两大交易所暴跌30%至40%,进入了熊市。The numbers don’t give the complete picture either. In recent days, many stocks have been halted because of exchange rules that are supposed to guard against too much misery in a single trading session. At least a third of the companies listed on the major stock exchanges had trading in their shares suspended on Wednesday.但这些数字也没有勾勒出完整的画面。近日来,不少个股已经跌停。中国股市有跌停机制,是为了防止在单一交易日内产生太惨烈的冲击。在沪深两市上市的公司,至少有三分之一在周三停牌。Those market dynamics can create a chain reaction of selling. China’s major exchanges prevent a stock from falling more than 10 percent on any given day. When that happens, analysts say, many investors opt for selling other shares, broadening the sell-off. Then when the market opens the next day, they continue selling down the stock that was previously halted, effectively prolonging the turmoil.这种规则可能会造成连锁抛售状况。沪深两市不允许股价在同一天跌幅超过10%。分析师说,当一只股票跌停,很多投资者就选择卖出其他股票,让更多股票遭到抛售。而当股市第二天开盘的时候,投资者会继续抛售前一天跌停的股票,实际上延长了动荡的时间。“It just delays the correction, so it delays the downturn,” said Mr. Cheung at CLSA.“这只是推迟了调整,因此延长了低迷时间,”里昂券的郑名凯说。While China’s stock markets have a long history of volatility, the environment is different now. The country’s economy has been sluggish. The stock market is far bigger than it has ever been, second in size only to that of the ed States.虽然中国股市长期以来都有较强的波动性,但现在已经不同于过去。目前该国经济形势不景气。股市规模也远远大于以往任何时候,在全球仅次于美国。And aggressive investors, many of them first-time buyers of equities, have been playing a different game. They were buying stocks with borrowed funds, using leverage as if they were “barbarians at the gate.”而激进型投资者也在玩一个不同的游戏,他们中不乏首次炒股的新手。这些人使用杠杆,借钱来炒股,就像“门口的野蛮人”一样。The panic, in part, is being driven by concerns about the huge amount of borrowing. Some analysts estimated that margin buying reached about 0 billion, or as much as 15 percent of the value of all tradable shares on the two major exchanges.人们对负债炒股的金额巨大感到担忧,这在部分上推动了市场的恐慌情绪。一些分析师估计,目前保金交易达到约5500亿美元,相当于沪深两市所有流通股价值的15%。Fear is gripping the market after a phenomenal bull run in which mainland China’s major stock indexes doubled, tripled and even quintupled over the past few years. By the time the market peaked, in early June, share prices in China were among the most expensive in the world, vastly costlier than in the ed States, Europe or Hong Kong.在过去几年里,内地主要股指涨了一倍、两倍甚至三倍。在大牛市之后,市场陷入了恐惧。行情在6月初达到最高点时,中国的股价堪称是全世界最昂贵的,远超美国、欧洲和香港的水平。Investors in mainland China, in other words, had to pay a huge premium to buy domestic shares, a sign the country’s stock market was frothy. Some analysts have noted that the price-to-earnings ratio of companies listed on China’s start-up index, called ChiNext, were far higher than those listed on the Nasdaq stock market in 2000, when the Internet bubble burst.换句话说,内地投资者购买国内股票时不得不付溢价。这个迹象表明,中国股市存在泡沫。一些分析人士指出,中国创业板上市公司目前的市盈率,远高于2000年互联网泡沫破灭时,纳斯达克(Nasdaq)上市公司的水平。Just a few weeks ago, the pipeline of initial public stock offerings was robust. There was the promise of innovative companies that could use the capital markets, rather than the banks, as a source of cash, and the prospect of new bourses being set up for China’s technology start-ups.就在几周前,新股发行的势头还颇为强劲。创新公司有望通过资本市场而非募集资金,并且中国还有望设立新交易所,面向科技初创企业。China’s state-run news media, including The People’s Daily, helped hype the rip-roaring market. As recently as April, news media said that the bull market had “just begun,” only to warn some weeks later of the risks.包括《人民日报》在内的中国官方新闻媒体,也帮助了对热火朝天的股市的炒作。最近一幕发生在4月。新闻媒体当时称牛市“才刚刚开始”,但仅过了几周,就转而发出了危险警告。Since then, sentiment has soured, and investors have lost confidence. The worry, analysts said, is that it could be a prolonged downturn, like the one that began in 2007 and lasted about seven years.在那之后,情绪发生了变化,投资者失去信心。分析人士称,人们担心的是,它可能会成为一场旷日持久的低迷,就像之前那次一样。那次下跌始于2007年,持续了大约七年。The sharp decline in prices wiped out trillions of dollars in value from a market that at one point topped trillion. Still, the decline has not yet erased all, or even most, of the gains. China’s major exchanges remain up about 75 percent from a year ago, in part because big state-owned companies have fared better.股价的大幅下跌导致数万亿美元的市值从股市蒸发,中国股市的总市值一度达到了10万亿美元。然而,下跌尚未抵消掉全部甚至大部分的涨幅。中国两大交易所的指数仍比一年前高出大约75%。这在一定程度上是因为大型国企表现得比其他公司好。In late June, the government cut interest rates, which is ordinarily a good sign for stocks, since it makes them more attractive relative to bank deposits. But share prices fell anyway.6月末,政府调低了利率。对股票来说,这通常是一个利好,因为这样会让它们比存款更具吸引力。但股价还是在下跌。Since then, the authorities have introduced a wave of additional measures meant to prop up prices. Stock trading transactions were slashed. I.P.O.s were suspended. Huge stabilization funds were set up to purchase shares. Brokerage houses promised to buy more. And China’s insurance regulator eased rules so that insurers could more easily invest in stocks.那之后,当局又出台了一波旨在稳定股价的措施。下调交易费率、暂停新股发行、设立巨额救市基金买进股票、券公司承诺增购股票。此外,中国的保险监管机构也放宽了规定,这样保险公司就更容易投资股市了。In the face of further selling, the government continued to introduce new measures on Wednesday.周三当天,面对进一步的抛售,政府继续出台新举措。管理大型国企的国有资产监督管理委员会对很多大型国有上市企业下令,不得减持自己的股票。China’s State-Owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, which oversees the country’s big state corporations, ordered many such companies with public listings not to reduce holdings of their own stock.监会甚至发布通知,鼓励大股东和企业高管增持自己公司的股票。监会在通知中还强调,为防止内幕交易而对交易时机实施的规则,当下并不适用。The China Securities Regulatory Commission even issued a notice encouraging major shareholders, directors and executives of companies to increase their holdings of their companies’ stock. The commission emphasized that rules about the timing of insider stock transactions that might deter such purchases would not apply.瑞银(UBS)驻香港市场分析师何伟华(Patrick Ho)称,这是一种“试错”的办法。而且鉴于当局希望刺激经济,并试图阻止市场过快跌落,可能还会有更多举措。 /201507/385242

A silver and blue ATM, perched up next to the espresso bar in a trendy Vancouver coffee shop, could launch a new era for the virtual currency bitcoin, offering an almost instant way to exchange the world#39;s leading virtual money for cash.The value of a bitcoin soared from in January to a high of 6 in April as more businesses and consumers used them to buy and sell online. Some investors are also treating bitcoins like gold, using them to hedge against currency fluctuations and speculating on their rise.在温哥华一家时髦的咖啡店内,一台机身主体颜色为银色和蓝色的比特币机被放置在意式咖啡机旁,此机器可以为比特币这种全球领先的虚拟货币提供即时兑换业务,可能为其开辟新纪元。由于不少商家和消费者开始使用比特币在网上进行交易,比特币的兑换价格由一月的13美元迅速上涨至四月的266美元。一些投资者将比特币视为黄金,用其对抗货币的通胀以及进行投机行为。The kiosk, which looks like the average ATM but with hand and barcode scanners, opened for business on Tuesday and by mid-morning people were lined up to swap their bitcoins for cash, or to deposit cash to buy more bitcoins.这一取款机从外表上看与普通的取款机并无差异。不过,该机器配置手掌和条形码扫描仪,以满足消费者进行比特币兑换现金以及用现金购买比特币的需求。据悉,该机器推出当天上午就有许多人排队前来办理业务。;It#39;s as easy as walking up to a machine, scanning your hand, entering some cash and buying bitcoin,; said Jordan Kelley, chief executive of Las Vegas-based Robocoin, the company that builds the ATMs. ;With this, it#39;s a 2-minute process. For any online exchange, it#39;s at least two days.;总部在的该机器制造商Robocoin的首席执行官乔丹?凯利指出,“只要走到机器前扫描手掌,放入现金就能兑换比特币,就是这样简单。通过这台机器进行业务操作两分钟就可以完成,而网上交易要至少用两天的时间。”Bitcoins, currently worth about 0 each, can be transferred without going through banks or clearing houses, thereby cutting fees. Users can buy products and services online or in a handful of stores, including the Waves coffee shop where the ATM is located.比特币现在的兑换价值是210美元,人们不用去和清算公司也能转账,因此减少了额外的费用。消费者在网上或少数商店内可以使用比特币消费,包括放置比特币ATM机的海浪咖啡店。With the bitcoin ATM, users scan their hand to confirm identity, then funds move to or from a virtual wallet on their smartphone. The system limits transfers to ,000 a day, in an effort to curb money laundering and other fraud.使用比特币ATM机时,消费者要进行手掌扫描,以确认身份,然后再通过智能手机的虚拟钱包进行转账。该系统每天的交易上限为1000美元,其目的在于打击洗钱行为以及其他虚假操作。Bitcoiniacs, the local dealer that operates the ATM, will roll out four other kiosks across Canada in December. Robocoin said Canada was the ideal place to launch the kiosk due to a critical mass of users and less stringent oversight than in the US, where the bitcoin trade is monitored by anti-money laundering regulators.负责运营该机器的加拿大本地交易商Bitcoiniacs称,其他四台机器计划于12月在加拿大境内面世。而Robocoin称,加拿大推出比特币ATM机,是因为该地区使用比特币活跃,且监管较轻松。在美国,比特币交易由反洗钱机构监管。;We think the Vancouver market is enormous and we#39;re excited to be here,; said Kelley. ;By the end of 2013, we#39;ll be all over Canada. By the end of 2014, we#39;ll be all over the world, including the US.;凯利称,“我们对温哥华庞大的市场前景充满期待。2013年末我们将在加拿大全面推广这种比特币ATM机,2014年末将推广至全球,包括美国在内。”Bitcoin is not a recognised currency in Canada, so Ottawa#39;s anti-money laundering watchdog, the Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre, does not monitor its trade.比特币在加拿大并不是公认的货币,因此渥太华反洗钱监管机构——金融交易和报告分析中心不对比特币交易进行监管。However, Bitcoiniacs#39; founders say they are working with the agency to be y for when Canada does start regulating them.然而Bitcoiniacs的创始人称他们正与经销商合作以做好应对加拿大对比特币监管的准备。;We#39;re aly being proactive in our business,; said Bitcoiniacs co-founder Mitchell Demeter. ;We abide by any guidelines they would impose - which includes the #39;know your customer#39; laws and anti-money laundering laws.;“我们现在对自己业务的积极性很高”,Bitcoiniacs的联合创始人米歇尔?迪米特称,“我们将遵守所有条例,包括‘了解客户’的规定和反洗钱法”Bitcoins were launched in 2008 and are traded within a global network of computers. They are not backed by a single company or government, but their release is tightly controlled, mimicking a central banking system#39;s control over the minting of money.比特币于2008年推出,在全球互联网中进行交易。虽然没有获得任何公司或国家的持,但由于其仿照中央系统发行比特币,因此监管较为严格。Bitcoins can be bought with near anonymity, which supporters say lowers fraud risk and increases privacy. But critics say that also makes bitcoins a magnet for drug transactions, money-laundering and other illegal activities.比特币几乎可以匿名交易,其持者称这样可以降低虚假操作的风险,增加个人隐私。但反对者称这样会吸引更多的人用比特币进行毒品交易,洗钱和其他违法活动。The currency#39;s reputation took a hit this month, when US regulators shut down Silk Road, an online marketplace used to buy and sell illegal drugs, and seized .6m (£2.3m) in bitcoins.本周比特币的名声受到了打击,美国监管机构关闭了丝绸之路网站并没收其360万比特币(合230万英镑),因其涉及网络毒品交易。But the virtual currency is gaining hold among businesses and consumers, a key step to a bigger role.然而商家和消费者力挺虚拟货币,未来它将扮演更加重要的角色。;I think it#39;s definitely going mainstream,; said Demeter. ;I think as things progress, and the infrastructure is built, it will become easier for people to buy and sell, and so more people will start using it.;“我认为比特币正在走向主流,”迪米特称,“随着时间的推移,比特币基础设施完善后人们使用比特币更加方便,比特币的使用群体也将扩大。”In Vancouver, for example, dozens of people attend weekly bitcoin meet-ups and a member co-op is promoting the currency to a growing list of local retailers.举例来说,在温哥华,每周有数十人参与比特币的见面会,消费合作社正将比特币推广至更多当地零售商。At Waves, Vancouver resident Chung Cheong used bitcoin to pay for his mug of tea and was happy to mull over the future of the digital currency.海浪咖啡内,温哥华的居民张聪正使用比特币买茶,考虑到虚拟货币的前景他表示很乐观。;It#39;s been said that we#39;re at the stage where email was in 1992,; he said. ;Is it risky? Sure. But look at how the internet and email changed the world.;“据说我们又处于在1992年刚发明邮件的状态了,”他说,“虚拟货币有风险吗?当然有。但回首网络和邮件给世界带来的变化,一切都是值得的。” /201312/269067

SEOUL, South Korea — Drunken and boorish behavior, cellphones, crying children and reclining seat backs have all led to flight rage. But a bag of macadamia nuts?韩国首尔——醉酒后的粗野举止、手机、哭闹的小孩,以及后仰的座椅靠背,都会使飞机上的乘客大为光火。但一袋夏威夷果仁呢?Criticism has come nonstop for Korean Air Lines since it was discovered that one of its executives had ordered a flight from New York to Incheon, South Korea, to return to the gate to kick a senior staff manager off the plane in a tiff over how the executive was served the nuts.有消息称,大韩航空(Korean Air Lines)的一名高管,因为乘务员给她送上坚果的方式而大发脾气,之后这名高管下令由纽约飞往韩国仁川的一架航班返回登机口,并将一名乘务管理人员赶下飞机。大韩航空因此不断受到指责。This was no ordinary executive on Korean Air Flight 86, as it turned out: Cho Hyun-ah was not only in charge of in-flight service for Korean Air, but is also a daughter of the chairman of the family-run conglomerate that operates the airline.事实明,大韩航空KE86航班上的这名高管非同寻常:赵显娥(Cho Hyun-ah)不仅是大韩航空机舱务的负责人,其父还是经营该公司的家族企业集团的会长。Ms. Cho, who resigned Tuesday after an outburst of another sort of rage on social and traditional media in South Korea, became irate on Friday after a flight attendant served nuts without first asking her, and in an unopened package instead of on a plate.因为韩国社交媒体和传统媒体爆发了另一种愤怒,赵显娥已于周二辞职。事件的起因是,上周五,一名乘务员未事先询问就为其送上了坚果,而且没有将其盛放在盘子里,而是直接送上了未开封的原包装,赵显娥十分愤怒。She summoned the chief flight attendant and grilled him on the rules for serving nuts. He fumbled, Korean Air officials said, and Ms. Cho wanted him out, then and there.她叫来了乘务长,并诘问后者为乘客送上坚果的规程。大韩航空的官员称,乘务长的回答有些笨拙,于是赵显娥要求他当场下飞机。The episode made Ms. Cho the latest symbol of excess at the country’s conglomerates, known as chaebol, whose controlling families have long been accused of running their companies like dynasties.经过这一事件,赵显娥成为了韩国大型企业集团,即所谓的“财阀”(chaebol)长期以来行事嚣张的最新标志。公众一直指责,控制着财阀的家族,经营企业的方式仿佛是王朝一样。Bloggers ridiculed Ms. Cho, who also uses the given name Heather, for “going nuts over nuts.” “She is a national embarrassment to all of us,” one Internet user said on Korean Air’s official Facebook page. Some even likened the Cho family to the family of the North Korean leader, Kim Jong-un, who rule that country as a totalitarian fief.客用户嘲笑又名希瑟(Heather)的赵显娥“因为一点零嘴就跟人斗嘴”。一位网友在大韩航空的Facebook官方页面上说,“我们所有人都觉得,她让整个民族难堪。”一些人甚至将赵显娥的家族,比作朝鲜领导人金正恩(Kim Jong-un)的家族。金正恩在朝鲜实行极权统治,仿佛该国是他的私人领地。By Tuesday, with many South Koreans calling for a boycott of Korean Air, which they nicknamed “Air Nuts,” the airline announced that Ms. Cho had resigned as the head of in-flight services, though not as a vice president.到了周二,因为许多韩国人呼吁抵制大韩航空,还给该公司起了“坚果航空”(Air Nuts)的绰号,大韩航空宣布,赵显娥已经辞去机舱务负责人的职务,不过并未辞去副社长一职。“I am sorry for causing trouble to the passengers and the people,” Ms. Cho said in a statement on Tuesday. “I seek forgiveness from those who were hurt by what I did.”“对于给乘客和民众造成的麻烦,我表示歉意,”赵显娥在周二的一份声明中说。“我希望因为我的所作所为而受到伤害的人,能够原谅我。”Korean Air said the jet was only about 35 feet away from the gate at Kennedy International Airport when it returned. Still, the airline acknowledged that the decision had been “excessive” because there was no emergency.大韩航空称,飞机在肯尼迪国际机场(Kennedy International Airport)返回时,离登机口只有大约35英尺(约合10米)。但该公司承认,返回登机口的决定是“过分”的,因为并未发生紧急事件。But the company also offered an excuse for Ms. Cho’s behavior, saying that it was “natural” for her to chastise the crew for improper in-flight service and that the decision to take the plane back to the gate had been made in consultation with the pilot.不过该公司也给赵显娥的举动找了一个理由,称因机舱务不当,她“自然”要惩罚乘务人员,并表示让飞机返回登机口的决定是与机长协商后作出的。The explanation, however, failed to soothe an angry South Korean public.然而,这样的解释未能缓和韩国民众的愤怒。The episode cannot be explained “except by the fact that Vice President Cho Hyun-ah was a member of the chairman’s family,” said the influential civic group People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy. It said the case exemplified how the personal wishes of the family of a leading South Korean conglomerate often override official regulations and common sense.只有“副社长赵显娥是会长的家庭成员这一事实”才能解释此事,颇有影响的民间组织参与民主人民联盟(People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy)说。该组织称,这一事件体现出,控制韩国大型企业集团的家族,可以将个人意愿凌驾于官方规章和常识之上。“No pilot is going to oppose an order from the daughter of the company owner,” said Lee Gae-ho, a lawmaker affiliated with the New Politics Alliance for Democracy, the main opposition party.“没有哪个机长敢反对公司老板的女儿给的命令,”主要反对党新政治民主联合(New Politics Alliance for Democracy)的议员李介昊(Lee Gae-ho)说。The South Korean Transportation Ministry said it was investigating whether Ms. Cho’s behavior had violated the country’s aviation safety laws, which bar passengers from causing disturbances, like using violent language or yelling. The domestic news media reported that Ms. Cho had screamed at the crew.韩国交通部称,正在调查赵显娥的行为是否违反了该国的航空安全法律。相关法律禁止乘客制造干扰,如使用激烈言语或高声叫喊。韩国国内媒体报道称,赵显娥曾对乘务人员大喊大叫。Like other South Korean tycoons, Ms. Cho’s father, Cho Yang-ho, the chairman of the Hanjin Group, has placed his three children in executive posts in the conglomerate, which also runs shipping, logistics and hotel businesses.和韩国的其他巨头一样,赵显娥的父亲、韩进集团(Hanjin Group)会长赵亮镐(Cho Yang-ho)在企业集团内部为三个子女安排了高管的职位。该集团还经营海运、物流和酒店业务。A handful of family-controlled conglomerates dominate the South Korean economy. Although they own relatively small stakes in their corporate empires — the Cho family owns about 10 percent of Korean Air, for instance — they are known to wield unchallenged authority over their subsidiaries. The units are interlocked by cross-shareholdings, and family members and loyal executives occupy important corporate posts.少数几家由家族控制的企业集团主导着韩国经济。尽管在自己的企业帝国持有的股份相对较少——比如,赵显娥的家族仅持有大韩航空约10%的股份——但众所周知的是,他们对其子公司拥有不容挑战的权威。这些企业通过交叉持股的方式环环相扣,家族成员和忠心耿耿的高管把持着重要职位。Business elites in South Korea have long faced criticism that they act as if they were above the law. In 2007, Kim Seung-youn, chairman of the Hanwha conglomerate, was briefly jailed for attacking bar workers who had gotten into a drunken brawl with his son. While his bodyguards watched, Mr. Kim assaulted one of the victims with a metal pipe, the police said. He was released when his sentence was suspended.长期以来,韩国的商业精英一直被批评,行事方式仿佛自己可以凌驾于法律之上一样。2007年,韩华(Hanwha)企业集团会长金升渊(Kim Seung-youn)因为袭击与其子酒后发生冲突的酒吧工作人员而被短暂监禁。警方称,金升渊当着保镖的面,用一根金属管殴打其中一名受害者。后来,金升渊在得到缓刑后获释。And in 2010, a member of the family that controls the SK conglomerate received a suspended prison term for hitting a 52-year-old former union activist 13 times with an aluminum baseball bat while his executives watched. He then wrote out a check for 20 million won, about ,000, on a company account and threw it in the victim’s face.2010年,控制着SK集团的家族的一名成员,因为当着多名高管的面,用一根铝制棒球棒击打一名52岁的前工会活动人士13下而被判缓刑。后来,他用公司账户开了一张2000万韩元(约合11万元人民币)的票,扔在了受害人脸上。Some South Korean news outlets said that Korean Air’s action against Ms. Cho on Tuesday was superficial because she retained her vice-presidential title, as well as her executive roles in other subsidiaries of her father’s Hanjin Group.一些韩国新闻媒体称,大韩航空周二对赵显娥的处理只是表面文章,因为她保住了副社长的职位,也保住了在其父的韩进集团其他子公司中的高管职务。 /201412/348052

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