淄博做男科检查的价格39口碑

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 淄博做男科检查的价格丽解答
At first, it seemed like a brilliant marketing plan. Perhaps it still is.起初,这看上去是一个非常棒的营销方案。或许现在依然如此。The popularity of the Chinese ride-sharing app Didi Dache (滴滴打车), which translates as “Honk Honk Hail a Cab,” inspired a simple pun. With the change of one character, the name became Didi Daren (滴滴打人), or “Honk Honk Beat a Person.”中国的招车应用软件滴滴打车(意思是嘀嘀两声打辆车)风靡一时,为一句简单的俏皮话提供了灵感。只消换掉一个字,“滴滴打车”就变成了“滴滴打人”(意思是嘀嘀两声打个人)。And in such a joke, one tech company in Hunan Province in the south saw an opportunity. The company, Changsha Zhang Kong Information Technology Limited, whose English name is Joke, decided to develop just such an app.中国南方省份湖南省的一家科技企业从上述笑话中看到了机会。这家名为长沙掌控信息科技有限公司(Joke)的企业,决定开发一款跟这句俏皮话同名的应用软件。“We heard about Didi Dache every day in the news, so we wanted to sort of take a free ride on its fame,” said the head of Joke’s business department, who would give only his surname, Yuan.“滴滴打车天天上新闻,所以我们就想搭个便车,”掌控公司营业部的袁姓负责人说。The result illustrates the turbulent world of technology in China. From abroad, the common image of the Chinese Internet is one of censorship and tight control. But outside the realm of activism and political speech, the online world in China is fiercely competitive and anarchic at times.这件事说明了中国科技行业嘈杂纷扰的现状。外界普遍认为,中国的互联网是受到审查和严格控制的。但除去跟行动主义和政治言论有关的部分,中国的网络世界其实充满激烈的竞争,有时甚至处于无政府状态。That is particularly true of apps for smartphones, which come out too quickly to track and are available for download on Android app stores that, unlike in the rest of the world, are not dominated by Google. As a result, products are not closely vetted before release, and companies seek any advantage to grab the attention of potential users. Sometimes the results can backfire, but sometimes it pays to be audacious.智能手机应用软件领域尤为如此:层出不穷的应用软件令人目不暇接,在安卓(Android)应用商店里即可下载,而且跟其他地方不同,这里的安卓应用商店并非由谷歌(Google)主导。因此,产品无需经过严格的审核就可以发布出去,企业纷纷投机取巧,以吸引潜在用户的眼球。这样做有时会产生适得其反的效果,但有时大胆而为带来了相应的回报。Now that it has gotten some attention, Didi Daren does have a chance at achieving some success. China’s smartphone users have proved to be relatively comfortable with social networks that connect them to strangers nearby. One successful application, called Momo, connected strangers looking for dates, love — and more — well before similar apps like Tinder became popular in the ed States.即然滴滴打人已经受到了关注,它很有可能获得一定程度的成功。事实明,中国的智能手机用户并不排斥能够把他们和附近的陌生人联系起来的社交网络。早在Tinder等陌生人交友应用红遍美国之前,帮助渴望约会、爱情以及更多东西的陌生人建立联系的陌陌就已在中国大获成功。Rather than create an “Uber for Assault,” Joke said it had intended to create a concierge service, much like the app Magic, which allows users to negotiate for services like deliveries and housecleaning.掌控公司称,他们要打造的并不是“用来召集打手的优步(Uber)”,而是一款跟Magic很像的礼宾务应用软件,用户可以通过它跟提供快递、保洁等务的人员接洽。Just as Dache means “to hail a cab,” one could, with a little creativity, take Daren to mean “hail a person.” But after the release in January, some users understandably took the name at its literal meaning. Chinese news outlets said that people were using the app to offer themselves as thugs for hire, though it was unclear if any such transactions were actually completed. The Yunnan Information News reported on Saturday that it had used the app to contact a man in Shanghai who offered, for 200 to 500 renminbi, or about to , to put someone in the hospital.正如“打车”的意思是“叫车”,你也可以有点儿创意,把“打人”理解成“叫人”。但滴滴打人1月份上线后,一些用户却在按照字面意思来解读“打人”二字,他们这样想也是可以理解的。中国媒体称,有自称打手的人在滴滴打人上招揽生意,但目前尚不清楚他们是否真的跟人达成了交易。《云南信息报》周六报道称,该报已经通过这款应用软件联系到了一个身在上海的男人,他说只要200至500元人民币(约合30至80美元),他就可以让某个人躺进医院。It did not help that “Baozou Big News,” an online comedy show, broadcast a skit in February about an app that did just that, with a bullied nurse and a schoolgirl being pursued by a lecherous teacher ordering beatdowns of their tormentors.网络搞笑脱口秀《暴走大事件》今年2月播放的滑稽短剧对事情并没有什么帮助。剧中,一个遭受欺凌的护士和一个受到好色老师骚扰的女学生用一款应用软件找到打手,把欺负他们的人暴揍了一顿。Mr. Yuan said that Joke was aware that users might take the name literally, and that it included warnings in the app against criminal activity. Still, he said the company was surprised that the app was seen as a service for hiring thugs. “We didn’t anticipate this,” he said.袁姓主管称,掌控公司察觉到用户可能会按照字面意思来理解“滴滴打人”4个字,于是在这款应用软件中加入了反对犯罪行为的警示语。但他表示,该公司还是惊讶于滴滴打人竟被视为一款帮人雇佣打手的务。“我们没料到这种情况,”他说。Over three months, the app was downloaded about 200,000 times. But to the likely disappointment of high-tech hoodlums, the company and several app stores pulled Didi Daren on Monday after several critical reports emerged in the Chinese news media. Mr. Yuan said Joke planned to release a new version of the app in a few weeks that would include a “secretary,” a function to vet requests that were previously negotiated directly between users. And the app will have a new name, he said. The company also plans to ask users to submit their suggestions.在3个月时间里,滴滴打人被下载了20万次。但让通晓高科技的流氓失望的是,中国媒体刊发了几篇批评性报道之后,周一,掌控公司和多家应用商店将滴滴打人下架处理。袁姓主管称,掌控公司计划在几周之内推出带有“秘书”功能的新版应用软件,用户发布的请求会受到审查,而在以前,用户间都是直接接洽的。另外,他说,这款应用软件会有一个新名字。该公司还打算让用户给出建议。 /201504/372192

It’s a big universe, but it’s full of small planets.这是一个很大的宇宙,但却充满了小型的行星。A group of astronomers led by Guillermo Torres of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics announced on Tuesday that they had found eight new planets orbiting their stars at distances compatible with liquid water, bringing the total number of potentially habitable “Goldilocks planets” to a few dozen, depending on how the habitable zone is defined.周二,以哈佛-史密森尼天体物理中心(Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)的吉耶尔莫·托里斯(Guillermo Torres)为首的一组天文学者宣布,他们新发现有八颗行星在容许液态水存在的距离围绕它们的恒星运行。这样一来,可能适宜居住的“适居带(Goldilocks)行星”的总数就上升到了数十颗。当然,这还取决于如何定义适居带。NASA’s Kepler spacecraft, now in its fifth year of seeking out the shadows of planets circling other stars, has spotted hundreds, and more and more of these other worlds look a lot like Earth — rocky balls only slightly larger than our own home, that with the right doses of starlight and water could turn out to be veritable gardens of microbial Eden.美国国家航空航天局(NASA)的开普勒(Kepler)太空望远镜目前已进入搜寻围绕其他恒星旋转的行星的阴影的第五年。它已经发现了数百个,以及越来越多与地球十分相似的世界——只比我们的家园地球体积稍大的石球,只要有适量的光和水,就可能会成为名副其实的微生物伊甸园。As the ranks of these planets grow, astronomers are beginning to plan the next step in the quest to end cosmic loneliness, gauging which hold the greatest promise for life and what tools will be needed to learn about them.随着此类行星的数量不断增加,天文学者开始计划相关探索的下一步,测算哪颗行星存在生命的可能性最大,以及了解它们需要什么工具,从而终结我们在宇宙中的孤独感。On Monday another group of astronomers said they had managed to weigh precisely a set of small planets and found that their densities and compositions almost exactly matched those of Earth. Both groups announced their findings at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Seattle.周一,另一组天文学者表示,他们已经成功精确计算出了一系列小行星的重量,发现它们的密度和构成几乎与地球完全一致。这两组天文学者都在西雅图的美国天文学会 (American Astronomical Society)的会议上公布了自己的研究结果。Alluding to the popularity of food shows and cooking apps, Courtney Dressing, also of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, said at a news conference, “I’m going to give you the recipe for a rocky planet.”同样来自哈佛-史密森尼天体物理中心的考特妮·德雷辛(Courtney Dressing)在新闻发布会上借用美食节目和烹饪软件的话说,“我现在要告诉你该如何制作岩态行星。”She began, “Take one cup of magnesium....”她说,“用一杯镁……”Reviewing the history of exoplanets, Debra Fischer, a Yale astronomer, recalled that the first planet found orbiting another sunlike star, a Jupiter-like giant, was discovered 20 years ago. Before that, she recalled, astronomers worried that “maybe the Star Trek picture of the universe was not right, and there is no life anywhere else.”耶鲁大学(Yale)天文学者德布拉·费希尔(Debra Fischer)在回顾系外行星历史时说,第一次发现围绕类似太阳的恒星运行的行星是在20年前。这颗行星很像木星,体积巨大。她回忆道,在那之前,天文学者担心“或许《星际迷航》(Star Trek)中的宇宙景象是不正确的,其他地方根本没有生命”。She termed the progress in the last two decades “incredibly moving.”她表示,过去20年的进步“十分惊人”。So far, Kepler has discovered 4,175 potential planets, and 1,004 of them have been confirmed as real, according to Michele Johnson, a spokeswoman at NASA’s Ames Research Center, which operates Kepler.负责运行开普勒的NASA艾姆斯研究中心(NASA Ames Research Center)的女发言人米歇尔·约翰逊(Michele Johnson)称,迄今,开普勒已经发现了4175颗疑似行星,其中有1004颗已经得到实。Most of them, however, including the new ones announced Tuesday, are hundreds of light-years away, too far for detailed study. We will probably never know any more about these particular planets than we do now, including whether anybody can or does live on them.不过,它们中的大多数,其中包括周二宣布的新发现的行星都距离地球数百光年,因为太远,而不适合进行详细研究。我们对于这些特殊行星的了解,或许永远无法比现在更多,其中包括人们是否能够,以及是否有人在这些行星上生存。“We can count as many as we like,” said Sara Seager, a planet theorist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who was not involved in the new work, “but until we can observe the atmospheres and assess their greenhouse gas power, we don’t really know what the surface temperatures are like.”“我们可以想数出多少就数出多少,”麻省理工学院(Massachusetts Institute of Technology,简称MIT)的行星理论家萨拉·西格(Sara Seager)说,“但在能够观察它们的大气,评定它们的温室气体含量之前,我们无法真正了解它们的地表温度。”她并没有参与这项新研究。Still, she added, “it’s heartening to have such a growing list.”不过,她补充道,“这样的行星越来越多,也很令人鼓舞。”Finding Goldilocks planets closer to home will be the job of TESS, the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, scheduled to be launched in 2017. But if we want to know what the weather is like on these worlds, whether there is water or even life there, more powerful instruments will be needed.寻找离地球较近的适居带行星将是凌日系外行星勘测人造卫星(Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite,简称TESS)的任务。这种卫星将于2017年发射。但是,如果我们想知道这些行星上的天气状况、上面是否有水乃至生命,还需要更强大的工具。Dr. Seager is heading a NASA study investigating the concept of a starshade, which would float in front of a space telescope and block light from a star so that its much fainter planets would be visible, the way a driver flips down a shade to block the glare of the sun.西格正在负责一项研究遮星板(starshade)概念的NASA研究。这种遮星板将漂浮在太空望远镜前方,遮挡恒星发出的光,这样就能看见它比较暗淡的行星了,就像司机拉下遮阳板挡住刺眼的阳光那样。Another group, led by Karl Stapelfeldt of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, is studying the alternative method known as a coronagraph, in which the occulting disk is inside the telescope.由NASA戈达德航天中心(Goddard Spaceflight Center)的卡尔·斯塔佩尔费尔德特(Karl Stapelfeldt)所带领的另一个小组正在研究被称作日冕仪(coronagraph)另一种办法。根据这种办法,挡板会被放在望远镜里面。Both studies are expected to be completed in the next couple of months, and could affect plans to repurpose a former spy telescope, a clone of sorts of the Hubble, that was bequeathed to NASA three years ago by the National Reconnaissance Office. Astronomers hope to launch it in the early 2020s to study dark energy, under the unwieldy name of Wfirst/Afta.They are planning for now to include a coronagraph to search for exoplanets, according to Paul Schechter of M.I.T., chairman of a design team. Depending on the probe’s orbit, said Dr. Seager, it could be also be made “starshade y.”两项研究都有望在未来几个月内完成,它们可能影响到改变原来的间谍望远镜的使用目的的计划。这种望远镜是对哈勃(Hubble)望远镜的一种复制,三年前由国家侦察局(National Reconnaissance Office)赠送给NASA。天文学者希望能在本世纪20年代初将其发射升空,用来研究暗能量。它有个复杂的名字,叫做宽视场红外巡天望远镜/天体物理学专用资产(Wfirst/Afta)。某设计团队的主席、来自MIT的保罗·谢克特(Paul Schechter)表示,他们目前正计划在上面安装一台日冕仪,用来搜索系外行星。西格说,根据这个探测器的轨道,还可以对它进行调整,使之“能够使用遮星板”。NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope, due for a 2018 launch, will have a coronagraph capable of seeing Jupiter-size planets, but it is too late to adapt it to a star shade.NASA的詹姆斯·韦伯太空望远镜(James Webb Space Telescope)将于2018年发射,它上面也将安装一台能看到木星大小的行星的日冕仪,但现在已经来不及对它进行调整,使它能使用遮星板。Meanwhile, Dr. Seager and Julianne Dalcanton of the University of Washington are writing a separate report for AURA, a consortium of universities that runs observatories. The goal is have a pool of dozens of “exoEarths” to study in order to have any chance of seeing signs of life or understanding terrestrial planets, Dr. Seager said. Amassing them will require a space telescope 10 or 12 meters in diameter (the Webb will be 6.5, and the largest currently on Earth is 10).同时,西格和华盛顿大学(University of Washington)的朱莉安娜·达尔坎顿(Julianne Dalcanton)正分别在为AURA撰写一篇报告。AURA是一个负责天文台运营的大学联盟。西格说,他们是想对数十个“系外地球”(exoEarth)进行研究,看看是否有机会发现生命迹象或了解类地行星。要想积累这么多的行星,需要一台直径为10或12米的太空望远镜(韦伯太空望远镜的直径将为6.5米;目前,地球上直径最大的是10米)。All of this will be grist for the mill at the end of the decade when a panel of the National Academy of Sciences produces its decadal and very influential wish list for astronomy in the 2020s.到这一个10年临近结束、国家科学院(National Academy of Sciences)的工作小组为天文学拟定极有影响力的20年代十年规划时,这一切都将非常有用。 /201501/352911

Moscow on Tuesday lifted a ban on the Russian-language version of Wikipedia less than a day after imposing it.俄罗斯官方周二解除了不到一天前实行的针对俄文版维基百科(Wikipedia)的禁令。Internet regulator Roskomnadzor said an article about Charas, a form of hashish, ruled illegal by a local court in June, had now been sufficiently edited on Russian Wikipedia to put the online encyclopedia in compliance with the ruling.互联网监管机构——联邦电信、信息技术和大众传媒监督局(Roskomnadzor)表示,俄文版维基百科上关于Charas(某种形式的印度大麻脂,6月份被俄罗斯一家法院裁定为非法)的条目已得到充分编辑,这个在线百科全书网站遵守了法院裁决。The webpage has therefore been excluded from its internet blacklist, it added.该机构称,相关网页因此已被剔除出其互联网黑名单。Several Russian internet service providers started blocking access to the Russian-language Wikipedia site after the regulator added it to its registry of forbidden information on Monday.该监管机构周一将俄文版维基百科列入封禁网站的名单后,俄罗斯几家互联网务提供商开始屏蔽这个网站。Internet users in some Russian regions saw a notice from the registry instead of the Wikipedia page when trying to access it.俄罗斯某些地区的互联网用户在试图访问该网站的时候,会看到封禁网站登记机构的一份通知。Wikipedia said the outlawing of some information triggered a blacklisting of the entire service because the website uses the secure protocol HTTPS which prevents the filtering and censoring of its content from the outside.维基百科表示,某些信息被列为非法,连累整个务被列入黑名单,因为该网站使用HTTPS加密协议,使第三方无法从外部过滤和审查网站内容。Russian Wikipedia said the entry in question had aly been edited to rely only on public scientific and UN sources before Monday’s ban.俄文版维基百科表示,在周一遭遇封禁之前,相关条目已经过编辑,完全采用了公开科学和联合国资料来源。The lifting of the ban defuses what threatened to become the most serious fallout yet from growing Russian internet censorship on global internet services. So far, stricter internet regulations introduced over the past three years have mainly hit Russia’s online media.解除禁令化解了俄罗斯对全球互联网务不断强化审查本来有可能产生的最严重后果。到目前为止,过去三年更严格的互联网法规主要打击了俄罗斯的在线媒体。However, the shortlived ban demonstrated to a larger audience the impact stricter internet control rules introduced in early 2014 can have. Since then, the authorities have had the power to blacklist websites without a court order.然而,这一短暂的禁令向世人展示了2014年年初出台的更严格互联网控制规则可能产生的冲击。自那以来,当局有权在没有法庭命令授权的情况下将网站列入黑名单。Following these legal changes, the list of web pages blocked in Russia on orders of the prosecutor-general has quickly grown. Information on drugs tops the list of reasons given for blocking orders, but charges of extremism and threats to state security are also common.法律变化出炉后,根据俄罗斯总检察长的命令被封的网页列表迅速变长。封禁名单上给出的最常见理由是含有有关毒品的信息,但极端主义和威胁国家安全的罪名也很常见。 /201508/395600

Tu Youyou, a Chinese pharmacologist and winner of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, is getting an asteroid named after her.近日,一颗小行星以中国药理学家、2015年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖得主屠呦呦的名字而命名The No.31230 asteroid was named ;Tuyouyou;, according to a statement issued by International Astronomical Union.国际天文学联合会近日发布公报,将第31230号小行星永久命名为;屠呦呦星;。The asteroid was discovered on Jan 18, 1998 by Beijing Schmidt CCD Asteroid Program.;屠呦呦星;由北京天文台施密特CCD小行星项目组于1998年1月18日发现。Tu Youyou discovered the antimalarial drug artemisinin, which has saved millions of lives, especially in developing countries.屠呦呦发现了抗疟药物青蒿素,在全球范围内特别是发展中国家挽救了数百万人的生命。 /201601/419617Robots will replace a growing number of jobs in industries including automotive and electronics in the next few years, particularly in east Asia, according to new research.一项新研究显示,未来几年,机器人将取代自动化和电子产品等行业越来越多的工作岗位,尤其是在东亚地区。Worldwide sales of industrial robots rose 23 per cent last year and are on course to double by 2018, driving radical change in many manufacturing sectors, Boston Consulting Group said.波士顿咨询集团(G)表示,全球工业机器人销量去年增长23%,到2018年将翻一番,这将令很多制造业领域发生彻底变革。Although robots have been used in industry for decades, recent advances in technology have cut their costs and increased their capabilities, as a new generation of reprogrammable, multipurpose machines comes into service.尽管机器人在工业中的使用已有几十年时间,但最近科技的进步降低了机器人成本并提升了其性能,此际新一代可再编程的多用途机器人正投入使用。The prices of industrial robots have been falling steadily, dropping about 14 per cent in the past four years to 3,000 for a typical system, while capabilities have been expanding.工业机器人的价格一直在稳步下降,过去4年已累计下跌14%左右,至13.3万美元,同时性能一直在提升。Some robots are even cheaper: the Baxter robot from Rethink Robotics has a listed base price of ,000, making it accessible to smaller companies that might have found it difficult to invest in earlier generations.一些机器人的价格甚至更低: Rethink Robotics的Baxter机器人基础定价为2.5万美元,让那些可能很难投资于之前几代机器人的较小公司也能买得起。Five countries — China, the US, Japan, Germany and South Korea — are expected to account for about 80 per cent of investment in industrial robots over the coming decade.预计中国、美国、日本、德国和韩国5国将占到未来10年工业机器人投资的80%左右。Advanced robots are set to cut costs and raise productivity, reducing employment in manufacturing in developed countries, while raising the skill levels demanded of the staff that remain.先进的机器人旨在降低成本并提升生产率,从而减少发达国家制造业就业,同时提高现有员工所需的技能水准。They are also likely to make labour costs a less significant factor for manufacturers making decisions about where to invest.它们还可能会在制造商在做出投资目的地决定时,让劳动力成本的因素不那么重要。About 200,000 industrial robots were shipped last year, G estimates, up from 163,000 in 2013, and in three years#39; time the number could rise to 400,000.G估计,去年工业机器人销量达到20万台左右,高于2013年的16.3万台,到2017年,这一数字可能会升至40万台。In the manufacturing sectors that are the most ily automated, including cars and other transport equipment, computers and electronics and electrical equipment, about 85 per cent of tasks can be performed by robots, according to G.在最容易实现自动化的制造业(包括汽车和其他运输设备、电脑、电子产品和电器设备),约85%的工作可能会由机器人完成。Those sectors are likely to use the most robots over the coming decade, but other areas such as chemicals and metals are also likely to see increasing adoption of the newer, more flexible machines.未来几十年,这些行业使用的机器人可能会最多,但化工和金属等其他行业使用这种更为新颖灵活的机器的做法可能也会越来越多。The uptake of industrial robots will vary between countries as well as between industries, depending on factors including wage costs and labour regulations that could limit employers’ ability to replace workers with robots. G expects the fastest adoption will come in South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand, which have heavy concentrations of the industries that are capable of high levels of automation, higher labour costs than some of their low-wage competitors, and limited employment protections that would prevent job cuts.工业机器人的使用情况将会因国家和行业的不同而不同,这取决于很多因素,包括薪资成本以及劳动力监管规定——这些规定可能会限制雇主用机器人取代员工的能力。G预测,韩国、台湾和泰国将是最快使用机器人的国家,这些国家拥有大量能够实现高度自动化的行业,劳动力成本高于一些低薪资竞争国家,而且就业保护有限(就业保护将阻止裁员)。Other relatively rapid adopters are expected to be China, Japan, the US, the UK and Canada.预计其他使用工业机器人相对迅速的国家将是中国、日本、美国、英国和加拿大。The countries likely to be slowest to embrace the new robots include more heavily regulated economies of Europe including France, Italy and Spain, as well as Brazil and India, according to G.G称,最慢接纳新一代机器人的国家可能是那些欧洲监管较严的经济体,包括法国、意大利和西班牙等,还有巴西和印度。 /201502/359373Gunpowder火药Gunpowder is considered to be one of the four great inventions of ancient China.火药是中国古代的“四大发明”之一。The invention of gunpowder had a close relationship with the advanced ancient workmanship of smelting industry. People began to know a lot of chemistry know-ledge about the nature of different mineral materials during the process of smelting operation. With the knowledge,ancient necromancers tried to seek the elixir of immortality fromcertain kinds of ores and fuel. Al-though they failed to get what they were looking for, they dis-covered that an explosive mixture could be produced by combining sulfur, charcoal, and saltpeter (potassium nitrate) in a certain proportion.This mixture finally led to the invention of gunpowder al-though its exact date of invention still remains unknown.火药的发明与中国古代发达的冶炼技术有密切的关系。在冶炼金属的过程中,人们不断总结经验,逐渐接触和熟悉了许多矿物的性能,积累了丰富的化学知识。从战国时代起,就有人把冶金技术运用到炼制矿物药方面,梦想能炼出长生不老的药来,也有人想从矿物中炼出金银来。虽然没有炼出长生不老的丹药或金银,但是炼丹工匠们在炼丹的过程中发现,硝石、硫磺与含碳物质在一起加热后会发生剧烈的化学反应。在一次次爆炸中,人们逐渐认识到硝石、硫磺、木炭按一定比例配制,将会制成会能爆炸的火药。Many historical materials indicate that gunpowder first appeared before the Tang Dynasty.It was called “Black Gunpowder” because irs black in color.It was firsf used to make firecrackers and fireworks. The military appliccrtions of gunpow-der began in the Tang Dynasty. The earliest weapon made from gunpowder was“Flying Fire”, tha. is, rocket.During the Song and Yuan Dynasties, the military ap-plications of gunpowder became common and some other weapons like “fire can-non” ,“rocket”, “missile”and “fireball”were introduced.火药发明的具体年代已无从查考,但根据资料可以推断,火药发明的时间应在唐代以前。由于这种火药的颜色是黑色的,所以叫做“黑火药”。火药发明后,先是被制成了爆竹和焰火。唐朝末年,火药开始用于军事。最早的火药武器是“飞火”,即火箭。宋、元时期,军事上广泛应用火药,出现了许多火药武器,主要有火箭、火铳、突火、火炮等。Between 1225 crnd 1248, gunpowder and the related weapons sp to Eu-rope via Arabia. Since the major raw material of gunpowder niter is as white as snow, Arabians called gunpowder “Chinese Snow” and “Chinese Salt”. After gunpowder sp into Europe, it was not only used in weapons, and also for cut-ting through mountains, constructing roads, and digging rivers. The invention of gunpowder accelerated the coming of the Industrial Revolution.公元1225—1248年之间,火药和火药武器经由阿拉伯传到欧洲。因为制造火药的主要原料硝石洁白如雪,所以火药被阿拉伯人称为“中国雪”和“中国盐”。火.药传到欧洲后,被各国用来制造兵器,还在开山、修路、挖河等工程中广泛使用,火药的使用促进了工业革命的到来。 /201512/410739

Apple has made its biggest push into digital music since it began selling downloads on iTunes 12 years ago, launching a new streaming service that will compete with Spotify and new services from Google and Jay Z, the hip-hop star.苹果(Apple)推出了新的流务,该务将与Spotify的流务、以及谷歌(Google)与嘻哈明星Jay-Z推出的新务展开竞争。这是苹果自12年前开始在iTunes上出售下载音乐以来向数字音乐领域发起的最大规模冲锋。The new service — dubbed Apple Music — will be available on hundreds of millions of connected Apple devices. It is the first significant music product launched by Apple since it paid bn to buy Beats Electronics from Dr Dre and Jimmy Iovine last year.这一被称为苹果音乐(Apple Music)的新务将向数以亿计的苹果联网设备提供。它是苹果自收购Beats Electronics以来推出的首个重要音乐产品。苹果去年斥资30亿美元从Dr. Dre和吉米#8226;约维内(Jimmy Iovine)手中购得了Beats Electronics。Tim Cook, Apple chief executive, told the audience at Apple’s Worldwide Developer Conference in San Francisco on Monday that the new service represented the “next chapter” of music.周一在旧金山举行的苹果全球开发者大会(Worldwide Developer Conference)上,苹果首席执行官蒂姆#8226;库克(Tim Cook)向听众表示,这种新务代表着音乐领域的“新篇章”。Apple Music includes Connect, which will allow musicians and record labels to share free content with music fans, and Beats 1, an online radio service broadcasting from Los Angeles, New York and London. “The truth is that internet radio isn’t radio. It’s just a playlist,” said Jimmy Iovine, the former Beats chief executive, who is leading Apple’s new music push. “We wanted to create a worldwide radio station.”苹果音乐包含让音乐家和唱片公司能向粉丝分享免费内容的Connect,以及Beats 1,也就是一项播出地点分别位于洛杉矶、纽约和伦敦的在线广播务。前Beats首席执行官、现苹果音乐业务负责人约维内表示:“事实上,互联网广播并不是广播。它只是一个播放列表。我们想创建一家覆盖全世界的电台。”The new service will launch in 100 countries later this month for iOS devices, costing .99, with the first three months free. A family package will cost .99 for up to six people. “We want everyone to try it,” said Eddie Cue, Apple’s senior vice-president of Internet Software and Services.这项新务将于本月晚些时候在100个国家面向iOS设备推出,每月收费9.99美元,头三个月免费。家庭套餐价格为14.99美元,可供最多6人使用。苹果互联网软件与务高级副总裁埃迪#8226;库埃(Eddie Cue)说:“我们希望每个人都试一试。” /201506/379808At billion, Uber has become more valuable more quickly than any other start-up we’ve seen in recent years — faster than Facebook FB 2.03% , Google GOOG 0.43% , Amazon.com AMZN 0.50% and Salesforce.com CRM 0.29% , according to our analysis of VC-backed start-ups founded since Uber was created in 2009. Earlier this month when the taxi service announced a round of financing that gave it a billion valuation at 5.93 years old, Uber set itself apart. At the same stage, Facebook was valued at about billion, while Google was just over billion.打车应用务公司Uber目前估值已经达到410亿美元。我们发现这家公司自2009年成立以来,是由风投持的初创型企业中增值最快的一家,超过了Facebook、谷歌(Google)、亚马逊(Amazon.com)和云计算务供应商Salesforce.com。本月早些时候Uber宣布了新一轮融资消息,公司估值在成立5.93年后达到410亿美元,在市场中脱颖而出。在同一阶段,Facebook的估值约为320亿美元,谷歌的估值则刚刚超过30亿美元。Uber’s valuation does not guarantee it will be the next long-term superstar. But if the company can use its rapidly rising valuation to accelerate its expansion, it has a real shot at both beating its competitor, Lyft, and growing beyond personal transportation. Further, it can expand it’s services — potentially to delivery, logistics, other adjacent markets. To be sure, Uber is facing an ever increasing amount of challenges, from legal battles with local governments, to bad PR for the way it portrays women, all of which could hamper its growth and damage its brand. Additionally competitors like Lyft are nipping at its heals and more will surely come as the market for smart-phone powered point-to-point transportation expands. Despite these problems, Uber’s lead is so large and its value has grown so quickly, it would have to stumble badly to lose the battle for supremecy in this new space.但这样的估值并不能保Uber成为下一个持久的超级巨星。但如果该公司能将快速攀升的价值用于提高扩张速度,它就真的有可能击败竞争对手Lyft,并将业务延伸到个人交通领域之外。Uber可以进一步将其范围扩大到快递、物流以及其他相关市场。当然,Uber面临的挑战也与日俱增,比如和地方政府的法律纠纷,再比如涉嫌不尊重女性的糟糕公关,所有这些都可能对其发展和品牌产生不利影响。此外,Lyft等对手正在奋起直追;而且,随着基于智能手机的点对点(P2P)交通务市场继续扩大,必将出现更多竞争者。不过,虽然存在这些问题,但在如此巨大的领先优势和增速之下,除非Uber犯下大错误,才会在这个新兴领域的王者争夺战中落败。This comes amid the development of two important trends. First, among all VC-backed technology start-ups created since 2009, the rate at which their values have risen is three times faster today compared to just a decade ago. This increase in “time to market cap”, the measures how quickly companies increase in value, has become a major advantage for modern startups as they are able to build massive financial war chests at speeds never seen before. With this latest financing Uber has become the time to market cap champ.伴随Uber成长的有两大趋势。首先,就所有2009年以来成立并且获得风投持的科技初创公司来说,其价值上升速度与10年前相比快了三倍。作为衡量公司价值增速的指标,“市值形成速度(time to market cap)”的提升已经成为现代初创企业的一项主要优势,因为它们可以用前所未有的速度筹集到巨额资金。最新一轮融资过后,Uber已经在这场速度较量中成为冠军。What’s more, it appears that new markets are being dominated by one company, especially in tech. Uber’s latest valuation is partly driven by how quickly the company is expanding abroad, but it also reflects demand for a growing global market for on-demand transportation, and Uber’s dominance in this category for years to come.其次,新兴的市场看来都由一家公司主导,特别是在科技领域。Uber最新估值提升的部分动力来自该公司在海外的迅速扩张,但这也体现了全球按需交通务市场的不断扩张和由此带来的需求,以及今后几年Uber在这个领域的统治地位。We like to call Uber a “Category King” — companies that define, develop and dominate new markets. Airbnb is doing that in on-demand rentals. Salesforce.com did it in cloud-based CRM. Of the 80 or so billion companies founded since 2000, half are Category Kings. They are more valuable than all the other companies in their categories combined. These firms routinely take more than 70% of the total available market cap of their market.我们倾向于把Uber称为“细分类之王”,即那些定义了一个全新市场,并大力开拓,占据市场主导地位的公司。Airbnb就在按需租房领域扮演着这样的角色。在基于云技术的客户关系管理务市场,Salesforce.com也是如此。2000年以来成立而且市值达到10亿美元的公司有80家左右,其中一半都是“细分类之王”。它们的价值超过了本领域其他公司的价值之和,而且往往占据所在市场中所有公司总市值的70%以上。Uber is clearly being valued as the king of a new category that stretches way beyond taxi rides. Investors see potential in on-demand delivery from Uber vehicles, for instance. Unless Uber screws up, its competitors, such as Lyft and Sidecar, will fade into the background. If Uber truly proves to be the Category King in a vastly expanding new category, it’s record valuation will seem rational.显然,人们在评估Uber的价值时,认为其所统领的新领域将远远超越出租车务。举例来说,投资者就看到了Uber车辆的按需递送的潜力。除非Uber自毁前程,否则Lyft和Sidecar这样的竞争对手就只能生活在其阴影之中。如果Uber能明自己在一个大范围扩张的新领域居于王者之位,该公司创纪录的估值就应该属于合理水平。Al Ramadan, Christopher Lochhead and Dave Peterson are co-founding partners at Play Bigger Advisors, a San Francisco-based firm that coaches technology executives to build market-leading companies. Neither the firm or its partners have investments in Uber, Lyft, Google, Amazon.com or Salesforce.com.本文作者艾尔o拉马丹、克里斯托弗o罗克海德和戴夫o彼得森是Play Bigger Advisors公司联合创始人。这家总部位于旧金山的咨询机构致力于指导科技公司高管如何打造市场领先的公司。该公司和这三位合伙人均未向Uber、Lyft、亚马逊或Salesforce.com投资。(财富中文网) /201412/349390The shocking thing about the papal encyclical Laudate Si is not that it was leaked in advance nor even that it embraces the idea that most emissions of greenhouse gases are the result of human activity. The thing that should shock ers is its attack on science and technology — the very tools, indeed the only tools, which offer a solution to climate change.对于教皇方济各发表的题为《赞美你》(Laudato Si)的通谕,令人震惊之处不在于它被提前泄露,甚至也不在于它持的观点,即大部分温室气体排放是人类活动的结果。应当让读者震惊的是它对科学技术的攻击,而科技恰恰是为气候变化提供解决方案的工具(其实也是唯一工具)。(上图为一名修女在梵蒂冈阅读教皇方济各的《赞美你》(Laudato Si)通谕)I am not a student of theology and therefore do not claim to understand the subtleties of the Catholic Church’s teaching on science. But since the Pope has moved outside his own natural territory and into energy policy, some response seems appropriate.我并非一名学习神学的学生,因此不能宣称理解天主教会科学教义的细枝末节。但是,既然教皇超出了自己的领地,涉足能源政策领域,我们做出一些反应似乎是合适的。From a distance, Pope Francis seems to embody decency. He is modest, frugal, concerned for the poor and hostile to the creepier side of the church hierarchy in Rome and beyond. That makes him stand out in a world of shallow and cynical “leaders”. He commands millions of followers and his words deserve to be taken seriously whether one is a Catholic or not.从远处看,教皇方济各似乎是正派的化身。他谦逊、节俭、关心贫苦大众,而且反对罗马和其他地区教会系统的阴暗面。这使他在当今世界浅薄而犬儒主义的“领导人”里脱颖而出。他号令着数以百万计的追随者,不论你是不是天主教徒,他的话都值得认真思考。But if you the encyclical there is a flaw in the argument that undermines the credibility of the whole text. It is perhaps best summed up by paragraph 110 of the document, which deserves to be ed in full:但如果你通读这则教皇通谕,就会发现其论据有一个瑕疵损害了整个文本的可信度。文中第110段也许最透彻地反映了这一点,在这里值得被全段引用:“It can be said that many problems of today’s world stem from the tendency, at times unconscious, to make the method and aims of science and technology an epistemological paradigm which shapes the lives of individuals and the workings of society. The effects of imposing this model on reality as a whole, human and social, are seen in the deterioration of the environment, but this is just one sign of a reductionism which affects every aspect of human and social life. We have to accept that technological products are not neutral, for they create a framework which ends up conditioning lifestyles and shaping social possibilities along the lines dictated by the interests of certain powerful groups. Decisions which may seem purely instrumental are in reality decisions about the kind of society we want to build.”“可以说,当今世界的许多问题源于(经常是无意识的)这样一种倾向,即让科学技术的方法和目标成为塑造个人生活和社会运作的认识论范式。对人类和社会现实整体实施这种模式,造成的影响表现在环境恶化上,但这只是影响人类和社会生活方方面面的简化论的一个标志。我们必须承认,科技产品不是中性的,因为它们创建了一个框架,最终根据某些强大集团的利益来影响生活方式,塑造社会可能性。那些貌似纯属工具性的决定,实际上决定了我们要构建什么样的社会。”This is one among many examples of a critique of science that runs through the whole document. This must be disspiriting, to put it mildly, to the many Catholics who have been involved in research on climate change over the last 20 years and more. The very problem of climate change was identified by scientific analysis. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the IPCC, is composed of scientists whose conclusion about the causation of climate change and the associated risks if it continues unchecked have brought the issue to public attention across the world. Those scientists did not rely on prayer but on hard work, often extending the limits of what was previously known. Their work is what separates them from the deniers of climate change whose belief is based on faith rather than facts.这是贯穿整篇通谕的批判科学的许多例之一。这一定会让(说得婉转些)许多在过去20多年里参与研究气候变化的天主教徒感到沮丧。气候变化这个问题只能通过科学分析确定。联合国政府间气候变化委员会(IPCC)是由科学家们组成的,他们得出的关于气候变化因果关系及相关风险(如果再不控制)的结论,引起了全世界公众对这一课题的关注。这些科学家依靠的不是祈祷,而是严谨细致的工作,往往拓展原有知识的极限。他们的工作把他们与那些否认气候变化的人区分开来,后者的信念建立在信仰(而非事实)的基础上。Having identified the problem, what are the solutions? There is no single answer. Pope Francis repeatedly calls for a change in behaviour. That is all well and good but for many people, especially the world’s poorest, such a behavioural change can only happen if they are offered a viable alternative to burning coal or other fossil fuels. Every possible alternative I can think of comes back to science — either in the form of existing technology or scientific advances that have yet to be made. That includes electric vehicles which would reduce oil consumption, smart meters which would control and limit energy use, carbon capture and storage, clean coal technology, advanced batteries and other storage technologies, photovoltaics and advanced materials. The list could go on — and indeed fills up hundreds of pages of the latest review of Energy Technology Perspectives from the International Energy Agency.找出问题之后,解决方案是什么呢?不是唯一的。教皇方济各一再呼吁人类改变自身行为。这当然很好,但对许多人(尤其是世界上最贫穷的人群)来说,只有向他们提供一种替代燃烧煤炭或其他化石燃料的可行方案,才有可能改变他们的行为。我能想到的任何可能的替代方案,都要借助科学——不论是以现有技术的形式,还是依靠尚未成为现实的科技进步。它们包括可以减少石油消费量的电动汽车、控制并限制能源使用的智能电表、碳捕获和储存、洁净煤技术、先进电池和其他存储技术、光伏发电和先进材料。当然还有很多——在国际能源署(IEA)最新发表的《能源技术观察》(Energy Technology Perspectives)中,有几百页的篇幅描述此类技术。Scientists are advancing these technologies across the world — in companies and in universities by individuals who believe they are doing something good for the world. The encyclical undermines their efforts.世界各地企业和高校的科学家们都在推进这些技术,他们相信自己正在做对世界有益的事。教皇通谕对他们的努力没有帮助。If these efforts ceased today I do not know what could take their place. The encyclical implies that climate change is a problem of the rich world consuming too much. One can see why the US. Republicans led by Jeb Bush do not like it. But in reality, the challenge of climate change now is not focused on the US or Europe, where energy demand has stopped growing and where the carbon intensity of GDP declines year by year. The problem comes from the growing populations of south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa — areas that between them will have some 1.5bn to 2bn more citizens in 20 years’ time than they do today. Every citizen needs energy and, although many will subsist on less than they need, tens of millions will become consumers of commercial supplies of coal and oil which will generate more and more emissions. Unless, that is, science can offer a lower-cost alternative.如果这些努力今天止步,我想不出还有什么可以替代它们。教皇通谕暗示,气候变化是发达国家消费过多的问题。我们可以理解,为什么以杰布#8226;布什(Jeb Bush)为首的美国共和党人士不喜欢它。但实际上,如今气候变化挑战的焦点并不在美国或欧洲,因为美欧的能源需求已停止增长,其国内生产总值(GDP)的碳排放强度也在逐年下降。问题在于南亚以及撒哈拉以南非洲地区的人口增长——这两个地区的人口将在未来20年增加约15亿至20亿。每个公民都需要能源,虽然很多人得不到足够的能源,只能勉强维生,但至少数千万人将成为商业化煤炭和石油供应的消费者,从而导致越来越多的排放——除非科学可以提供一种低成本的替代品。The Pope calls for a change in behaviour. He is right. But the change should not just come from those who consume too much and who give no care to the environmental impact of their actions. Real change should start with a shift in the mindset of those who remain trapped in the belief that the products of science and technology must always be bad. Knowledge and the ability to apply that knowledge to meet human needs can be positive in every sense.教皇呼吁人类改变自己的行为。他说的没错。但这种改变不应仅来自那些目前消费过多、而且对自身行为的环境影响毫不关心的人群。真正的改变应当始于另一个人群,这些人必须改变科技产品一定不好的老观念。知识,以及应用知识满足人类需求的能力,无论在什么意义上都是积极的。 /201506/382767

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