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2019年08月19日 03:03:31 | 作者:中国报 | 来源:新华社
Usually, pets are animals, such as birds or fish that we keep in our homes and take care of. Sometimes, schools will keep ;class pets,; where all the children take turns caring for this animal. A ;teachers pet,; however, is not an animal, but a student in a class who is the favorite of one particular teacher.通常,宠物都是动物,例如家里养的鸟或者鱼。有时,学校也会养“班级宠物”,所有的孩子可以轮流照顾这个小动物。然而,“老师的宠儿”却不是真的宠物,而是班级里最得某位老师欢心的学生。Of course, teachers are not supposed to have favorite students, and they should treat everyone equally. Unfortunately, some students try hard to become the ;teachers pet,; hoping it will get them better grades. What is even more unfortunate, is that some teachers enjoy the attention those students give, and unconsciously start to favor them. Often, the negative result is that other students resent and dislike the one who is a teachers pet.当然,老师们不应该特别喜欢某些学生,而是应该对所以学生一视同仁。 但不幸的是,有些同学想方设法成为“老师的宠儿”,期冀着老师能给高分。然而更不幸的是有些老师竟醉心于这些学生的关注,并在不知不觉中偏爱他们。通常这会导致消极的结果,那就是招来其他同学的不满和厌恶。201301/221336

What a light bulb and an egg have in common? The shell of an egg and the glass exterior of a light bulb have more than one thing in common. First, both protect something delicate inside: the exterior of the light bulb keeps the delicate internal wiring protected and an eggshell protects a developing chick.The need to protect chicks and wiring requires that eggshells and light bulbs be structurally strong.电灯泡和鸡蛋有什么共同点呢?鸡蛋的外壳和灯泡的玻璃外罩的相同点可不止一处。首先,两者都在保护内部脆弱的东西:灯泡的外罩保护精细的内部接线,而蛋壳保护还未孵化的小鸡。为了保护小鸡和灯丝,要求蛋壳和灯罩的结构性很强。Second, both are made of thin material. A chick, y to hatch, has to be able to peck its way through the shell. And because light bulbs are usually made of opaque rather than clear glass, the glass exterior must be thin so that light can shine through.其次,两者都由薄型材料构成。一只待孵化的小鸡必须能够破开蛋壳钻出来。且因为灯泡通常由不透明的玻璃做成,所以玻璃外罩要很薄,这样灯光才能透过灯罩射出去。So how can a structure be strong and yet made of thin material at the same time? By using a carefully-designed oval shape. Picture for a moment a square egg. If you took that imaginary object in your hand and squeezed it very hard between your thumb and finger, the pressure youd exert would be localized in the exact part of the flat surface your thumb and finger were pushing. Even a slight pressure would be great enough to break the thin shell into pieces.那么什么样的结构即坚固同时又能由薄层的材料制成呢?通过利用一种精心设计的椭圆形。暂且先描绘一个方形的蛋。假设你把这个虚构的对象拿在手里,用拇指和食指用力挤压,你施加的压力会落在拇指和食指接触到的平面上。即使是轻微的压力也足以将薄薄的蛋壳打得粉碎。But if you do the same thing to a real egg, the force you exert is not localized in one point, but is distributed into all directions around the surface of the egg. Though you can eventually break an egg by doing this, it takes a great deal more force to do so. Of course, its no coincidence that the shapes of light bulbs and eggs are similar. When the light bulb was invented and perfected, it was patterned after a shape that nature had come up with hundreds of thousands of years ago.但是如果你挤压一个真正的鸡蛋,那么你施加的压力并不着力在一个点上,而是分散在蛋壳表面的各个方向。尽管你最终还是可以将鸡蛋捏碎,但在那之前你要使更多的劲。当然,灯泡的形状跟鸡蛋相似并不是偶然现象。灯泡的发明和完善还是仿照了大自然几十万年前就有的形状。原文译文属!201301/220892

Books and Arts; Book Review;文艺;书评;The future of Italy;Long life意大利的未来;路还长Good Italy, Bad Italy: Why Italy Must Conquer Its Demons to Face the Future. By Bill Emmott.《兴盛的意大利,衰落的意大利——为什么意大利必须克困难直面未来》比尔埃默特著。Even after the latest euro rescue in Brussels, Italy remains a time bomb. Its public debt of close to 201207/191509

Books and Arts; Comfort, joy and disagreement文艺;抚慰,欢乐与不合;Religion for Atheists: A Non-Believers Guide to the Uses of Religion. By Alain de Botton.给无神论者的宗教:无神论者使用宗教的指南。Alain de Botton著;The Face of God: The Gifford Lectures. By Roger Scruton. Continuum;上帝的面孔:在Gifford的讲座。Roger Scruton著,Continuum;Alain de BottonIt is difficult to imagine Alain de Botton and Roger Scruton becoming friends if they met at a party. All too soon the two philosophers would start talking about God. For Mr de Botton there is something slightly demented about religious belief, whereas for Mr Scruton there is something deeply tragic about atheism.很难想象Alain de Botton和Roger Scruton会在聚会上遇见后成为朋友。这两位哲学家在一起很快就会讨论起上帝。对于de Botton先生来说,宗教信仰总有那么一点神神叨叨,而对于Scruton先生,无神论却带有深深的悲剧色。Mr de Botton has published bestselling books on a wide range of subjects. He is an aggregator of ideas rather than an original thinker, but his skill is to write simply about complex ideas and he gives his fans the sensation of ing something profound with little effort. The premise of his new book, “Religion for Atheists”, which seeks to steer a course between religious fundamentalists and atheist fundamentalists, is that there is too much of value in religion to leave it to the religious alone. It must be possible to balance “a rejection of religious faith with a selective reverence for religious rituals,” he says. In practice, this means emptying out such rituals of their meaning and using them for secular ends, a kind of spiritual pick ‘n mix.de Botton先生出版过关于各类话题的畅销书。与其说他是一位原创的思考者,不如把他称为是一个思想的融合者。他擅长把复杂的想法转变为简单的文字,这给了他的读者们一种轻松读懂深奥事物的感觉。他的新书《给无神论者的宗教》,希望在宗教和无神论各自的死忠追随者之间找到一条道路。引起写作的是这样一个想法:让宗教信仰者们独享宗教所包含的巨大价值实在是太可惜了。他说,“肯定有可能在‘拒绝宗教信仰和‘有选择的尊重某些宗教仪式之间取得一个平衡。”实际操作中,这意味着把这些仪式的内涵都统统抛弃,然后再把它们用作世俗的目的,类似于精神层面上的“混合糖果”。Although Mr de Botton is a clever man, he often stretches a good idea beyond its elastic limit. Religions are “the most successful educational and intellectual movements the planet has ever witnessed,” he states, because they tell people what to think and hammer it home. University lecturers anxious to persuade should copy the didactic tricks of a Pentecostal preacher. “Do you hear me?” he hollers. “I say do you hear me?” An analysis of religious imagery leads him to recommend advertising “forgiveness” on billboards. Daily bouts of meditation on the immensity of the galaxies, he argues, will offer “solutions to our megalomania, self-pity and anxiety”.虽然de Botton先生是一个聪明人,但是他时常把一个好的想法延伸出适当的范围之外。宗教是“这个星球历史上最成功的教育和智识运动”,他说,因为它告诉人们该去想什么,而且还确保大家都真的理解了。大学里的那些急于说学生的讲师们真应该效仿圣灵降临教传教士的那一套说教技巧。“你听见我说的了吗?”他大叫,“我说,你听见我说的了吗?”在对宗教形象进行了分析后,他推荐在公告板上宣传“宽恕”。他主张说,每天数次对无边的进行沉思可以提供“对抗狂妄自大,自暴自弃和焦虑的方法”。Had it been written as a direct response, Mr Scrutons book, “The Face of God” could hardly be a stronger refutation of Mr de Bottons project. A philosophy professor, novelist and composer, Mr Scruton is a controversial figure, lampooned for his love of foxhunting and tweeds and uncompromisingly elitist in his opinions about classical architecture, music and aesthetics. The essays in this work of natural theology were first delivered as lectures at St Andrews University, and they have a whiff of the sermon about them. Atheists do not understand sacraments and acts of worship, he says. The sacred and the transcendental are “real presences” which bind communities together.如果Scruton先生的书《上帝的面孔》是写来直接回应de Botton先生的命题的,那将是最有力的回击了。作为一个哲学教授,小说家和作曲家,Scruton先生是一个充满争议的人物,他对于猎狐运动和斜纹软呢衣的喜爱,以及他在古典建筑,音乐和美学方面所持的顽固的精英主义态度都被人讽刺过。这本关于自然神学的书里的短文先是用在了他在St Andrews大学的讲座中,它们都颇有一丝布道的味道。无神论者们无法理解圣礼和拜神行为,他说,其实那些神圣的和超越感官的东西是“真实存在”的,它们使不同的群体团结了起来。The underlying problem is that scientists have cheapened meaning, he claims. Our deepest emotions are not mere “adaptations”, “hard wired” in the human cortex; if you reduce people to balls of cells, you wipe away intention, responsibility, freedom and emotion. Instead, the real meaning of existence is located in peoples relationships with each other, the earth and God. The face is his paradigm of meaning, relationship and identity. It is through contemplating the face, the outward form and image of what is inside, that humans see each other as subjects, rather than objects, he says.根本的问题是科学家们贬低了意义,他宣称,我们最深刻的感情不仅仅是“(人类对环境所做出的)适应”,然后“先天决定于”人类的基因中。如果你把人简单地归结为一大团细胞,你就一同抹掉了意愿,责任,自由和感情。与此相反,存在的真正意义在于一个人与其他人,地球还有上帝的关系中。他认为面孔是意义,关系和认同等概念的范例。他说,面孔是每一个人的外在形式和内在内容的形象,人类通过注视面孔把对方看成是一个意志的主体而不是一个物件。That Mr Scruton simply asserts the existence of God may be regarded as a fault here, and his prose is dense and often hard going. But he is at least serious and thoughtful. By contrast, Mr de Botton seems to get dafter with each turn of the page. Arguing that religion can bind people together to help guard against loneliness, he concludes that the Mass should be used as a model for his pastiche “Agape Restaurant”, with its own liturgy and an annual orgy (there is even a soft-porn picture to show ers what this would be like). Mr Scruton, who frets that people have become indifferent to beauty and smut, argues that it is because they confuse agape and eros (the ancient Greek words for deep affection and erotic attraction) that they objectify each other and devalue love in a cycle of “ever-expanding heartlessness”.诚然,Scruton先生在书中轻易地断言上帝的存在是有问题的,而且他的文字厚重而时常难于阅读。但是它至少是严肃且深思熟虑的。相比之下,de Botton先生则看起来每翻一页都变愚钝了一点。他认为宗教可以把人联结起来以抵御寂寞和孤独,然后总结道,弥撒(这个仪式)应该用来作为他的混合版本的“友爱餐厅”的范例,在这样的弥撒中,不仅有其自身的礼仪,还包括一年一度的纵欲狂欢(书里面甚至还有一幅软色情图片来向读者说明它将会是怎样)。Scruton先生一直担心人们对美和淫秽之间的区别漠不关心,他认为,就是因为人们弄混了agape和eros(古希腊表示深沉之爱和欲望之爱的两个词)才导致他们互相疏离物化,然后在无休止地变得无情无义中贬低着爱情。Of the two, Mr de Botton will probably sell more books. But it is Mr Scruton who gives ers much more to think about.两者之中,de Botton先生应该会卖出更多的书。但Scruton先生将会带给读者更多的思考。 /201302/225889

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