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浙江省中医院线路婺城区切双眼皮多少钱武义县中医院打玻尿酸多少钱 We humans pride ourselves on having large, supple brains. Butwhile our brains are larger than those of most other animals, itappears that over time our presence can result in smaller-brained animals having cerebral growthspurts.我们人类为拥有大的,灵活的大脑而自豪。然而,尽管我们的大脑比大多数动物大,但是,经过一段时间,我们的存在似乎会让大脑较小动物的大脑突然生长。Scientists have found that certain small mammals-including some species of shrew, vole, bat,gopher, mouse and squirrel-have larger brains when they live near or around people in bothurban and rural areas.科学家们发现某些小型哺乳动物─包括某些种类的鼩鼱、田鼠、蝙蝠、囊鼠、老鼠、松鼠─不论是生活在城市还是农村,当它们比邻人类而居时,大脑会变大。For example, one study found that the brains of urban-dwelling white-footed mice and meadowvoles are about six percent larger than their rural cousins.例如,一项研究发现居住在城市的白足鼠和草甸田鼠,他们的大脑比它们的乡下亲属大出6%。Meanwhile, as habitats have become developed, rural dwelling shrews and bats have also evolvedlarger brains over the past century.同时,随着栖息地的扩展,在过去的一个世纪里,居住在农村的鼩鼱和蝙蝠的大脑也变大了。Scientists speculate that the larger brains of some city living animals are due to those crittershaving to adapt to and survive in places populated by lots of people.科学家们猜测, 一些生活在城市的动物大脑变大,是因为他们不得不在人气旺的地方适应并生存下来。After all, it stands to reasonthat raising baby mice and voles in busy urban and suburban places requires as much brain poweras possible.毕竟,可以理解老鼠和田鼠要在繁华的城市和郊区生儿育女是挺费脑子的。As for the rural animals whose brains have grown, it could be that human development in ruralareas has forced animals such as bats and shrews to forage farther afield, and that patrolling largerhunting grounds requires more brain power.至于生活在农村的动物大脑变大,这可能是因为人类在农村的发展已经迫使像蝙蝠和鼩鼱这样的动物到更远的野外觅食。在更大的狩猎区巡查,更费脑力。An important underlying point of this research is that even an organ as complex as the brain iscapable of significant evolution over relatively short periods of time.这项研究的潜在关键是,即使像大脑这样复杂的器官,也能在相对短的时间里发生重大进化。 201402/277475Science in Argentina阿根廷的科学发展Cristina the alchemist炼金术士克里斯蒂娜Argentina is trying to build a scientific establishment阿根廷正努力打造一个科学机构SOUTH AFRICA is not the only middle-income country which aspires to join the worlds scientific powers.南非并不是唯一渴望加入世界科学强国的中等收入国家。Argentina would like to as well.怀有同样渴望的还有阿根廷。The place is proud of its three Nobel science prizes—the largest haul of any Latin American nation—even if the most recent was awarded in 1984.曾经三次荣获诺贝尔科学奖,但即使最后一次获奖发生在1984年,阿根廷仍然以此为傲,因为这是任何拉丁美洲国家都无法比拟的成就。But many researchers fled in the 1990s, when budgets were slashed. Now the government is trying to attract them back, and to encourage younger talent to consider a scientific career.但在20世纪90年代,预算大幅削减,许多研究人员抽身而去。如今,政府正在努力将其吸引回国,并鼓励青年人才以科学为职业。When Néstor Kirchner, the predecessor and late husband of the current president, Cristina Fernandez, took office in 2003, Argentina was spending just 0.41% of its GDP on research and development.前总统内斯托尔·基什内尔于2003年上台,当时阿根廷在研究和开发上的投入仅占其GDP的0.41%。Now, that figure is 0.64%.如今的投入占到0.64%。Kirchner raised researchers salaries, launched a scheme to repatriate departed scientists and gave tax breaks to software companies.基什内尔总统提高了研究人员的工资,推出召回离国科学家的方案,允许软件开发公司享受税收上的优惠。Ms Fernandez followed suit by creating a science ministry and putting a biologist, Lino Barao, in charge of it.费尔南德斯夫人也相继建立起科技部,并任命生物学家巴拉尼奥为部长。She also increased grants to firms that try to develop new products.她还提高了给新产品研发公司的拨款。Many of the Kirchners critics were sceptical, seeing the ministry either as a political marketing ploy or as a soft touch for lobbyists seeking unjustified subsidies.许多针对基什内尔的批评家们持一种怀疑态度,他们认为科技部既是一种政治营销策略,又会被那些寻求不正当补贴的说客轻易利用。But the strategy seems to be working.然而整个策略却似乎正在发挥作用。With help from the Inter-American Development Bank the government has, since 2004, lured back 854 expatriate scientists.2004年,在美洲开发的帮助下,阿根廷政府总共将854名移居国外的科学家吸引回国,It has done so by providing new laboratories and equipment for them, moving their families, and forking out extra money for their salaries.为他们提供新的实验室和仪器,安置其家人,分拨额外资金作为他们的酬劳。As a consequence, according to Dr Baraao,根据尼奥教授所说,Argentine researchers have published 179 articles in leading journals in the past decade, compared with just 30 in the 1990s.之后阿根廷的研究员们在过去的十年里发表在前沿期刊的文章就有179篇,而90年代却只有30篇。Most of the returners are academics. But commercial science has benefited, too.大多数归国人员都是学术派,但商业科学却也从中受益。Indear, a joint public-private biotechnology-research centre based in Santa Fe, recently worked out how to transfer a gene for drought resistance from sunflowers to crops such as maize, soyabeans and wheat.总部位于圣达菲的一家公私合营生物技术研究中心Indear,近日研发出如何将向日葵中的抗旱基因转移到玉米大豆及小麦等农作物上,此举可将旱地产量提升至40%。That can increase yields in droughts by up to 40%. And the government has also doled out 54m in grants for the development of products that include coagulant factors to treat haemophilia,同时,政府还发放5400万美元开发包括发凝血因子在内的产品,transgenic cattle which secrete valuable hormones in their milk, and better ways of probing for oil deposits.以治疗血友病,研究分泌珍贵激素的转基因奶牛,以及提高石油储备的勘探技术。Help for high-tech innovation comes in other forms, too.对高科技创新的扶持还不止这些。The state offers, for example, to pay the cost of patenting inventions in foreign jurisdictions and of hiring lawyers to defend those patents.例如,政府会为在海外司法审批的发明付专利申请费用,并出钱雇佣律师为之辩护。It also acts as a headhunter for information-technology firms seeking employees with PhDs, and will pay part of the salaries of such recruits.同时还为信息技术公司充当猎头,搜寻有士学历的员工,并付其部分薪金。None of these programmes has faced allegations of corruption.所有的项目都没有发生有关贪污的起诉。Whether all this activity will have the effect of stimulating high-tech industry, as Ms Fernandez hopes, remains to be seen.然而,整个方案是否会像费尔南德夫人希望的那样推动高科技工业的发展,还得拭目以待。Argentine scientists are happy to take taxpayers money but according to Luis Dambra, a professor at the IAE business school in Buenos Aires, they look down their noses at the idea of actually getting their hands dirty by going into industry.花着纳税人的钱让阿根廷的科学家们十分高兴,不过布宜诺斯爱丽丝IAE商学院的路易斯·丹布尔教授认为,进入工业领域就是自降身段的说法让科学家们嗤之以鼻。Mr Dambra, though, says industry is equally to blame.尽管如此,丹布尔先生表示工业同样应该被斥责。In , only 21% of Argentine Ramp;D was paid for by the private sector, compared with 44% of Brazils.年,阿根廷研发领域仅有21%的费用是由私营部门付,相比巴西就达到了44%。Firms that might recruit academic scientists often do not see the point.那些有可能聘请学术科学家的公司却总是忽略了这一点。Even those that do may struggle to accommodate people with a non-commercial background into the business world.即便那些看到这一点的公司也可能争抢着将非商科背景的研究员安置在商业领域。Attitudes can change, of course.当然,态度看法总是发生变化的。In the 1980s many British academics were as snobbish about commerce as Argentinas are now.19世纪80年代,许多英国学者看待商业的态度和今天的阿根廷人一样不屑一顾。These days, Britains top universities are gung-ho for spin-outs and the revenue they can provide. But it takes time and consistent policy to make such changes and Argentina is notorious for sudden alterations in the political weather.而现在英国的顶尖大学都在为其所能提供的额外产物和收益而狂热。但是这些转变都需要长久的时间和一贯的政策才能得以确保,而阿根廷却因为在政界中风云突变而名声狼藉。That makes the country a perilous place to invest, whatever the current climate.无论现阶段状况如何,整个国家都成了投资者的危险之地。 /201306/242535金华丽都医院做整形的费用

金华美白针团购Is heading in soccer dangerous?头球危险吗?Its a question that has met its fair share of controversy.这个问题引发了不少争议。If youve never played soccer, heading may look pretty dangerous to the poor brain.如果你从未踢过足球,头球看起来对可怜的大脑的确杀伤力很大。Where else in life do you not wantto duck away from an object flying straight at your head?如果,生活中的其它时候你看到飞来横物,你难道没有躲闪以求护头?However, soccer players know thatthere is a proper way to head the ball.然而,足球运动员是知道头球路数的。Yes, there is a technique to meeting a flying ball with your head.当然,头球是需要技巧的。Dr. Frank Webbe, is a formersoccer referee and coach who is also a psychologist specializing in sports psychology.足球裁判兼教练Frank Webbe在足球心理学上也有研究。He says there is good reason to believe that with proper technique, a players risk for brain injury is low.他说有理由相信有技巧的头球可以降低大脑受伤的几率。The problem is that in a fast-paced game of soccer, obstacles sometimes prevent a player fromheading with good technique.可问题在于在踢球这个快节奏的运动中,球员头球的技巧可能会受限制。And thats when problems are likely to arise.这也是问题的关键。Webbe and collaborators tested soccer players in neurocognitive performance such as attention,concentration, and speed of thinking.Webbe和同事测试了足球运动员的神经认知,比如注意力、集中力、思维反应。They compared long-time soccer players to novices, as well as moderate-to-frequent headers toless than moderate headers.他们比较了新老足球运动员,较常头球的球员和较少头球的球员,In addition, they tested people who had played soccer recently as wellas people who hadnt played in some time.最近常常踢球的人和在一段时间内没有踢球的人。The results suggested that more frequent headers are at more risk for brain injury than lessfrequent headers.结果显示常常头球的人比较少头球的人损伤大脑的风险更高。As a group, frequent headers performed lower on cognition tests in the weekafter a game of frequent heading than did other subjects.前者总的来说,在长期头球后的一周内做的认知测试中普遍比后者表现得更差。Also, players with the highest lifetime estimates of heading scored lowest overall on thesecognition tests.此外,球员估计在此生中头球最多的在认知测试中表现最差。The results convince Webbe that heading does indeed pose a threat to brainfunction and that more research needs to be done.测试结果足以说Webbe头球确实有损大脑功能,需要更多研究加以验。 201407/313219浦江县注射丰下巴费用 金华公立三甲医院的评价

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