赣南第一附属医院地址ask知识

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年06月19日 16:59:38
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猴子也减肥?在日本的一家动物园,约50只猴子被要求按照严格的减肥食谱喂食,因为它们胖得几乎走不动路了。Losing weight has become monkey business at a Japanese zoo, which has put about 50 primates on a strict diet after some became so obese they couldn't move around.The fat Rhesus(恒河猴) monkeys are a popular attraction at the park, and gained fame in Japan after media dubbed them "metabo monkeys", a play on the Japanese slang for metabolic syndrome(代谢综合症) -- a form of human obesity."We don't really know the exact reason why the monkeys grew fat, but we reckon its because the monkeys are not only fed once a day by us, but also because this park is open 24 hours a day to visitors, who throw food into the enclosure," said Ohama park superintendent(监督人) Syoji Hasegawa.The keepers at Ohama park in Western Japan have halved the animals' calorie intake, replacing favorite foods such as sweet potatoes with wheat-based snacks.The zookeepers imposed the diet late last year after finding that some of the monkeys weighed almost 30 kg (66 pounds) -- at least three times heavier than average.Park officials have not weighed the animals recently but the diet appears to have worked as some monkeys now have saggy skin -- evidence of weight loss.Although signs clearly tell visitors not to feed the monkeys, park officials say many people still throw them food.That has prompted the park to consider building a new enclosure for the animals to cut them off from visitor titbits(量少味美的食品). /200807/43695

  

  One day, the father lets eight year-old son send a letter, the son took the letter , the father then remembered didn’t write the address and addressee‘s name on the envelope.有一天,父亲让八岁的儿子去寄一封信,儿子已经拿着信跑了,父亲才想起信封上没写地址和收信人的名字。After the son comes back, the father asks him: “You have thrown the letter in the mail box?”儿子回来后,父亲问他:“你把信丢进邮筒了吗?”“Certainly”http://mag.e-say.com.cn/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/笑话2.jpg“当然”“You have not seen on the envelope not to write the address and the addressee name?”“你没看见信封上没有写地址和收信人名字吗?”“I certainly saw nothing written on the envelope.”“我当然看见信封上什么也没写”“Then why you didn’t take it back?”“那你为什么不拿回来呢?”“I also thought that you do not write the address and the addressee, is for does not want to let me know that you do send the letter to who!”“我还以为你不写地址和收信人,是为了不想让我知道你把信寄给谁呢!” /201311/262931。

  

  有了老公 每周多做七小时家务?!Men create more housework for women Having a husband creates an extra seven hours of housework each week for women, according to a new study. For men, tying the knot saves an hour of weekly chores."It's a well-known pattern," said lead researcher Frank Stafford, an economist at University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research. "Men tend to work more outside the home, while women take on more of the household labor."He points out individual differences among households exist. But in general, marriage means more housework for women and less for men. "And the situation gets worse for women when they have children," Stafford said.Overall, times are changing in the American home. In 1976, women busied themselves with 26 weekly hours of sweeping-and-dusting work, compared with 17 hours in 2005. Men are pitching in more, more than doubling their housework hours from six in 1976 to 13 in 2005.Stafford analyzed time-diaries and questionnaires from a nationally representative sample of men and women over a 10-year period from 1996 to 2005. The federally-funded study showed that, both the men and the women who got married did more housework than those who stayed single."Marriage is no longer a man's path to less housework," he said.Single women in their 20s and 30s did the least housework, about 12 weekly hours, while married women in their 60s and 70s did the most - about 21 hours a week.Men showed a somewhat different pattern, with older men picking up the broom more often than younger men. Single guys worked the hardest around the house, trumping all age groups of married men.Having kids boosts house chores even further. With more than three kids, for instance, wives took on more of the extra work, clocking about 28 hours a week compared with husbands' 10 hours. 一项最新研究发现,女人有了老公后每周得多做七个小时的家务活,而对于男人而言,结婚则意味着每周少做一小时的家务。密歇根大学社会研究所的经济学家、首席研究员弗兰克#8226;斯坦弗德说:“‘男主外,女主内。’这是一个众所周知的家庭分工模式。”斯坦福德指出,尽管各个家庭间会存在个体差别,但总的来说,女性婚后承担的家务活增多,而对于男性而言则是减少。“有了孩子后,女性的家务活负担会进一步加重。”不过随着时代的发展,美国家庭的家务活分工情况总的来说还是有所变化。1976年,女性每周花在家务活上的时间为26个小时,而2005年为17个小时;如今男性做家务的时间比过去增加了一倍多,从1976年的每周六个小时增加到了2005年的每周13个小时。斯坦福德对一组具有全国代表性的男性和女性十年的时间使用日记和调查问卷进行了分析,这些数据资料的时间跨度为1996年至2005年。该项由联邦政府提供资金持的研究发现,与单身人士相比,已婚男女做的家务活更多。斯坦福德说:“由此看来,对于男性而言,结婚不再意味着少做家务。”研究发现,二三十岁的单身女性做的家务活最少,每周做家务的时间约为12个小时,六七十岁的已婚女性做的家务活最多,每周约为21个小时。而男性的模式则有所不同,年龄较大的男性比年轻男性做的家务活多。单身男性最勤快,他们做家务的时间超过了各个年龄段的已婚男性。而有了孩子后,家务活负担会进一步加重。妻子承担了更多增加的家务,如果孩子数量超过三个,她们每周做家务的时间会增加到28个小时,而丈夫仅为10个小时。 /200804/340951. Immature woman will spend their parents#39; money;Mature woman will spend their own money or the man#39;s money。1.不成熟的女人会花父母的钱;成熟的女人会自己挣钱或花男人的钱。2. Immature woman chooses the dignity of life in frony of life, dignity and the burden;Mature woman would choose the burden。2.不成熟的女人在面对生命的尊严与生活的重担时,选择生命的尊严;成熟的女人会选择生活的重担。3. Immature woman chooses friendship from love when the conflict happens;Mature woman would choose marriage。3.不成熟的女人在友情和爱情发生冲突的时候会选择友情;成熟的女人会选择婚姻。4. Mature woman likes to talk self-centered;Mature woman talk all the time taking others#39; feelings into consideration。4.不成熟的女人说话总喜欢以自我为中心;成熟的女人说话的时候会顾全对方的感受。5. Immature woman will always check a man#39;s cellphone text messages only to gey herself angry。Mature woman would forbear their own curiosity to preserve the family#39;s integrity and spiritual calmness。5.不成熟的女人会时常看男人的手机短信,给自己惹火上身。成熟的女人会隐忍自己的好奇心保全家庭的完整和精神层面的平静。6. Immature woman only wants to gain from marriage;Mature woman learns to respect and understanding in marriage。6.不成熟的女人在婚姻里只懂得索取。成熟的女人在婚姻懂得尊重与理解。7. Immature woman abuses the husband#39;s mistress when he has an extramarital affair;Mature woman refelects on herself the moment she discovers her husband has an extramarital affair。7.不成熟的女人在怀疑丈夫有婚外恋的时候谩骂小三。成熟的女人在发现丈夫有婚外恋的首先自我反省。8. Immature woman tends toquarrel with her husband when he is impetuous。Mature woman will try everything she could to release his pressure。8.不成熟的女人面对丈夫浮躁的时候喜欢打破沙锅问到底。成熟的女人却会为丈夫端来一碰温度适宜的洗脚水帮丈夫减压。9. Immature woman enjoy a long-term Cold War with her husband。Mature women will show a maternal tenderness to her husband。9.不成熟的女人喜欢和丈夫长期冷战。成熟的女人会展现母性的温柔给丈夫一份舒心。10. Immature woman will resolutely defend her husband。Mature women will give a man some space and he can be a degree of relaxation。10.不成熟的女人会对丈夫严防死守。成熟的女人会对给男人一些空间又能做到张弛有度。 /201310/262661

  Singles Day in China is the celebration -- or mourning -- of being unattached. Started by students in Nanjing in the mid-1990s, the date was selected in observation of its four solitary digits: 11/11.中国“光棍节”,一个庆祝(或哀嚎)没人相伴的节日。光棍节起源于90年代中期,由南京的几位大学生创立,节日定在每年的11月11日,因为这四个光秃秃的数字,看上去像极了“光棍”。While relatively obscure in most other countries, Singles Day is likely to increase in prominence as more single men in China are unable to find female partners. According to a recent study by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, more than 24 million Chinese men could find themselves without spouses by 2020.虽然光棍节在其他国家的文化中看来有些难以理解,但在中国,光棍节的影响力越来越大,在中国有越来越多的单身男性找不到女朋友。据中国社会科学院最近的一项调查显示,到2020年全中国将有2400万男性找不到配偶。Celebrating Singles Day comes in many forms across the Asian nation, and like Christmas and Valentine#39;s Day, it has become a multi-million dollar industry.中国各地均有不同形式来庆祝光棍节的仪式。就和圣诞节、情人节一样,光棍节已经成了一门能创造几百万收益的产业。The Fig Tree, a luxury pastry school in downtown Beijing, is offering a chocolate truffle-making course to foster ;fun, flirting, measuring and mixing,; among singles on Thursday.北京市中心一家叫菲格树的高级烘焙学校,从这周四起开始招收学习松露巧克力的学生。“乐趣及情致一体、衡量及混搭并进”是他们的宣传主题。他们招的都是单身学徒。;Baking brings people together,; said Lin Zhong, school owner and pastry chef. ;[We] invite the city#39;s singles ... for an education in flirting and chocolate making.;“烘焙将人们的距离拉得更近”,校长及主厨Lin Zhong说道,“我们旨在邀请全城的单身人士……教会他们如何边制作巧克力边调情。”For those with more adventurous tastes, Beijing#39;s flagship amusement park Happy Valley is hosting a day of activities for singles, featuring games that include a singing contest entitled ;Bachelor#39;s Love Song.; Another activity in store: a dedicated area in which singles can ;confess their true feelings.;对于那些更喜欢冒险的人来说,北京具有代表性的游乐园欢乐谷就将以一系列的游乐项目庆祝光棍节,其中包括一个名为“单身情歌”的歌唱比赛,另一个针对光棍们推出的活动叫做“说出你的爱”。All of this mingling comes at a price. For every male who buys a full price ticket for , he may bring one female along at no cost.以上这些游乐项目当然不会是免费的。每一位买价值25美元全价票的男士可以免费带一位女士入场。Shenzhen#39;s theme park, Splendid China, which boasts miniature replicas of many of the country#39;s most famous landmarks, will host a vegetable hunting contest, much like an Easter egg hunt, to encourage singles to meet. The vegetables, mostly cucumbers and tomatoes, will be hidden throughout the park in a scaled-down Great Wall and bite-size Forbidden City.深圳的一家名为“锦绣中华”的主题公园拥有许多世界知名地标建筑的复制品。他们将在光棍节举行“蔬菜猎人”比赛,就跟复活节寻蛋的游戏差不多,旨在让单身人士们相遇。蔬菜主要由黄瓜、番茄组成,它们将被藏在公园的各个角落,以缩小版本的长城和紫禁城为主。In Shanghai, the city#39;s main ;marriage market; nestled in People#39;s Park is teeming with more traffic than usual. Concerned parents of unmarried children posted personal ads and photos, boasting their education, salary levels and height and weight proportions. The advertisements line the perimeter of the park, and many anxious parents sit along the curb, hoping to meet another set of parents to make a good match.在上海,人民公园中赫赫有名的“相亲市场”一定比平时还要爆满。那些为单身孩子忧心忡忡的父母们展示着子女的个人信息、照片,夸耀他们的学历、薪水、身高、体重等各种信息。相亲广告贴满了人民公园的墙,而心急如焚的父母们则在旁等候着合适的人选前来与自己儿女配对。To the west in the city of Xian, singles can reenact a famous Tang Dynasty love story or learn about the principles of love at Qujiang Cave Ruins Park, which claims to be the ;first love-themed park in China.;往西走,在古都西安,单身人士们能参与扮演一个有名的唐代爱情故事,或在曲江寒窑遗址公园学习爱情守则,据说这是中国第一个爱情主题公园。However, in a society dominated by children who grow up without siblings (due to China#39;s one-child policy), finding love on Singles Day is unlikely to be as easy as a walk in the park.然而在一个以独生子女为主的社会里(缘于中国的计划生育政策),在光棍节成功“脱光”可远远没有听上去这么简单。;For a lot of young men, they feel that what can make them more attractive to their potential dates is their good education, a good job and a lot of money ... [and] a car and apartment handy so they can attract more women,; said Dr. Chang Wei, a psychologist at Beijing ed Family Hospital. ;That leads to a lot of young men working 10-12 hours a day with no time to socialize. Parents feel they have to step in and help them find dates, and sometimes the men are okay with that.;“很多年轻男人认为,自己的教育背景、工作和钱财将决定自己在异性面前的吸引力……如果还有车有房的话,那就在女人眼里更加抢手了,”北京和睦家医院的心理医生常伟说道。“这导致很多年轻男性每天工作10-12小时,连社交的时间都没有。他们的父母感到自己需要出手帮助自己孩子寻找对象,而孩子们也往往同意这样做。”Not everyone desires to be matched up, though. In a survey of white-collar workers on popular Chinese jobs site Zhaopin.com, about 70 percent of married or committed individuals said they missed being single.然而并不是所有年轻人都愿意被凑成对。中国知名的智联招聘网站曾进行过一项针对白领的调查显示,70%已婚或已订婚的受访者都表示:他们怀念单身时光。Once frowned upon in China, divorce is now common, too. In 2009, more than 2.46 million couples divorced in the country, almost twice the number in 2001.离婚在过去的中国是不大能被接受的,然而现在已变得十分普遍。2009年,中国有246万对夫妇离婚,这个数字几乎是2001年的两倍。But like many singles in China, Alexandra Shi, an undergraduate student at Beijing Foreign Studies University, is looking for love. This year, she#39;ll mark the day with her fellow single friends, and they will likely take one chopstick and make a wish to not be ;a #39;single stick#39; anymore.;Alexandra Shi 是一位来自北京外国语大学的本科学生,她和许多单身人士一样,正渴望找到真爱。今年她将和其他几位同样单身的好友一同庆祝光棍节,并且她们会拿起一根筷子,许下“尽快摆脱单身” 的愿望。;Being single is not cool...for me, being in a relationship would do me good I guess,; Shi said. ;But being single for now doesn#39;t make my life miserable. Definitely don#39;t want to celebrate next year#39;s Singles Day though!;“单身并不酷……对我来说,也许谈恋爱对我更有好处吧。” Shi 说道。“虽然单身的时光也不能算痛苦,但明年这个时候,我绝对不要再过光棍节了!” /201311/263954We've heard the classic expression, "which came first, the chicken or the egg?" Chickens hatch from the eggs, but eggs are laid by the chickens, arousing endless debate over each side of the arguments.I've come up with an equally controversial expression to perturb your mind, "which comes first, the success or the happiness?" Before you jump the ropes, I wanted to warn you that arguments could be made to prove which gives rise to the other. Success comes from within, knowing the true worth of our human potential.I have several profound reasons to prove that happiness leads to the success.Positivity is the mother of success: We all know that positivity leads to attitude and unwavering faith to achieve success. In the history of the human race, no negative person has ever climbed the peaks of success; happiness is a virtue of positivity. Without happiness, positivity dies a horrible death.It's all in my head: Success begins with self-affirmation. It's that staunch belief that when I love what I do, success has to come. When the mood is positive, we give rise to our self-esteem leading to relentless pursuit of success.I succeed when others succeed: It is a known fact that success comes to those who invest in other people's success. Being happy is a prerequisite to have a pro-social attitude leading to generosity with time and money.I'm happy, so I am healthy: Happiness tends to instill positivity towards life goals including a healthy mind and healthy relationships. With the virtue of healthy mind, body and soul, I now am focused to achieve success.Be confident: I've noticed that staying under sun energizes my mood and willingness to pursue my goals. Similarly, with happiness, I get an abundance of confidence in my skills and in my resilience towards temporary failures to achieve success.Constancy of purpose: Success comes to those who have a definite purpose. Their relentless efforts towards definite purpose come from happiness within to affirm that victory is the only acceptable outcome.Success holds no limits: Happiness leads to creative vision that seeks achievement without limits. My success is limited only to the limits I impose on my thoughts. With happiness, I take my self-esteem to unseen heights to achieve success beyond my wildest expectations.In the moment: Enjoying every moment with focus of mind, body and soul leads to happiness that shows in the activity that we engage in. I tend to be at my best when my mind is neither engaged in the past failures nor in the future fantasies. I am giving all I have to the task at hand with unbound happiness. I am destined to arrive at success.Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony.- Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948) Preeminent leader of Indian nationalism.Our profound view towards success and happiness shapes our destiny. You may focus solely on success and sacrifice happiness with the belief that happiness will follow success. That may prove to be wrong; sharing laughter with family, helping others, being personable and establishing social relations are all forms of happiness, essential to the health of you success.You may have arguments from the other side of the fence. If so, I'd love to hear why you think success gives rise to happiness? 我们都听过那个经典的命题,“先有鸡还是先有蛋?”鸡是蛋孵出来的,但是蛋又是鸡生下来的,就这两个论点引发了无休无止的争论。我提出了一个同样会让你困扰的具有争议性的命题,“现有成功还是先有幸福?”在你?之前,我想告诉你这个论点是用来明谁产生了谁。成功来源于内在,成功让我们得知人类潜能的真实价值。我有几个很有说力的理由来明是幸福带来了成功。乐观是成功的母亲:我们都知道乐观带来实现成功的态度和坚定不移的信念。在人类历史上,没有一个悲观的人曾攀登上成功的高峰。幸福是乐观的原动力。没有幸福,乐观的态度就会胎死腹中。一切都取决于我自己的想法:成功来源于自我肯定。我有着一个坚定的信念,那就是当我热爱我所做的工作时,成功自然而然就来了。当心情很乐观开朗时,会产生自尊,自尊会引发对成功无休止的追求。当其他人成功时我也成功:那些投资他人的成功的人自己也会成功,这是一个人所共知的事实。幸福是保持一种对社会的正面心态的前提,这种心态会使得人们对时间和金钱的慷慨。我幸福,所以我健康:幸福会给生活注入乐观,包括健康的头脑和人际关系。有了健康的头脑、身体和灵魂,我现在可以更专注于追求成功了。保持自信:我注意到在阳光底下使我更有心情和意愿来追求我的目标。同样地,拥有幸福,我从我的技能和对暂时失败的恢复力中得到了许多自信来实现成功。恒久的目标:成功只给那些有些明确目标的人。他们对既定目标所付出的持久努力来源于内在的幸福感,确信胜利是唯一可能的结果。成功无界限:幸福感带来充满创造力的视野追求无止尽的成就感。我的成功只会被我自身的想法所局限。拥有幸福,我便拥有自信去达到从未企及过的超越我想象的高度。活在当下:全身心享受每时每刻带来幸福感,这在我们所参与的活动中将有所体现。当我的思绪既不沉溺在过去的失败中、也不沉浸在对将来的幻想中时,我的状态最佳。我满心愉悦地尽全力做好手边的工作。我注定要成功。幸福就是当你所思、所言、所做都处于和谐的状态。—甘地(1869-1948),印度民族独立运动的伟大领袖。我们对成功和幸福的深刻见解将会决定我们的命运。你可能会只专注于成功,牺牲了幸福,你认为幸福会随着成功而来。那被明是错误的;和家人分享欢笑、帮助别人、举止优雅、建立良好的社交关系都会带来幸福,对你的成功至关重要。你可能会有不一样的见解。如果是这样的话,我很想听听为什么你认为幸福来源于成功? /200805/39979

  The master, to impress on his pupils the need of thinking before speaking, told them to count fifty before saying anything important, and one hundred if it was very important. The next day he was speaking, standing with his back to the fire, when he noticed several lips moving rapidly. Suddenly the whole class shouted: Ninety-eight, ninety-nine, a hundred. Your coat is on fire, sir!老师为了让学生记住先思考后发言,告诉他们在说出重要事情之前先数到50,如果是特别重要的事情,要先数到100。 第二天,当老师背靠着火炉讲课时,发现好几个学生的嘴唇在很快地不停地动。突然,全班学生一起喊道:“九十八,九十九,一百。老师,您的大衣着火了!” /201303/232703

  

  

  In 1899, Lu Xun became one of many young, ambitious Chinese men who turned their backs on traditions that seemed to have led China into political disaster. He won a scholarship to study medicine in Japan岸a country that Chinese radicals reluctantly admired for transforming itself into a modern, imperialist power. #39;A glorious future unfurled in my mind,#39; he remembered, #39;in which I would return to my homeland after graduation and set about medicating its suffering sick . . . all the while converting my fellow countrymen to the religion of political reform.#39; Then, in 1906, at the end of a lecture, one of his Japanese teachers showed the class a slide depicting a scene from the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05, partly fought on Chinese territory. It revealed a mob of Chinese watching dully, while one of their compatriots was beheaded by the Japanese as a Russian spy. Lu Xun later wrote:1899年,鲁迅成为众多胸怀大志中国青年中的一员,他们抛弃了会将中国引入政治灾难的旧习。鲁迅获得了赴日本学医的奖学金,当时中国的激进分子都不情愿地钦佩这个将自己改造为一个现代化帝国的国家。他回忆道:“我在脑中勾画了一个美好的未来,预备在毕业后回到祖国,救治病人的疾苦...同时又促进国人对于维新的信仰。”后来,在1906年的某一天,一名日本教员在课堂快结束时给全班放映了一组幻灯片,其中一张描绘了1904至1905年间日俄战争(战争的一部分在中国领土上展开)某场景的幻灯片。它显示了一群中国人正神情麻木地围观一位被日军视作俄国间谍的同胞被砍头的景象。后来鲁迅写道:Though they were all of them perfectly sturdy physical specimens, every face was utterly, stupidly blank. . . . I no longer believed in the overwhelming importance of medical science. However rude a nation was in physical health, if its people were intellectually feeble, they would never become anything other than cannon fodder or gawping spectators. . . . The first task was to change their spirit; and I decided that literature and the arts were the best means to this end.“他们一样是强壮的体格,而显出麻木的神情...我便觉得医学并非一件紧要事。凡是愚弱的国民,即使体格如何健全,如何茁壮,也只能做毫无意义的示众的材料和看客...所以我们的第一要务,是在改变他们的精神,而善于改变精神的是,我那时以为当然要推文艺。”Shortly after this Damascene conversion, Lu Xun abandoned his medical degree and began a career as China#39;s self-appointed literary and spiritual physician岸although he did not find his voice and audience until he became one of the luminaries of the New Culture Movement more than a decade later.在这次彻底转变后不久,鲁迅放弃学医,转而开始写作生涯,以期医治中国的精神顽疾。然而,直到十余年之后,在成为新文化运动的领导者之一时,他才得以让人们听到他的声音、被读者所认识。At its first publication, Lu Xun#39;s fiction was rebellious in both language and message. Until the 1910s, aspiring literati typically devoted themselves to poetry, in an opaque classical Chinese steeped in allusions, while vernacular fiction was held in disdain. Lu Xun took a different view. To him, imperial China#39;s antiquarianism was a means of silencing the uneducated majority. Composed in a Westernized idiom, his short stories demonstrated that fiction could serve sophisticated, serious purposes.在初版之时,鲁迅的小说在语言和内容上均是反传统的。在1910年代以前,满怀抱负的文人满篇引经据典、专注于以晦涩古文作诗,白话小说则被人嗤之以鼻。鲁迅的看法则不同,在他看来,中国旧王朝的尚古主义是一种压制未受教育的大多数百姓的手段。他的短篇小说以西化语言写成,表明小说也可以务于深刻严肃的目的。Ms. Davies picks up Lu Xun#39;s story in detail in the second half of the 1920s, when the right-wing Nationalist Party began a purge against actual and suspected communists. Many of China#39;s radical intellectuals turned leftward in response, simplistically acclaiming literature to be #39;a tool of revolutionary violence.#39; Lu Xun was less certain. He scorned the egotism of born-again literary Marxists, whom he accused of posturing in revolutionary cafes: #39;In front of each is a cup of steaming hot proletarian coffee while in the remote distance there#39;s #39;the great unwashed岸the peasants and workers.#39; #39; Yet Lu Xun was also tough on writers who protested that literature should be apolitical, denouncing them for espousing a vapid humanism.黄乐嫣详细描述了鲁迅在20年代后半段的经历,当时右翼的国民党对共产党员和疑似共产党员展开清洗。许多中国激进知识分子因而转向左翼,简单化地声称文学就是“革命暴力的工具”,对此鲁迅则不是那么确定。他对那些重生的马克思主义革命文学家的自大大加嘲讽,指责他们钻进革命咖啡店装模作样:“...(每个人)面前是一大杯热气蒸腾的无产阶级咖啡,远处是许许多多龌龊的农工大众”。另一方面,鲁迅对那些抗议说文学应当脱离政治的作家也毫不留情,抨击他们是持乏味枯燥的人文主义。Eventually, in 1930, Lu Xun sided with the communist cultural establishment by becoming titular head of the newly formed League of Left-wing Writers. But we can detect his doubts about a socialist aesthetic in his vituperative, elitist essays, which fueled sectarian feuds among leftist literati during the early 1930s. Shanghai#39;s revolutionary writers, he concluded, were #39;a thoroughly useless lot.#39; (He was even-handedly nasty about literati across the political spectrum: Those with right-wing connections were #39;pampered pugs#39;; feral leftists were #39;mangy dogs.#39;)最终,鲁迅在1930年成为新成立的左翼作家联盟名义上的旗帜人物,站在了共产党文化组织的一边。不过,我们还是能在他那些精英做派的骂文中察觉到他对社会主义审美趣味的质疑,这些文章也在30年代初期激化了左翼文学界的派别纷争。他说上海的革命作家是一帮一无是处的废物。(他对整个政界的文人全部一视同仁,比如他骂与右翼有关联的文人是“叭儿”,某些凶狠的左翼文人则是“赖皮”。)Through his last years, Lu Xun continued to shelter in Shanghai#39;s urbane, privileged foreign enclaves: enjoying family life, browsing favorite bookshops, hosting dinners, going to Tarzan movies. In 1927, he admitted that he would rather sit down with #39;a glass of reconstituted evaporated milk#39; than join a revolution. When Lu Xun died of tuberculosis in Shanghai in 1936, he was mired in quarrels with left-wing functionaries and especially with Zhou Yang, the literary politico who would become Mao#39;s cultural czar after 1949.鲁迅在整个晚年一直住在上海都市化并享有特权的外国租界中:享受天伦之乐,逛逛自己最喜欢的书店,举办晚宴或者是看看《人猿泰山》(Tarzan)的电影。1927年,他承认与参加革命相比,他倒宁愿“静静地坐下,调给一杯罐头牛奶喝”。在1936年因结核病去世前,他正身陷于和一群左翼阵营的官员特别是文人政客周扬的论战中,后者在1949年后成为了毛泽东在文化事务上的帮凶。But as soon as Lu Xun was safely dead of tuberculosis, he was adopted by Mao Zedong as an exemplary Servant of the Proletariat. Lu Xun was a fine trophy: the lampooner-in-chief of early 20th-century China who failed to live long enough to say anything nasty about Mao#39;s brave new world. Because Mao claimed him for communism, a Lu Xun industry has developed on the mainland岸museums, plaster busts, spinoff books, journals, television adaptations, even a musical岸lionizing the writer as a great proletarian revolutionary. Ms. Davies does an admirable job of reclaiming the literary, psychological and political complexities that Mao did his best to erase. Far from just an angry polemicist, Ms. Davies#39;s Lu Xun is also an exceptional prose poet, #39;creating a turbulent aesthetics#39; out of vernacular Chinese.就在鲁迅因结核病平静地去世后不久,他就被毛泽东奉为无产阶级公仆的典型代表。确实,鲁迅是一个上佳的门面人物:这位20世纪初期首屈一指的讽刺作家寿命不长,因此还来不及对毛泽东描绘的美好新世界说出任何令人恼怒的话。由于毛泽东称赞他有共产主义精神,与其相关的产业也在中国大陆兴起,比如他的纪念馆、半身石膏像、衍生作品、杂志和改编的电视剧等,甚至还有将其捧为伟大的无产阶级革命家的音乐剧。黄乐嫣做了一项令人敬佩的工作,那就是她复原了毛泽东竭力想抹去的鲁迅在文学、心理和政治上的复杂性。她笔下的鲁迅绝非只是一个愤慨好辩之人,还是一个卓越的散文诗人,借助中国白话文“营造出一种动荡不安之美”。In later decades, Mao ed from Lu Xun#39;s vendettas to validate his own intellectual purges. It would be unfair to blame Lu Xun for the posthumous distortion of his words. Yet there is an uncomfortable link of some sort between the writer#39;s literary pugilism and Mao#39;s later justification of violence, a connection perhaps underplayed by Ms. Davies. But it is a testament to Lu Xun#39;s importance as a writer and thinker that there are multiple ways of ing his legacy to Chinese letters. In #39;Lu Xun#39;s Revolution,#39; Ms. Davies has created a fascinating account of the final years of the writer#39;s life and the beginning of his literary afterlife.在后来数十年间,毛泽东借鲁迅与他人的恩怨为他自己对知识界的肃清做佐。鲁迅的言语在死后被人歪曲,若将错误归咎于鲁迅,则有失公允。然而,这位作家与他人的文学交锋和毛泽东日后对暴力的辩护存在某种令人不安的关联,这个关系似乎被黄乐嫣淡化处理了。但是,它是对鲁迅作为作家和思想家的重要地位的印。有多种方法去解读他给中国文学留下的遗产。总之,在《鲁迅的革命》一书中,黄乐嫣对这位作家的晚年生活及其文学新生命开端的叙述算得上引人入胜。 /201307/247080

  "We wish you a merry Christmas, we wish you a merry Christmas…"Have you heard that song? Yup! It's Christmas time! This Christmas, I stayed with my "host family"1. It was an amazing experience to see how a typical American family would celebrate the biggest western festival of the year.   Christmas, like our Spring Festival, has a meaning in itself. Christmas Day, which is on December 25, is the birthday of Jesus Christ--the son of God. That's why it is called Christmas. On that day, Christians would get together with their families to celebrate the birthday of Jesus. But nowadays, the religious meaning of Christmas has become less emphasized. To many families, it is just a time of family reunion and the ever-exciting present-giving.  Our school had been on winter vacation since December 11. I stayed at my friend, Stephen Stapczynski's house--his family was my "host family". Although Christmas was still more than ten days ahead, the festive spirit had aly been teeming everywhere. The Christmas tree had aly been set up, and on every windowsill, there were Christmas lights. On the first day I arrived at their house, Stephen and I helped Mrs. Stapczynski put decorations on the Christmas tree. The tree looked so nice with all the lights on and the beautiful ornaments dangling from its branches.  As Christmas came closer, the whole neighborhood had made preparations too. Some people would hold parties at their houses, inviting all their neighbors to come. So every night, if you went out, you would see a long line of cars parked in front of some house--a party's on!  What's more, the Christmas decorations that some people put on their windows and in gardens were just amazing. On one night, we went out in our car for a "tour of lights". There was one street that was so famous for its lights that it got its way into the local paper. We had a hard time finding the well-hidden street, but it turned out to be worth the effort. Lights shone brightly in front of nearly every house, on trees, bushes, doors, windows…everywhere, taking different shapes, making it seem almost like daytime. Huge inflatable figures in the front gardens were waving to us: there were Santa Clauses2, of course, chuckling merrily away; and there were also other Christmas figures, like Rudolph3--the red-nosed reindeer--with his red nose gleaming ever so brightly; even Bart Simpson--a character in the famous comedy The Simpsons--had joined the jolly party, wearing a Santa's hat. The street set off a lot of "ooh"s and "aah"s inside the car.4 When we left, there was a line of cars in the street, all there to see the lights.  Christmas is the time for exchanging presents. Stephen and Niko had been thinking about their Christmas lists (a list of things they wish "Santa"to give them for Christmas) for a long time. I didn't want to ask for anything, but the Stapczynskis were so kind to "force"me make one list as well (Mr. Stapczynski told me if I didn't make one he would chop off my legs). So I wrote down a couple of things that I would like to have, and gave the list to them--sorry, my mistake--to Santa.   Finally, Christmas Eve came. There was a special Christmas service at the church at 6 p.m. It was certainly a very interesting experience for me. The priest started the service ing and sang out extractions from a holy book--The Divine Liturgy. For several times, we would stand up and pray. Sometimes, the church choir would start singing. The atmosphere was very quiet and holy. Then there was a ceremony called "The Receiving Communion". People waited in line to "receive"a spoonful of food from the priest. It was a very special Christmas tradition. The food was made from b and wine. The b represents the body of Jesus, and the wine represents his blood. After this ceremony, the priest had a speech. He reminded us not to forget the true meaning of Christmas, and let Jesus really live inside us--that is, to love the people around us wholeheartedly. I think that no matter if you are a Christian or not, this principle should be part of our lives. After the priest finished his speech, the part that I enjoyed most came: Christmas carols5. Christmas carols are songs that people sing at Christmas, such as "Jingle Bells", "We Wish You a Merry Christmas", "Silent Night"and so on. Some were very merry, others sounded quite holy, but all of them were beautiful. I closed my eyes, and let all the peacefulness and happiness that were in the songs flow through me. What a feeling it was!  We went to sleep earlier that day for we had to get up early on Christmas Day to open our presents. Sure enough, when I was still half-way during a sweet dream, Stephen burst into my room and told me to get up and open presents. There were a huge pile of presents under the Christmas tree, and there was such a mysterious mist shrouding them that made me eager to see what they all were. So one by one, we went through all the presents. Mr. and Mrs. Stapczynski had bought me everything I had written on my Christmas list--and a lot more! I got music CDs, film DVDs, clothes, books… I was very happy, and I didn't know how to express my appreciation for what they had done for me. Stephen and Niko had gotten a lot of presents too, and they had aly been trying out their new games!  In the afternoon, we went to Mrs. Stapczynski's brother, Uncle Stan's house. They had prepared a marvelous meal for us. A lot of their friends and relatives also came. I saw Stephen and Niko's grandparents, Yiayia and Papou (words of grandma and grandpa in Greek--Mrs. Stapczynski's parents came from Greece, so they like the boys using Greek words to call them). They were very kind to me, and treated me just like one of their family members. We had a very luxurious meal, consisting of turkey, beef, pork, and all sorts of other food.   After the meal, when all the stomachs were full and everyone was feeling drowsy6 from all the food, we just sat around the table and chatted, just like what we Chinese people do at the Spring Festival. After all, Christmas, like the Spring Festival, is a time for us to get away from our busy lives, a time for family gathering, and a time to have some fun.  Notes:  1. host family: 寄住家庭或接待家庭。学校安排那些圣诞节仍留在美国的国际学生住在当地的寄住家庭中。  2. Santa Claus: 圣诞老人。  3. Rudolph: 每到圣诞节,圣诞老人乘坐驯鹿雪撬给孩子们送礼物,其中指路的驯鹿的名字叫Rudolph,它的鼻子是红色的,所以称其为"red-nose reindeer"。  4. 街上的景象使车中响起一片惊奇的声音。set off: 激起,引起。   5. carol: (圣诞)颂歌。   6. drowsy: 困倦的。 /200803/29061

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