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赣南附属医院妇科咨询江西省赣州处女膜修复多少钱赣州市蓉江区人民医院可以做人流吗 Ray Tomlinson, the programmer credited with sending the world’s first modern email who is responsible for the use of the @ symbol in electronic communications, has died aged 74. 发出世界上第一封现代电子邮件的程序员雷#8226;汤姆林森(Ray Tomlinson)去世了,享年74岁。他让我们的电子通信中有了@标志。 Tomlinson wrote a program in 1971 that allowed messages to be exchanged between different computers on the ArpaNet, the precursor to the internet. Electronic messages had previously only been exchanged between people using the same mainframe machine. 1971年,汤姆林森写出一个程序,允许Arpanet计算机网上的不同计算机相互交换信息。Arpanet是互联网的前身。在那之前,唯有使用相同主机的人之间才能交换电子信息。 The programmer said the first email sent was a trivial test message, probably containing something along the lines of “QWERTYUIOP”. 这名程序员表示,他发出的第一份电子邮件并非重要的内容,可能包含键盘上“QWERTYUIOP”那一行中的字母。 At the time of his invention, Tomlinson was researching possible uses for the ArpaNet, the US military network that formed the basis of the internet, and was particularly interested in improving ArpaNet’s “mailbox” function, which allowed users to send messages to numbered mailboxes. Up to then this had involved someone printing out the message and physically placing it in the mailbox. 当时,他正在研究军方网络Arpanet的可能用途,尤其对改进该网络的“邮箱”功能感兴趣——该功能允许用户向标记了数字编号的邮箱发送信息。在那时以前,发送信息需要有人把信息内容打印出来,然后再亲自放入邮箱。 To resolve this problem Tomlinson wrote a file transfer program that allowed a message to be delivered electronically to a separate computer through ArpaNet. 为了解决这个问题,汤姆林森编写了一个文件传输程序,允许一条信息通过ArpaNet以电子方式发送给另外一部计算机。 Tomlinson also came up with the idea of using the “@” symbol to separate the name of the recipient from the name of the host, creating the standard still used today. 汤姆林森也想出了使用@符号来隔开收信人姓名和主机名的主意,创建了如今仍在使用的标准。 In spite of a history of more than four decades, Tomlinson said email had not changed much since its invention. 尽管有了40年以上的历史,汤姆林森表示,电子邮件自问世以来并无太大变化。 Born in New York State, Tomlinson studied electrical engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic and then earned his masters at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 汤姆林森出生于纽约州,先在伦斯勒理工学院|Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute)攻读电子工程专业,接着在麻省理工学院(MIT)获得了硕士学位。 He joined Bolt, Beranek, and Newman in 1967 in Massachusetts, and stayed there the rest of his life. BBN was later acquired by Raytheon and known as Raytheon BBN. 1967年,汤姆林森在马萨诸塞州加入了BBN公司,并一直在那里工作。后来,BBN被雷神(Raytheon)收购,改名为雷神BBN。 “It is with great sadness we acknowledge the passing of our colleague and friend,” Ratheon said in a statement. “A true technology pioneer#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;his work changed the way the world communicates.” “我们的同事和朋友去世了,我们对此感到巨大的伤悲,”雷神发表声明称。“一位真正的技术先驱……他的工作改变了世界的沟通方式。” /201603/430561Chinese Mechanical Inventions that Contributed to the World中国传入西方的机械技术A common stereotype is that the Chinese have traditionally lacked scientif-ic and technological ability,despite the four great revolutionary inven-tions of paper making, printing, gunpowder, and compass that have essentially changed the world. However, Chinese people have made a lot of other significant mechanicalinventions besides the famous four, providing the source of many of the prerequisite technologies of modernity. From the 6th to the 15th century, China was the world’s most technologically advanced society.在很多人心目中,传统的中华文化似乎缺乏对科学技术的应用,可事实并非如此。除了对人类社会发展产生了巨大影响的四大发明之外,中国古代在科学技术方面也取得了辉煌的成就。中国古代的很多机械发明为人类社会的现代化提供了必要的条件。从公元6世纪到15世纪,中国一直是世界上科学技术最为发达的国家。从中国传往世界各地的技术发明中,最为显赫的还是活字印刷术、火药、指南针。Here are some of the most celebrated mechanical inventions from China that have exerted profound influences on the development of other societies, especially when they were passed to the West:以下是一些由中国传人其他国家的重要机械技术,它们一经进入了西方,便对西方社会的发展,乃至人类历史的进程都产生了巨大的影响:Cast iron铸铁The double-acting piston bellows活塞风箱The crank handle ( used for starting an engine)手摇曲柄The gimbals ( as in the ancient Chinese Incense Burner)平衡环(被中香炉)Manufacture of steel from cast iron皮带传送The belt drive ( or driving-belt)水力应用Water power方板链泵The chain pump蒸气机基本原理Essentials of the steam engine链条传动The chain drive (in which an endless wheel transmits power from an engine)独轮车The wheelbarrow滑动测径仪Sliding calipers ( a kind of compass used for measuring diameters)机械钟表装置The fishing reel永明灯The umbrella纺车The mechanical clock轮式碾磨机“Permanent”lamps船尾舵The spinning wheel航海磁罗盘Rudder /201512/410717赣州仁济不孕不育做无痛人流要多少钱

瑞金市人民医院官网Across factories in South China, millions of young Chinese spend their days churning out garments for consumers in Japan, South Korea, Europe and the US. For many of the workers, their most important piece of equipment — after the umbilical smartphone — is a sewing machine made by Juki.在中国华南地区的一座座工厂内,数百万名中国年轻人每天为日本、韩国、欧洲和美国的消费者们制造着装。对许多制衣工人来说,他们最重要的设备——除了离不开的智能手机以外——是一台Juki牌缝纫机。The Tokyo-based company, which started making sewing machines in 1947, has customers in 170 countries from China to the Vatican. While some of the big manufacturers — such as Sony — that were synonymous with the rise of Japan have lost their lustre, Juki is an example of the low-profile companies sustaining Japan’s economy.总部位于东京的Juki公司从1947年开始生产缝纫机,客户遍及从中国到梵蒂冈的170个国家。当一些与日本同步崛起的大厂商——如索尼(Sony)——失去了昔日的光,像Juki这样低调的企业撑起了日本经济。The business is the leading player in the industry, with 30 per cent of the market, and is especially popular among manufacturers that produce for multinational retailers. “It’s rather a personal preference, like choosing a car,” says Gerhard Flatz, managing director of the Chinese apparel manufacturer KTC, which uses Juki for more than 90 per cent of its machines. “But Juki machines are as reliable as a draught horse.”Juki是业内的龙头企业,拥有30%的市场份额,尤其在跨国零售商的代工商中间特别流行。中国装制造商KTC所采用的机器90%以上都是Juki的,总经理格哈德#8226;弗拉茨(Gerhard Flatz)说:“这更像是个人喜好,就像选车一样。但Juki的机器就像挽马一样可靠。”TAL, a Hong Kong apparel maker whose clients include Brooks Brothers and Burberry, says at least 80 per cent of its machines are Juki. Harry Lee, TAL chairman and a leading figure in the Hong Kong garment trade, says the Japanese group owes its success to the close relationship it builds with its customers.香港装生产商联业制衣(TAL)的客户包括布克兄弟(Brooks Brothers)和柏利(Burberry),该公司表示所用机器至少80%都是Juki。香港制衣业的领军人物、TAL董事长李乃熺(Harry Lee)表示,这家日本集团的成功要归功于其建立起了与客户之间的密切关系。Naotake Miyashita, head of Juki’s sewing machine business, who spends half his time visiting clients, also stresses the importance of relationships — sometimes nurtured over the umeshu plum wine it makes in the grounds of its factory in Tochigi prefecture north of Tokyo — and how the company is quick to respond. “When TAL has a problem, we hear from Harry Lee,” he jokes. “I have been summoned many times over our long relationship.”Juki缝纫机业务负责人宫下尚武(Naotake Miyashita)在工作中会把一半的时间花在拜访客户上,他强调了客户关系的重要性(Juki在东京以北的栃木县有间工厂,有些客户关系就是靠在该厂酿造的梅酒培养出来的),并表示该公司能够对客户需要做出迅速反应。宫下尚武开玩笑说:“当TAL遇到问题时,李乃熺便会告知我们。在我们的长期合作中,我多次受到召唤。”The Tokyo-listed company’s origins are in the second world war. When the army ran out of its most popular rifle in 1938, small manufacturers came together to form a group to produce the Type 99 guns, which are called juki in Japanese. As demand for rifles evaporated after the war, Juki switched to making domestic and industrial sewing machines. The group wanted to keep the name but wrote the word juki with different Japanese characters that meant heavy machinery instead of rifle.这家东京上市公司起源于第二次世界大战。1938年,由于日军的三八式步不够用,小型制造商聚到一起组成了一个集团,开始生产九九式步,该型号的日语名为“juki”。二战结束后随着对步需求的消失,Juki转向生产家用及工业用缝纫机。该集团希望保留juki这个名称,但更改了日文写法,原来的日文意思是“步”,更改后的意思为“重机”。While Juki also makes robots to place components on circuit boards, its sewing machine business — which generates 73 per cent of its turnover — provides a window on trends in the global textile business.虽然Juki也生产贴片机器人(将元器件贴装到电路板上的机器人),但其营业额的73%来自缝纫机业务。Juki的缝纫机业务提供了一个窗口,让人们可以看到全球纺织业的发展趋势。In 1970, the company opened its first overseas subsidiary in Hong Kong, then the centre of the global textile industry. Soon after, it followed suit in Europe, and later moved into the US.1970年Juki在香港开设了第一家海外子公司,当时香港是全球纺织业中心。不久以后,它又在欧洲开设了子公司,然后又将分扩展到了美国。Speaking at Juki’s headquarters in western Tokyo, Mr Miyashita says the company entered China in 1976 when it won a contract to supply the state-owned clothing manufacturer, which had 32 factories across the country.在Juki位于东京西边的总部里,宫下尚武介绍说,Juki于1976进入中国,当时公司争取到了一份为国有装公司供货的合同,该企业在全中国拥有32家工厂。After Deng Xiaoping launched economic reforms in 1979, Juki increased its orders — a trend that continued as Hong Kong companies moved production across the border, and accelerated following the 1997 Asian financial crisis. “Until then, even though China had started reforms, there was still a lack of capital and infrastructure,” says Mr Miyashita.1979年邓小平开启经济改革之后,Juki的订单增加了。随着香港的装公司纷纷转移到内地生产,Juki的订单越来越多,而且在1997年亚洲金融危机之后呈现加速趋势。宫下尚武说:“直到那时,尽管中国早已开始改革,但仍缺乏资金和基础设施。”Companies such as Walmart, Nike and Adidas decided China was more stable because the government had insulated the country from the currency crisis and because there was an abundance of cheap labour.沃尔玛(Walmart)、耐克(Nike)和阿迪达斯(Adidas)等公司都认为中国形势更为稳定,因为中国政府让这个国家避免了货币危机,而且中国有充足的廉价劳力。“The situation in China was nothing like today#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;when a factory advertised for 1,000 people, 10,000 people would gather outside the factory gate,” recalls the Japanese executive. As more factories moved to China, it started to account for a bigger share of Juki’s global sales, rising to 50 per cent in 2000 and staying there for much of the decade.宫下尚武说:“中国当时的情况跟今天完全不同……那时如果有家工厂招工一千人,工厂大门外会聚集起一万人。”随着迁往中国内地的工厂越来越多,中国在Juki全球销量中所占的份额也越来越大,2000年升至50%,并且在随后十年大部分时间里都保持在这个比例。Everything changed in 2005. China unpegged its currency from the US dollar and allowed it to appreciate slowly, which in turn increased manufacturing costs.2005年一切都变了,那一年人民币与美元脱钩,并开始缓慢升值,这增加了生产成本。Then, in 2008, China introduced a new labour law that ensured workers enjoyed better conditions, but dramatically raised labour costs.接着在2008年,中国出台了新的劳动法,虽然保障工人享受到更好的待遇,但大大提高了劳动成本。“Costs rose, the renminbi kept getting stronger, and profits started to fall,” says Mr Miyashita. “Retailers said China was becoming difficult and slowly started shifting orders to southeast Asia.”宫下尚武说:“成本越来越高,人民币不断走强,利润开始下降。零售商们表示在中国盈利变得越来越难,于是慢慢开始将订单往东南亚转移。”Currently, 25 per cent of Juki’s sales are in China. In recent decades, Juki has successfully expanded across the globe, leaving its main Japanese rival, Brother, in its wake.中国市场目前占Juki销量的25%。近几十年来,Juki已成功在全球各地扩张,将主要的日本竞争对手兄弟(Brother)甩在身后。Today, Juki faces a challenge from a new rival: Jack, a Chinese company that has 12 per cent of the global market.如今Juki面对着一个新对手的挑战:中国的新杰克缝纫机股份有限公司(Jack),该公司在全球市场中拥有12%的份额。Mr Miyashita recalls one trip to Bangladesh where the president of an old customer took him around the factory to show him how the sewing machines were being operated.宫下尚武回忆起一次去孟加拉的行程,当地一家老客户的总裁带着他参观工厂,向他展示缝纫机的使用情况。“He told me all its machines were Juki, but as soon as we entered the factory I realised they were Jack,” he says. “We are Juki and they are Jack with exactly the same font,” he says with a smile.宫下尚武笑着说:“他告诉我他们的缝纫机都是Juki的,但我们一进入工厂我就发现他们用的是新杰克。我们是‘Juki’,而他们是‘Jack’,字体一模一样。”On other occasions, he claims, factories have phoned to complain that their new Juki machines have aly broken down, only to be told that their equipment was actually made by a Chinese company based in Taizhou, a city in Zhejiang province where most of China’s sewing machine companies are based.宫下尚武称还有时候,一些工厂打来电话抱怨他们的Juki缝纫机才买来就出问题了,结果却被告知他们的机器是由一家总部在台州的中国公司制造的。台州位于浙江省,中国缝纫机企业大部分建在那里。The issue highlights a problem faced by many foreign companies in China: trademark copying. Mr Miyashita says: “There was a Chinese company called JUKL, but we sued them and they went away.”上述情况凸显了许多在华外企面临的一个问题:商标仿造。宫下尚武说:“有家中国公司叫JUKL,但当我们起诉他们时,他们就消失了。”Mr Miyashita, who spent more than two decades in Hong Kong and Shanghai building up Juki’s China business, says other Chinese companies are also trying to get in on the game.宫下尚武二十多年来致力在香港和上海发展Juki在华业务,他说还有别的中国公司也想从中得利。One Fujian company has created a brand called “Brosister”, which is similar to the name of rival manufacturer Brother. “They really come up with amazing names,” he says.福建一家公司推出了一个名为“兄”(Brosister)的品牌,与Juki竞争对手“兄弟”名字相似。他说:“他们在起名字方面真的很惊人。”Additional reporting by Mitsuko Matsutani and Nobuko JujiMitsuko Matsutani和Nobuko Juji补充报道 /201504/368864赣南医学院第三医院无痛人流要多少钱 赣州市中心医院预约四维彩超

赣南人民医院有做无痛人流吗Google Maps users are redirected to the White House when they type in variations of the n-word.当谷歌地图使用者搜索时敲入字母‘n’,下拉列表会自动显示白宫。Google is fixing an issue with its Google Maps search function, which currently leads people to The White House if they search for variations of the n-word with the word house.谷歌正在修复一个搜索引擎的错误,当搜索者敲入字母‘n’和单词house后,下拉列表会显示白宫。Multiple media outlets, including the Washington Post and the Huffington Post, reported the issue Tuesda y afternoon after a Twitter user first posted a screen shot of the problem.许多媒体,包括华盛顿邮报和赫芬顿邮报,在一名推特使用者首次发布这个问题的快照后,都进行了报道。;Some inappropriate results are surfacing in Google Maps that should not be, and we apologize for any offense this may have caused,; a Google spokeswoman said in an email statement.一名谷歌发言人在电子邮件陈述中说道,;一些谷歌地图里本不该出现的不恰当结果被搜索出来,我们对可能已经形成的错误表示道歉,;The reason for the problem is unclear, but one search expert thinks it#39;s likely due to how Google links certain phrases and terms to locations on the map.产生问题的原因还不清楚,但是,一名搜索引擎专家认为,这很可能是由于谷歌地图对某些固定的俗语和术语的链接定位造成的。;What we think is the cause, is that Google is seeing how people are talking about places on blogs, and Google#39;s making those associations,; Danny Sullivan, the notable founding editor of Search Engine Land, t old CNNMoney. Sullivan says this isn.t a problem where someone overtly made this search query redirect ti The White House.搜索天地引擎的创始人丹尼路沙利文告诉CNN财经频道,“我认为原因是,谷歌观察人们在客上讨论的地点,并让它们建立联系。”沙利文说,有些人的搜素目标直接指向白宫,这不算什么事。;People might be saying [these things] generally, and it doesn#39;t even need to be a lot references,; he a dded. ;It#39;s kind of crowdsoucing terms gone bad.;“人们可能平常总是谈论这些事情,这些事甚至根本不需要过度联系,”他又说,“这是众包模式的一次恶果。”This is the second major Google Maps issue in the past two months.这是过去两个月内谷歌地图的又一个大问题。In April, someone discovered an illustration of an Android robot peeing on an Apple logo in a rural area of Pakistan. Google suspended its public Map Maker tool and started to review every submission manually after the incident.在4月份,一些人发现,在地图上的一个巴基斯坦乡下地区,出现了一个安卓商标对着苹果商标撒尿的景象。这件事后,谷歌推迟了它的公共地图制作工具,并开始手动重新审查每一个提交上来的地图。Google says it is working to fix The White House Google Maps issue ;quickly.;谷歌说,它;很快;就可以修复白宫谷歌地图的问题。注:众包 众包指的是一个公司或机构把过去由员工执行的工作任务,以自由自愿的形式外包给非特定的(而且通常是大型的)大众网络的做法。 /201506/378551 SAN FRANCISCO — Apple said on Wednesday that it would oppose and challenge a federal court order to help the F.B.I. unlock an iPhone used by one of the two attackers who killed 14 people in San Bernardino, Calif., in December.旧金山——苹果公司本周三表示,反对和质疑联邦法院要求其帮助联邦调查局(FBI)解锁一部iPhone的命令。去年12月,两名袭击者在加利福尼亚州圣贝纳迪诺杀害了14人,其中一个袭击者曾使用过这部手机。On Tuesday, in a significant victory for the government, Magistrate Judge Sheri Pym of the Federal District Court for the District of Central California ordered Apple to bypass security functions on an iPhone 5c used by Syed Rizwan Farook, who was killed by the police along with his wife, Tashfeen Malik, after they attacked Mr. Farook’s co-workers at a holiday gathering.本周二,加州中央区联邦地区法院法官谢莉·皮姆(Sheri Pym)命令苹果绕过赛义德·里兹万·法鲁克(Syed Rizwan Farook)用过的iPhone 5C的安全功能。法鲁克和他的妻子塔什芬·马利克(Tashfeen Malik)袭击了他同事举办的节日聚会,之后双双被警方击毙。Judge Pym ordered Apple to build special software that would essentially act as a skeleton key capable of unlocking the phone.皮姆法官命令苹果公司构建专门的软件,充当解锁该手机的万能钥匙。But hours later, in a statement by its chief executive, Timothy D. Cook, Apple announced its refusal to comply. The move sets up a legal showdown between the company, which says it is eager to protect the privacy of its customers, and the law enforcement authorities, who say that new encryption technologies hamper their ability to prevent and solve crime.但数小时后,苹果首席执行官蒂莫西·D·库克(Timothy D. Cook)发表声明,宣布拒绝遵行这道命令,该公司和执法部门之间的法律对抗就此形成。一方面苹果表示要努力保护客户隐私,另一方面,执法部门宣称新的加密技术削弱了他们预防和打击犯罪的能力。In his statement, Mr. Cook called the court order an “unprecedented step” by the federal government. “We oppose this order, which has implications far beyond the legal case at hand,” he wrote.在声明中,库克称法院的这道命令是联邦政府“史无前例的一步”。“我们反对这道命令,因为它牵涉的含义远远超出了眼前这个法律案例的范畴,”他写道。Asked about Apple’s resistance, the Justice Department pointed to a statement by Eileen M. Decker, the ed States attorney for the Central District of California: “We have made a solemn commitment to the victims and their families that we will leave no stone unturned as we gather as much information and evidence as possible. These victims and families deserve nothing less.”当被问及苹果的抗命时,司法部(Justice Department)援引了加利福尼亚中央区联邦检察官艾琳·M·德克尔(Eileen M. Decker)的声明:“我们已经向受害者及其家属作出庄严承诺,我们会想尽一切办法收集尽可能多的信息和据。这是受害者和家属理应获得的对待。”The F.B.I. said that its experts had been unable to access data on Mr. Farook’s iPhone, and that only Apple could bypass its security features. F.B.I. experts have said they risk losing the data permanently after 10 failed attempts to enter the password because of the phone’s security features.联邦调查局说,他们的专家无法获取法鲁克iPhone上的数据,只有苹果才有办法绕过它的安全功能。联邦调查局专家们表示,根据这种手机的安全功能,如果10次尝试输入密码失败,就可能会永久失去手机上的数据。The Justice Department had secured a search warrant for the phone, owned by Mr. Farook’s former employer, the San Bernardino County Department of Public Health, which consented to the search.司法部已拿到了针对这部手机的搜查令,作为机主,法鲁克的前雇主圣贝纳迪诺县公共卫生署同意对其进行检查。Because Apple declined to voluntarily provide, in essence, the “keys” to its encryption technology, federal prosecutors said they saw little choice but to get a judge to compel Apple’s assistance.由于苹果公司拒绝自愿提供手机加密技术的“钥匙”,联邦检察官说,他们别无选择,只能让法官迫使苹果提供援助。Mr. Cook said the order would amount to creating a “back door” to bypass Apple’s strong encryption standards — “something we simply do not have, and something we consider too dangerous to create.”库克说,这道命令相当于要求他们构建一个“后门”,绕过苹果强大的加密系统——“我们根本就没有这样的东西,我们认为构建出这样的东西太过危险。”In 2014, Apple and Google — whose operating systems are used in 96 percent of smartphones worldwide — announced that they had re-engineered their software with “full disk” encryption, and could no longer unlock their own products as a result.2014年,苹果和谷歌——全球96%的智能手机都使用它们的操作系统——宣布,他们已经用“全磁盘”加密方式重新设计了软件,因此自己也无法解锁其产品。That set up a confrontation with police and prosecutors, who want the companies to build, in essence, a master key that can be used to get around the encryption. The technology companies say that creating such a key would have disastrous consequences for privacy.由于警方和检察官希望公司能构建一个可以绕过加密系统的主密钥,双方之间出现了矛盾。技术公司表示,构建这样的密钥会在隐私方面导致灾难性的后果。“The F.B.I. may use different words to describe this tool, but make no mistake: Building a version of iOS that bypasses security in this way would undeniably create a back door,” Mr. Cook wrote. “And while the government may argue that its use would be limited to this case, there is no way to guarantee such control.”“联邦调查局也许用了另一种措辞来形容这个工具,但不要被误导:构建一个采用这种方式绕过安全屏障的iOS版本,无疑就创建了一个后门,”库克写道。“虽然政府可能会宣称只限于在本案中使用这个后门,但是他们没有办法保将来不会失控。”An Apple spokeswoman declined to elaborate on the statement, but the company’s most likely next step is to file an appeal.苹果发言人拒绝对这份声明进行详细解释,但该公司的下一步行动很有可能就是提起上诉。The legal issues are complicated. They involve statutory interpretation, rather than constitutional rights, and they could end up before the Supreme Court.相关的法律问题很复杂。它们涉及到法律解释,而不是宪法权利问题,最后有可能会诉至最高法院。As Apple noted, the F.B.I., instead of asking Congress to pass legislation resolving the encryption fight, has proposed what appears to be a novel ing of the All Writs Act of 1789.就像苹果公司指出的,FBI并没有要求国会通过立法来解决关于加密的分歧,而是对1789年的《所有令状法案》(All Writs Act)提出了一种看起来很新颖的解读。The law lets judges “issue all writs necessary or appropriate in aid of their respective jurisdictions and agreeable to the usages and principles of law.”该法律允许法官“签发所有令状”,只要“有必要,或能为各自辖区提供适当帮助且符合法律的适用和原则”。The government says the law gives broad latitude to judges to require “third parties” to execute court orders. It has cited, among other cases, a 1977 ruling requiring phone companies to help set up a pen register, a device that records all numbers called from a particular phone line.政府表示,这条法律向法官赋予了宽泛的裁量权,可要求“第三方”执行法庭的命令。政府援引的若干案件中包括,1977年的一项判决要求电话公司安装一台拨号记录器(pen register),它可以记录某条电话线路拨叫的所有号码。Apple, in turn, argues that the scope of the act has strict limits. In 2005, a federal magistrate judge rejected the argument that the law could be used to compel a telecommunications provider to allow real-time tracking of a cellphone without a search warrant.而苹果公司则认为,该法案的适用范围有严格的限制。2005年,一位联邦治安法官裁定,不能利用这项法律,在没有搜查令的情况下,迫使电信务提供商允许对一台移动电话进行实时跟踪。Marc J. Zwillinger, a lawyer for Apple, wrote in a letter for a related case in October that the All Writs Act could not be interpreted to “force a company to take possession of a device outside of its possession or control and perform services on that device, particularly where the company does not perform such services as part of its business and there may be alternative means of obtaining the requested information available to the government.”苹果公司律师马克·J·施威林格(Marc J. Zwillinger)去年10月就一宗相关案件发信称,不能通过解读《所有令状法案》,“来迫使一家企业取得一台不归其所有的设备的所有权,或控制该设备并对其进行维护,尤其是此种维护并不属于该公司经营范围,况且政府可能还有其他手段取得其索求的信息。”The government says it does not have those alternative means.政府表示,它并没有其他手段。Mr. Cook’s statement called the government’s demands “chilling.”库克在声明中称,政府的要求让人“感到寒意”。He added: “If the government can use the All Writs Act to make it easier to unlock your iPhone, it would have the power to reach into anyone’s device to capture their data. The government could extend this breach of privacy and demand that Apple build surveillance software to intercept your messages, access your health records or financial data, track your location, or even access your phone’s microphone or camera without your knowledge.”他补充道:“如果政府动用《所有令状法案》让解锁iPhone变得更容易,它就有能力侵入任何人的设备并取得其数据。政府就可以延伸这种侵犯隐私的做法,要求苹果编写监控软件拦截您的信息,访问您的健康记录或金融数据,追踪您的位置,甚至在您不知情的情况下访问您手机的麦克风或摄像头。”The Electronic Frontier Foundation, a nonprofit organization that defends digital rights, said it was siding with Apple.保护数字权利的非营利组织电子前沿基金会(Electronic Frontier Foundation)表示,它持苹果公司。“The government is asking Apple to create a master key so that it can open a single phone,” it said Tuesday evening. “And once that master key is created, we’re certain that our government will ask for it again and again, for other phones, and turn this power against any software or device that has the audacity to offer strong security.”“政府要求苹果创建一个主密钥,好让它能解开一部手机,”该基金会周二晚间表示。“一旦创建了这个密钥,我们可以肯定,政府就会一而再、再而三地要求解开其他的手机,并动用这种权力与任何一种胆敢提供强大安全性能的软件或设备作对。”The San Bernardino case is the most prominent such case, but it is not the first.圣贝纳迪诺案是此类案件中最受关注的一宗,但并不是第一宗。Last October, James Orenstein, a federal magistrate judge in Brooklyn, expressed doubts about whether he could require Apple to disable its latest iPhone security features, citing the failure of Congress to resolve the issue despite the urging of the Justice Department.去年10月,布鲁克林的联邦治安法官詹姆斯·奥伦斯坦(James Orenstein),对于他能否要求苹果禁用最新款iPhone中的安全功能表达了疑虑,其理由是尽管司法部一再催促,但国会未能解决这个问题。The judge said such requests should fall under a different law, the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1994, which covers telecommunications and broadband companies.该法官表示,这种请求应由另一项法律管辖,即1994年《通信协助执法法案 》(Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act),该法案涵盖了通信和宽带企业。Congress has been debating whether to amend that act to include technology companies like Apple, Facebook and Google, and Judge Orenstein said he would consider ordering Apple to unlock the phone when and if Congress makes the change. That case is still pending.国会一直在辩论是否对该法案进行修订,将苹果、Facebook、谷歌(Google)这样的科技企业纳入其中。奥伦斯坦表示,如果国会作出这样的修订,届时他会考虑责令苹果解锁手机。相关案件仍在审理当中。Although Apple is portraying its opposition to Judge Pym’s order as a principled defense of privacy, one of its motivations is the preservation of its reputation for robust encryption, at a time of rising concerns about identity theft, cybercrime and electronic surveillance by intelligence agencies and overzealous law enforcement agencies.尽管按照苹果的叙述,该公司反对皮姆法官的命令是根据原则捍卫隐私权,但当前用户对身份窃取、网络犯罪、情报机构的电子监控、执法机构的越界举动愈发感到焦虑,苹果的一个动机也是保护其强劲加密技术的声誉。Apple also says that a master key would amount to a vulnerability that hackers could exploit.苹果还表示,主密钥会构成安全隐患,黑客可能会加以利用。China is watching the dispute closely. Analysts say that the Chinese government does take cues from the ed States when it comes to encryption regulations, and that it would most likely demand that multinational companies provide accommodations similar to those in the ed States.中国正密切关注着这场争端。分析人士表示,在信息加密的监管方面,中国的确会参考美国的做法,极有可能会要求跨国公司提供类似于对美国的配合。Last year, Beijing backed off several proposals that would have mandated that foreign firms provide encryption keys for devices sold in China after heavy pressure from foreign trade groups. Nonetheless, a Chinese antiterrorism law passed in December required foreign firms to hand over technical information and to aid with decryption when the police demand it in terrorism-related cases.去年,北京方面提出了若干项法规,打算要求外国企业交出在中国出售设备的加密密钥。但在外国行业团体极力施压之后,北京做出了让步。尽管如此,中国在去年12月通过的反恐法,还是要求外国企业交出技术信息,并在涉及恐怖主义的案件中,依照警方要求帮助进行解密。While it is still not clear how the law might be carried out, it is possible a push from American law enforcement agencies to unlock iPhones would embolden Beijing to demand the same. China would also most likely push to acquire any technology that would allow it to unlock iPhones. Just after Apple introduced tougher encryption standards in 2014, Apple users in China were targeted by an attack that sought to obtain login information from iCloud users.尽管尚不清楚这项法律会如何实施,但美国执法机构要求解锁iPhone的做法,可能会让北京方面更加大胆,作出同样的要求。中国也极有可能会要求取得解锁iPhone的任何技术。就在苹果2014年推出更强大的加密标准之后,中国的苹果用户就受到了黑客攻击,黑客当时寻求取得iCloud用户的登录信息。 /201602/427241赣州仁济不孕不育大概需要多少钱赣州仁济不孕不育有做阴道松弛

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