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连江县哪里可以做人流连江县医院治疗多囊卵巢综合症多少钱龙岩检查激素六项大约多少钱 Finance and economics财经商业Copper铜Broken contacts破碎的联系Finance, not economics, may explain coppers recent plunge金融市场而非经济状况造成了近期的铜价下滑THE copper price has long been held to signal the state of the global economy as reliably as the metal conducts electrons.铜价一直以来都是全球经济形势的信号,它的这个作用正如导电性能一样可靠。But that reputation—never fully deserved—is now in tatters. Coppers plunging price says a lot about China, but little about the rest of the world.如今这个本就不甚牢固的地位已经岌岌可危。一路下滑的铜价折射出中国的许多问题,不过与世界形势则关系不大。China consumes about 40% of global copper production.中国消耗着全球40%的成品铜。But not all of that goes straight into manufacturing or construction.但并非所有的铜都被立即用于制造业以及建筑业。Chinese companies have also been using copper as collateral for their hard-currency loans: “buy, store, hedge and pledge” in the words of one trader.中国的公司还将铜作为硬通货贷款的抵押品。用一位从业者的话说,就是“购买,储存,用来对冲和抵押”。That has led to an overhang, with far more of the metal stockpiled than users need.铜的库存量已经远远超过使用需求,已经造成了过量储存。Any change in the conditions that created this stockpile can have a big effect on the price.造成这种储存的各种因素稍有变化就会对铜价造成重大影响。A sign of this is that when the Chinese economy slows, as seems to be happening now, with manufacturing activity weakening for a fifth consecutive month, those stockpiles rise.其中一个例子就是当中国经济增速放缓时,库存就会增加。CRU, a metals researcher, now says the copper-market surplus this year will be four times bigger than it previously estimated, with forecast production outpacing demand by 140,000 tonnes.金属研究机构CRU最近表示今年的铜剩余量将是其之前预计的4倍,预计产量将超过需求量140,000吨,。Chinese data are notoriously opaque, so judging the real health of the countrys copper-consuming industries is hard.鉴于中方的数据是出了名的不透明,所以很难判断该国铜消耗产业的真实规模。A rebound in growth later this year could revive demand for the metal.今年随后的经济增长反弹或许能重新刺激铜材的需求。But other factors are piling pressure on to the copper price.但其他因素也在给铜价施压。One is a growing wariness among creditors, following a corporate-bond failure this month.其中之一就是于本月发生了中国国内20世纪90年代以来首次的企业债券违约,这使借债机构变得愈发谨慎了。As banks worry about their customers abilities to service debts, Chinese firms are finding it harder to get loans.由于担心客户的偿还能力,中国公司发现贷款更难了。This is making some sell their copper to raise cash.这使不少公司抛售储存的铜来套现。Another factor is that Chinese regulators are cracking down on companies using copper stockpiles for speculation.还有一个因素是中方的监管机构正在打击公司们利用铜存储进行投机活动的行为。Joel Crane of Morgan Stanley, an investment bank, argues that the authorities are targeting the “shadow-banking network” used by companies to evade controls on hard-currency lending.投行根斯坦利的Joel Crane说,政府已经盯上了公司们用来逃避硬通货借贷管制的“影子网络”。Chinese importers have long used letters of credit issued by banks for raw-material imports as a way of raising funds which they then use for other purposes.中国的会发行原材料出口的信用来募集资金,而进口商们却长期把这些信用用于其它目的。Such shadow banking created lucrative arbitrage possibilities for those able to take advantage of the difference between local and international interest rates.这样的影子系统为那些能利用国内外利率差的人提供了通过套利牟取暴利的机会。This is a useful dodge when times are good, not so when scrutiny increases.当时机合适时,这是很有用的逃避方式,可监管严格时就不是了。A reform in mid-2013 made companies holding copper for collateral keep it onshore, rather than in bonded warehouses, raising the cost of storage.2013年中的一次改革要求持有铜作为抵押品的公司将铜保存在大陆地区,而非保税仓库,这也增加了储存的成本。A similar story seems to be unfolding with iron ore.铁矿石也在发生类似情况。China accounts for half of world steel production, so the iron-ore price is hypersensitive to any downward flicker in demand.中国占到了世界钢材产量的一半,所以铁矿石价格对于一丝一毫的需求减少的苗头都极度敏感。Iron-ore stocks at Chinese ports are at record highs.中国码头上的铁矿石储存量达到了创纪录的数值。China is also trying to substitute its own, lower-quality ore for the higher-grade imported stuff.中国正在试图用进口的高纯度矿石替代低质量的本国矿石。It wants to cut overcapacity and pollution, including using the financial markets to put pressure on the steel industry through higher interest rates and tighter credit.政府想要采取措施对付产能过剩和环境污染问题,包括在金融市场利用高利率和信贷紧缩来给钢铁行业施压。Companies who used iron ore as collateral for their borrowing may now have to use it for debt repayments instead.将铁矿石用作贷款抵押品的公司如今或许要将其转用作贷款偿还了。Copper bears fear that this could easily get out of hand.铜金属持有者担心这会造成情况失控。But the likelihood is more a slow unwinding of positions than a crash.但哪怕要失控,也将是一个缓慢的头寸解除过程而不会突然全部抛售。Goldman Sachs, another bank, notes that it is not in the Chinese authorities interest to shut down commodity-financing deals altogether.另一家高盛集团表示中国政府并不打算完全废除商品金融。It makes more sense just to increase the hedging and storage costs of those firms using commodities to speculate.更像是只让使用商品进行投机的公司对冲和储存的成本上升。Stephen Briggs of BNP Paribas, also a bank, notes that the “few hundred thousand tonnes” involved in these deals is only a small part of a 20m tonne market.法国巴黎的Stephen Briggs则认为这些交易涉及的“几十万吨”不过是铜材市场两千万总数的极小部分。The truth may be that jitters in China have just accelerated a change in perceptions about copper: from chronic deficit to surplus.现实或许是,中国国内的神经敏感只是加速了对于铜的观念的改变:从长期供应不足到存储过多。This stems from the impending extra metal coming this year and next from new mines in places such as Mongolia, Peru and Mexico.原因在于今年和明年将从蒙古、秘鲁、墨西哥的新建矿场中增加进口许多矿石。Speculators may come and go, but at least copper, unlike gold, has a comfortably wide range of uses.或许铜的投机生意难以预料,但和金子不同的是,铜至少有着大量的用途。 /201404/285007Youre so amazing.你人太好了Because justin does not feel well.justin今天不太舒Hes sick,and yet hes still here.他病了 却依旧过来了And you didnt have to come你今天本不必来的and do all these that youre doing today... it does get a lot of sympathies.来录我们的节目 这可是同情利器It does. Now,because you really are very ah...可不是嘛 鉴于你现在很...Very sick in many ways,but you are... yes,mentally.各方面都很虚弱 但是 是呀 心累Physically right now,but...right.身体也很疲惫 好吧But all of the time, mentally.但精神上的问题总是困扰我I have things for you, so...oh我给你准备了点东西Look at that. you have... you have tequila...看看这是什么 这儿有龙舌兰酒Perfect.太棒了Or you have tea with honey, you have Halls, you have Kleenex.还有蜂蜜茶 润喉糖 舒洁纸巾Anything you need right there, okay? thats...thank you.你需要的都在这儿了 非常感谢Let me know what you need.你需要时跟我说Thank you, ill feed it to you if you wanted me to.谢谢啦 如果你想 我可以喂你啊Now,when youre sick,umm...you continue to work.你现在生病了 还在坚持工作But when you at home, are you a good patient,但当你在家时 是个配合的病人吗are you a baby, or are you pretty strong?你是乖宝宝型的 还是硬汉型的I can get pretty cranky, yeah.我总是烦躁不安 是吗Yeah. You want people to,like, wait on ya or stuff like that?真的 你是想有人悉心照料你的 对吗Sort of. Uh,and do they?有点儿 他们会吗And by ;they;, I dont know who I mean, like...不过我也不知道我说的“他们”是指谁I have ah... the best wift in the world, yeah.我有全天下最好的媳妇儿Shes been great this week.这周她一直很细心照顾我Yeah, shes been taking care of you? yeah. yeah.是吗 她把你照顾得很好嘛 是的Good. Good.很不错 很好注:EllenShow中英字幕来源于:艾伦秀字幕组 /201312/267271福建省费用保健院做试管生男孩多少钱

博爱医院输卵管检查多少钱Science and technology科学技术Prospecting for oil石油勘探Grains of truth千虑一得之法Putting rocks in medical scanners may help the search for oil and gas采用医学扫描仪对岩石样本扫描,可帮助寻找石油和天然气STRIKING oil is one thing.开采石油是一回事。Getting it out of the ground in economic quantities is quite another.然而从经济角度考虑,能从地下开采出多少石油又完全是另一回事。Doing so depends on understanding the granular structure of the rock it is trapped in,要做到这点,人们需要对某些岩石的颗粒结构有所了解,而这些岩石是有石油困于其中的。分and analysing that is a tedious business of placing countless samples in pressure vessels to assess their capacity to hold hydrocarbons and to estimate the flow rate of those hydrocarbons through them.析岩石颗粒结构是极其枯燥乏味的事情,研究人员需要将无数个样本放置在压力容器内以评估它们含纳碳氢化合物的能力并估計其中蕴藏的碳氢化合物的产量。This can take years.这可能需要花费数年的时间。Help, though, is at hand.然而可施之法即在眼前。Computerised tomography scanning has been used in medicine for several decades.计算机X线断层照相扫描术在医学领域应用已有几十年时间。Now it is being applied to geology.目前它正被应用于地质学。In alliance with electron microscopy, the geological use of CT scanning has given birth to a new field, digital rock physics.在与电子显微镜配合使用下,CT扫描术在地质上的应用育了一个新的领域—数字岩石物理。The fields proponents believe it will let oil companies decide far more quickly than they could in the past which strikes are worth exploiting, and which should be abandoned.该领域的倡导者认为,该项技术能使石油公司较之以往更加快速地判断哪些石油矿值得开发,哪些应该放弃。One of those proponents is Amos Nur, chief technology officer at, a company based in Houston, Texas.科技公司Ingrain总部设在得克萨斯州休斯敦,其首席技术官阿莫斯?努尔是该技术倡导者之一。His firm is one of three independent digital-rock-physics laboratories in the world.他所在公司是全球三家独立数字岩石物理实验室之一。According to Dr Nur, the new technology is capable of creating three-dimensional pictures of a samples structure with a resolution of 50 nanometres.努尔士表示,这项新技术能为岩石样本结构创建分辨率为50纳米的三维立体照片。That is enough to work out how oil and gas trapped in the pores between the grains of such a rock might be expected to behave.这足够预测出困在岩石颗粒细孔间的石油和天然气的表現方式。Most of the samples analysed by Ingrain start as cylindrical cores brought up from deep below the Earths surface by drills.开始分析的大部分样本都来自于地下深层钻探得到的圆柱形岩石核。A typical core is several metres long, so it is first subject to a rough and y CT scan using a standard medical scanner.典型的岩石核有几米长,因此首先要采用标准医学扫描仪对其进行粗略的CT扫描。The scanner is fitted with calibration rods made of a proprietary material whose properties provide reference points for the creation of an image.该扫描仪安装了许多由专利材料制成的调校棒,这种材料有为图像创建提供参考点的属性。This initial scan yields a picture that has a resolution of about 500 microns.初始扫描会得到一张分辨率为500微米的图片。That done, sections of the core 2-3cm long, whose porosity is of particular interest, are subject to further study.这些完成之后,将一些长度在2至3厘米间,其孔隙度有特殊研究价值的小岩石块做进一步研究。This involves scanning them in a special micro-CT machine, of a sort developed originally to look at computer chips.这包括将岩石核样本放入一台特殊的微CT机进行扫描—微CT机原是为了观察电脑芯片而研制的。The sample is placed on a turntable and rotated inside this microscanner.将小岩石核样本放置在微扫描器内部的转盘上并使其旋转,The result is a 3D image with a resolution of 40 microns.结果得到一个分辨率为40微米的三维图像。This allows sections requiring further study to be identified.这就使得需做进一步研究的小岩石块能够被标识。These sections are dissected, using a laser, into slices a millimetre or less thick, and then scanned again, either with the micro-CT or with a scanning electron microscope.采用激光将这些小岩石块切分成一毫米或不太厚的薄片,然后用微CT机或电子显微扫描镜对其再次扫描。That brings the resolution to half a micron, or 500 nanometres.这样便将图象分辨率提高到了0.5微米或500纳米。Finally, the image is cleaned up by a computer program and the 50-nanometre-resolution picture emerges.最后,将该图像进行计算机降噪去斑处理,得到一张50纳米分辨率的图片。This image, which shows the porosity of the rock, and the channels between the pores,然后将能够显示岩石孔隙度和岩石内部毛孔间通道的图像用计算机分析,is then subject to a computer analysis that reveals how easily hydrocarbons will flow through it under pressure—and thus the likely productivity of a well dug at that site.结果会显示在有压力情况下碳氢化合物在岩石块内部流动的容易程度—从而得知样品来源之处那口钻探井的可能产量。Whether digital rock physics will actually replace traditional methods is unclear.“数字岩石物理”技术是否能够取代传统方法,目前尚无定论。Sceptics, such as Anthony Kovscek of Stanford University, think the claims being made for it are exaggerated.许多人对此持怀疑态度,斯坦福大学的Anthony Kovscek就是其中之一,他认为该技术的声明有夸大成分。Though analysis of a rocks structure in this way will, in his opinion, be able to tell you that a strike is unlikely to yield a commercial return,在他看来,尽管采用这种方法得出的岩石结构分析结果能够告知人们哪个钻探点不可能产生商业回报,the reverse is not true.但其反面结论却未必正确。He does not believe that the technique can predict flow rates,他不相信这种技术能预测石油的流量,even from rock that contains a lot of hydrocarbons—and flow rates are crucial to an oil fields economics.即使对于含有大量碳氢化合物的岩石也无法预测—石油流量是油田经济中至关重要的指标。The new discipline of digital rock physics has, nevertheless, attracted considerable attention within the industry.但是“数字岩石物理”这门新学科在行业内引起了相当大的关注。Smaller oil companies are using the facilities of Ingrain, Numerical Rocks and Digitalcore.小型石油公司正在使用Ingrain、Numerical Rocks和Digitalcore的设备。Larger ones, such as BP, Chevron and Shell, are setting up their own digital-rock-physics laboratories.而大型石油公司—如BP、雪佛龙和壳牌正在创建自己的数字岩石物理实验室。As the supply of crude oil dwindles and the price thus rises, anything that makes the process of prospecting new wells cheaper is to be welcomed. This new technique may be such a thing.当原油供应下降并导致价格上升之时,任何能使新井勘探成本更低的技术都将受到欢迎。“数字岩石物理”可能就是满足此要求的新技术。 /201305/239868南平哪间医院精液检查 Hong Kongs finances香港金融Going with the flow顺势而为Exposure to China is rising but the biggest risk comes from America与中国大陆的接触增多,但最大风险来自美国IF INVESTORS are worried about the cloud of political uncertainty looming over Hong Kong, they have a curious way of showing it. Over the past five weeks, as a rancorous debate over the citys democratic future spilled onto its streets, there has been a flood of demand for its currency. The territorys de facto central bank, committed to a 31-year-old dollar peg, bought the billion that streamed its way, to prevent the exchange rate from rising.如果投资者担心政治上不确定的乌云笼罩着香港,他们会用一种奇怪的方式表现出来。在过去的五周里,大街小巷都在针锋相对地谈论关于这座城市的民主前景,也因此产生了大量对货币的需求。香港实质上的央行,在和美元挂钩的31个年头里,给香港带来了90亿美元的热钱,也借此防止汇率上升。Explaining the sudden influx, Hong Kongs authorities pointed to technical factors such as dividend payments and mergers that had forced companies to buy the currency in bulk. But animal spirits were also part of the mix. An exchange-traded fund that tracks Chinese equities reported record inflows as punters chased Chinas still-rapid growth.对于出现的资金突然涌入现象,香港当局解释说,例如股息付和并购的技术因素会要求公司大量购入货币,这也因此导致了资金的突然涌入。但是动物精神也有是综合原因中的一部分。当投机者在市场中竞逐中国依旧保持的高速增长,追踪中国股市的ETF基金的资金流入量也刷新了记录。And then came an intriguing Vladimir Putin effect. Wary of financial sanctions over the Ukraine conflict, Russian companies, including OAO MegaFon, a mobile-phone operator, and Norilsk Nickel, a metals producer, moved some of their cash reserves into Hong Kong dollars—where, they believe, their money will be more insulated from American pressure.另一个原因就是普京的影响。因为担心乌克兰冲突会引发金融制裁,包括移动电话运营商OAO MegaFon和金属制造商Norilsk Nickel在内的许多俄罗斯公司都把他们的现金储蓄转成了港币。他们相信在这里,他们的钱会越发远离美国施加的压力。A common th runs through both the politics and the economics. The uneasy balance that has fuelled Hong Kongs protests is the same thing that has made its financial system so attractive to global businesses and investors: the city boasts deep connections to China within a decidedly non-Chinese framework. Hong Kong is the best place for foreign investors to buy Chinese shares and bonds or lend to Chinese companies. It offers a wider choice of Chinese assets than anywhere else outside the mainland. In Hong Kong, unlike the mainland, investors are protected by a mature legal system and can move money in and out, unimpeded by capital controls.在政治经济领域有一个普遍的思路。香港以一种具有决定性因素的非中国式的框架和中国保持着着紧密的联系,这种不稳定的平衡一方面加剧了香港的抗议,另一方面也让全球企业家和投资者对香港的金融系统趋之若鹜。对于外国投资者来说,香港是购买中国股票和债券,或借钱给中国企业的最佳地点。相比于中国大陆,香港为他们提供了前所未有的广泛选择中国资产的机会,并且香港还有一个成熟的法律制度来保护他们的资金出入,保持资本控制的畅通。For Russians keen to dodge sanctions, the Chinese-but-not-Chinese character of Hong Kong is also the big draw. Thanks to its peg, the Hong Kong dollar is a direct substitute for the American one. Yet the Chinese banks at which the Russians deposit their cash are seen as strong enough to resist Washingtons lawmakers.由于俄罗斯人基于逃避制裁,拥有中国市场而非中国监管机制的的这种特质使香港对国际资本非常具有吸引力。因为人民币同美元挂钩,港币就成为了美元的直接替代品。然而,俄罗斯人在中国存储的现金被视为足以抵抗华盛顿议员。It is certainly not the first time that Hong Kong has had to defend its peg. With the currency allowed to float within a range of HK.75-7.85 per US dollar, inflows have regularly tested the strong side of the band in recent years. The Hong Kong Monetary Authority has met the challenge and absorbed the incoming cash. Hedge funds have no appetite for taking it on. Until the yuan is freely convertible, which may not happen for years, the dollar peg looks safe.当然,这不是香港第一次必须维持这种挂钩。在1美元可兑换7.75-7.85港币的浮动区间内,近年来资本的流入对此波段中的高点形成考验。香港金融已经遇到了挑战并且已经开始吸收流入的现金。对冲基金根本不想吃进这笔热钱。直到人民币能够自由兑换,虽然这在多年内可能不会发生,和美元挂钩的汇率制度看起来很安全。Yet this picture of stability is changing as Hong Kong is drawn more closely into Chinas economic orbit. One-tenth of deposits in its banking system are now denominated in yuan, up from less than 1% five years ago. Loans to Chinese corporate borrowers now account for one-fifth of Hong Kong bank assets, up from 5% in 2007. This change has led some to conclude that the territorys links to China are becoming an economic liability rather than a selling-point. Moodys, a credit-rating agency, has given Hong Kong banks a “negative outlook”—a warning that it may downgrade them. The IMF has warned of spillovers from a Chinese slowdown.然而随着香港和中国经济的关系日益紧密,汇率稳定性也在不断发生变化。现在香港金融有10%的储蓄是以人民币计价的,而在5年以前仅有不到1%是人民币。给中国公司贷款的金额占香港资产的20%,而在2007年还不到5%。有人说,和中国大陆的领土连结现在已经由卖点变成了经济上的债务关系,而这种改变并不是好事。一家信用评级机构穆迪已经给了香港“负面展望”—警告说他们可能会降低香港的信用等级。国际货币基金组织也警告说这有可能是中国经济衰退的溢出效应。But if Hong Kong has one foot more firmly planted in China than before, it still has the other foot very much in the torrent of global capital flows. It is this non-China side of the picture that is the pressing concern. With its currency peg, Hong Kong has no choice but to import monetary policy set by the Federal Reserve according to Americas needs. Five years of exceptionally low interest rates have turbocharged Hong Kongs banks by making it cheaper to borrow the money they go on to lend.但是如果香港一方面已经更坚定地要立足中国,它另一方面还得忍受全球资本流动的冲击。二者相比,非中国的那一面显得更加紧迫。因为采取和美元挂钩的汇率制度,香港除了遵循美联储根据美国需要所制定的货币政策之外,别无他法。过去5年特别低的汇率已经通过再降低借款利率的方式来向香港增压。Last years “taper tantrum”, when investors fretted about a rise in American interest rates, provided a taste of how cash flows into Hong Kong can easily turn to outflows. More than Chinas growth, Russian sanctions or Hong Kongs own politics, the Federal Reserve will have the biggest hand in shaping Hong Kongs financial fortunes in the coming months.当投资者还在担心美元汇率上升的时候,去年的“锥发脾气”已经为现金便捷地在香港流入流出提供了可能。在今后的几个月了,美联储将超过中国增长、俄罗斯制裁、或是香港自身的政策,成为香港金融财富的最大推手。 /201408/320720福州市博爱医院医生

龙岩试管生儿子哪个医院好So now there are rumors and this is done,right?我听说 暮光之城破晓 已经拍完了 哈They keep saying that theres now gonna be more of at least another one.他们说还会有更多的续集出现 或者另外一集But thats not true,is that true?但这只是谣言 真的吗Its amazing,when theyre all talking about another one before this one not even come out.大奇怪了 现在这部还没拍出来呢 他们就在说另一部了Im not finish yet. right,yeah.And there is no more book.我还没拍完这个呐 亲 是啊 而且作者也不再写续集了Right,but you could kind of make up something after that,不过在 破晓 之后你可以再编点什么it doesnt have to be a book if it makes money and people love you不一定非得有小说原著 如果电影续集能大卖 大家有喜欢你们why wouldnt you make another one?Would you make another one?为什么不在拍一部呢 你们会拍下一部吗If there was an alien invasion and stuff.I was sort of thinking one day that they kind of...they sort of mixed up with the avengers or maybe just make it like twilight slash avengers.如果续集有外来物种入侵什么的 我想也许可以这么拍 某天 外来物种入侵 他们与复仇联盟的英雄们混在一起 或者电影就叫 暮光之城与复仇者联盟Thats actually a good idea.这可是个好点子I was also thinking another way of doing it is that make it look like Will grace,where Edward turns gay.我还想了另一个版本 就跟will grace差不多 不过eward 变弯了But they still stay together.And they raise the kid and everything.但是他们还是在一起了 他们共同抚养孩子 一起做所有的事情So you got some ideas,ha?Im writing some of these stuff down.你已经有点想法了 哈 我要把这点子记下来Maybe just combine that alien invasion.也许可以和外来物种入侵那段结合起来Thats right.Get my agent on the phone.太对了 快给我的经纪人打电话注:EllenShow中英字幕来源于:艾伦秀字幕组 /201311/264075 Science and technology科学技术Genetically modified tree转基因树木Into the wildwood进军森林A GM species may soon be liberated deliberately一种转基因树木不久或将大量种植,但很审慎ONCE upon a time, according to folklore, a squirrel could travel through Americas chestnut forests from Maine to Florida without ever touching the ground.民间流传有这样的故事:很久很久以前,松鼠在穿过美国缅因州到福罗里达州的栗树林时,可以一直不触碰地面。The chestnut population of North America was reckoned then to have been about 4 billion trees. No longer.估计北美那时的栗树约有40亿棵。现在却不复存在了。Axes and chainsaws must take a share of the blame.必须说,斧头锯子不乏其罪,But the principal culprit is Cryphonectria parasitica, the fungus that causes chestnut blight.但栗疫病菌才是罪魁祸首,是这种真菌致栗树感染了栗疫病。In the late 19th century, some infected saplings from Asia brought C. parasitica to North America. By 1950 the chestnut was little more than a memory in most parts of the continent.19世纪后期,一批亚洲来的感染栗疫病菌的树苗把该病菌带到了北美。到了20世纪50年代,北美大陆大部分地区的栗树便全部消失,成为了回忆。American chestnuts may, however, be about to rise again—thanks to genetic engineering.但有了基因工程,美国栗树有望再次繁茂起来。This month three experimental patches will be planted, under the watchful eye of the Department of Agriculture, in Georgia, New York and Virginia.在美国农业部的密切看护下,将于本月在乔治亚州、纽约州和弗吉尼亚州分别栽种一片栗树林进行实验。Along with their normal complements of genes, these trees have been fitted with a handful of others that researchers hope will protect them from the fungus.这些栗树除携带正常的附加基因外,还添加了少数不同寻常的附加基因。研究者希望通过添加这些基因来防止栗树被真菌感染。The project has been organised by the Forest Health Initiative, a quango set up to look into the idea of using genetic engineering to rescue species of tree whose populations have been devastated by fungal diseases or insect pests.该项目的组织者是一个半官方机构—森林健康行动,该机构的创立是为了检查用基因工程来拯救被真菌病或害虫摧毁的树木种群的可行性。It has sponsored research at several universities, and this months trial is the first big field test.FHI已在几所大学发起了研究倡议,并于本月迈出大型实地试验的第一步。If it works, the FHI will ask the government for permission to plant transgenic chestnuts in the wild, with the intention of re-establishing the species in Americas woodlands.如果可行,FHI则会向政府申请在自然环境中种植基因改良栗树,以重建美国林地的栗树林。And if that goes well, it could provide a model for projects to re-establish elm trees, ash trees and a fir tree known, confusingly, as the eastern hemlock.如果这也可行,那就能为榆树、白蜡树和杉树重建项目提供示范。The search for genetic protection for the chestnut was begun in 1990 by William Powell of the State University of New York, in Syracuse, and Scott Merkle of the University of Georgia, in Athens.栗树基因保护研究始于1990年,由锡拉丘兹市纽约州立大学的威廉·鲍威尔和爱森斯市乔治亚大学的斯科特·默克尔共同进行。Dr Powell knew that many of the symptoms of chestnut blight are caused by the oxalic acid that C. parasitica generates as it grows.鲍威尔确信,栗疫病的很多症状都由栗疫病菌生长时产生的草酸引起。He also knew that wheat has an enzyme called oxalate oxidase, which detoxifies oxalic acid.他也清楚,小麦有一种草酸氧化酶,能够分解草酸。He and his team therefore transferred the gene that encodes oxalate oxidase from wheat to chestnut.于是,鲍威尔和他的团队将小麦中能够编码草酸氧化酶的基因转移到了栗树的基因中。Last summer they showed that oxalate oxidase can indeed enhance blight-resistance.去年夏天,他们明了,草酸氧化酶的确能够增强栗树的抗枯萎性。A few years ago the Forest Health Initiative asked Dr Powell and some other researchers doing related studies to look at the work of the American Chestnut Foundation, a group which had been crossbreeding Chinese and American chestnuts.几年前,FHI邀请了正在进行相关研究的鲍威尔士和另一些研究者研究美国栗树研究基金会的工作。Since C. parasitica is Asian, Asiatic trees have evolved resistance to it. The foundation hoped to make a hybrid sufficiently Chinese to be protected, but sufficiently American to pass muster as local.由于栗疫病菌发于亚洲,亚洲树种已经形成了对该真菌的抗性。With the aid of the genomes of the two species, Dr Powell and his collaborators began testing 27 Chinese chestnut genes in the American tree.借助两种栗树的基因组,鲍威尔士及其合作伙伴开始在美国生长的树上测试27种板栗基因。The 800 trees to be planted this month will contain various combinations of these genes, the original wheat gene and six further genes from other tree species.本月将栽种800棵树,这些树包含了原小麦基因以及其他树种6种基因的各种组合基因。And results should come quickly.预计结果很快就可以得出。Field tests for blight-resistance are typically done when trees are a few years old, but Dr Powells team have devised a test of the saplings leaves that they believe can tell whether a tree is resistant when it is less than a year old.抗枯萎性的实地试验一般要当树木生长几年之后才能进行,但鲍威尔士研究小组想出了一个测试树苗叶子的办法,他们认为可以在树龄不满一年的情况下测试出树的抗性。The trial itself will last three years, and the researchers running it will monitor how the modified chestnuts fit in to the local ecosystem, as well as how healthy they are.这项试验会进行三年,进行该试验的研究者将持续观察记录改良过的栗树在当地生态系统的适应程度以及它们的健康状况。If they both do fit and are fit, a decision will then have to be made about whether to release them into the wild. That will be up to the Department of Agriculture, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Food and Drug Administration.如果能够适应并且长势良好,那是否要在自然环境中大量种植就得由农业部、环境保护署和食品药品监督来决定了。Until now, the genetic modification of trees has had strictly commercial aims: speeding up the growth and extending the environmental tolerance of species intended for plantations.迄今为止,改良树木基因带有明确的商业目的:一是催长,二是为了造林增加物种对环境的容忍度。This use of genetic modification has been opposed by environmentalists, who fear that such supertrees may escape and damage wild forests.为达到该商业目的使用转基因,遭到了环保主义者的反对,他们担心这样的超级树会疯长进而危害到野生丛林。The Forest Health Initiatives goal, though, is to heal wild forests, not hurt them.但FHI的目标是为了恢复而不是危害野生丛林。If its experiments do produce a strain of chestnut that could do the job, it will be interesting to see how enthusiastically greens embrace it.如果试验成功,真能培育出抗栗疫病菌的新品种,那看看环保党在欣然接受时会表现出怎样的欢欣鼓舞,还挺有意思的。 /201311/266596福州那家医院精子检查福州看不孕不育那家医院最好

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