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时间:2017年10月20日 15:08:13

Science is losing out because of the mistaken belief that ;men are from Mars and women from Venus;, a leading neuroscientist has claimed.来自英国阿斯顿大学的里彭教授说,由于被“男人来自火星,女人来自金星”的信仰所误导,科学正蒙受损失。Professor Gina Rippon said it was time to debunk the myth that gender differences are hard-wired into our brains.吉娜·里彭(Gina Rippon)教授说,是时候揭穿性别差异在我们大脑根深蒂固的神话了。In reality, there was no significant difference between the brains of a girl and boy in terms of their structure and function, she stressed.她强调,事实上从大脑的结构和功能上看,男生和女生并无明显差别。But experiences and even attitudes could change the ;plastic; brain on a physical level, causing its wiring to alter.但经历甚至态度能在物理等级上改变“可塑造的”大脑,引起它的结构变化。It was this that led girls and boys from an early age to head in different directions, said Prof Rippon, from Aston University.这就是导致男女生从早期开始向不同方向发展的因素,来自英国阿斯顿大学的教授Rippon说道。While girls tended to gravitate towards fields of communication, people skills and the arts, boys were more likely to become scientists and engineers.女孩倾向于人际关系技巧和艺术所吸引的时候,男孩更倾向于成为科学家和工程师。Even when girls went into science, they mostly chose careers at the ;softer; end of the subject, such as biology, psychology and sociology, rather than physics and maths.即便女生进入科学领域,她们更多选择类似生物、心理学和社会学这样“较浅显”的学科,而非数学或物理。Speaking ahead of this year#39;s British Science Festival, taking place at the University of Birmingham next week, Prof Rippon said: ;We#39;re stuck in the 19th century model of the #39;vacuum packed#39; brain, the idea that we#39;re born with a brain that gives us certain skills and behaviours.今年的英国科技节将于下周在伯明翰大学举办,在此之前里彭教授说,“我们被19世纪‘真空包装’的大脑模式所困,即我们在出生时大脑就有相应的技能和行为。”;The brain doesn#39;t develop in a vacuum.“大脑并非在真空之中发展。”;What we now know is that the brain is much more affected by stereotypes in the environment and attitudes in the environment, and that doesn#39;t just change behaviour, it changes the brain.;“我们现在知道的是,大脑更容易被环境中的固有陈规和态度影响,它们并没有改变行为,而是改变了大脑。”Last year, 5, 000 boys in the UK completed Level 3 engineering apprenticeships, but only 40 girls, Prof Rippon pointed out.里彭教授指出,去年完成了英国3级工程师学徒制的男生多达5000名,但女生只有40名。Boys taking physics A level also vastly outnumbered girls.取得物理学高分的男生也比女生多得多。But Prof Rippon insisted this was nothing to do with innate differences in the way the brains of girls and boys worked.但里彭教授坚称这与男女生先天的大脑工作机制差异并无关系。Rather, it was likely to be the result of their brains being altered by experience.相反,它更像是大脑被经历所改变的结果。One of the most often ed examples of gender difference is spatial ability - the ability to understand the relationships between different objects in space.举一个屡见不鲜的例子,性别的差异体现在空间能力——一种理解空间中不同物体间关系的能力上。Boys are said to be naturally more spatially gifted.据说男生天生就在空间能力方面有才华。But if girls aged six to eight are given the tile-matching puzzle game Tetris, their brain wiring changes and their spatial ability improves, Prof Rippon said.但里彭教授说,若女生在6岁时能接触俄罗斯方块这样的益智拼图游戏,她们的大脑架构将得到改变,她们的空间能力也会提高。She added: “It#39;s quite clear that spatial cognition is very much involved with experience, whether or not you have experience of manipulating objects as opposed to just observing them.她还说:“很明显空间认知和经历是息息相关的,无论你是否有操控物体或仅仅是观察它们的经验。”;This goes back to #39;toys for boys#39;.“这可以追溯到‘男孩的玩具’上。”;From a very early age, boys have a lot more experience with manipulating objects.;“男孩子们从很小的时候,就富有操控物体的经验。”Research had shown that as women attained greater access to education and power, gender differences began to disappear.研究表明随着女生有更好的受教育和获得权力的机会,性别差异正在消失。Prof Rippon was also dismissive of evolutionary psychologists who claimed the way men and women thought was largely the result of natural selection.里彭教授也很不屑理会那些演化心理学家,他们宣称男性和女性思维大部分是自然选择的结果。;The idea that women like the colour pink because it made them better able to pick berries - it#39;s nonsense, ; she said.“女性喜欢粉色是因为这让她们更擅长挑选浆果,这种观点简直荒唐。”她说。Ill-conceived attempts to ;fix; the problem of girls not going into science were likely to backfire, Prof Rippon argued.妄图“修正”女生不去进入科学界的尝试看来即将破产,里彭教授辩称。One infamous example of this was the European Commission#39;s Science Is A Girl Thing released in 2012 which was swiftly dropped ;because it was so awful;.这里有一个声名狼藉的例子,2012年所发布的一个视频——欧洲委员会科学部是女人干的活,它很快就下线了,因为“它真的很糟糕。”;It showed girls in lab coats testing lipstick and giggling a lot, ; Prof Rippon said.“视频里的女孩们穿着实验室的大衣测试口红,咯咯笑个不停,”里彭教授说。She added: ;Science is something everybody should engage with.她还说:“每个人都该接触科学。”;Let#39;s not make science girly.“别把科学变成少女。”;Let#39;s make science interesting to anyone.;“要让每个人都对科学感兴趣。” /201409/328984

How to Use Your Cat to Hack Your Neighbor#39;s WiFi如何用你家喵获取邻居们的WIFI?Coco, modeling the WarKitteh collar. (Gene Bransfield)展示智能宠物项圈的喵模可可Late last month, a Siamese cat named Coco went wandering in hissuburban Washington, D.C. neighborhood. He spent three hours exploringnearby backyards. He killed a mouse, whose carcass he thoughtfully broughthome to his octogenarian owner, Nancy. And while he was out, Coco mapped dozensof his neighbors’ WiFi networks, identifying four routers that used an old,easily broken form of encryption and another four that were left entirelyunprotected.上月末,一只叫可可的暹罗猫在他所属的华盛顿哥伦比亚特郊区附近闲逛。他花了三个小时逛完近邻们的后院。然后很贴心的抓了只老鼠带回家孝敬他耄耋之年的老主人南希。可可在外转悠时,顺便对邻居的WiFi做了些调查。他很确定,其中4家路由器太陈旧,相当容易破解,还有4户路由器根本就没有密码。Unbeknownst to Coco, he’d been fitted with a collar created byNancy#39;s granddaughter#39;s husband, security researcher Gene Bransfield. AndBransfield had built into that collar a Spark Core chip loaded with hiscustom-coded firmware, a WiFi card, a tiny GPS module and a battery —everything necessary to map all the networks in the neighborhood that would bevulnerable to any intruder or WiFi mooch with, at most, some simplecrypto-cracking tools.可可不知道他脖子上带的项圈,是南希孙女婿安全研究员吉恩·布朗菲尔德设计的。吉恩在项圈中装了星火核心芯片,芯片中有定制编码硬件、WiFi卡、微型GPS模块和电池。对于探测邻居们的网络,了解谁家完全不设防,谁家用简单密码工具就能破解侵入,这些准备很有用。In the 1980s, hackers used a technique called ;wardialing,;cycling through numbers with their modems to find unprotected computers faracross the Internet. The advent of WiFi brought ;wardriving,; putting anantenna in a car and cruising a city to suss out weak and unprotected WiFinetworks. This weekend at the DEF CON hacker conference in Las Vegas,Bransfield will debut the next logical step: The ;WarKitteh; collar, adevice he built for less than 0 that turns any outdoor cat into aWiFi-sniffing hacker accomplice.20世纪80年,黑客们有种叫 “战争拨号”的技术,它通过调制解调器,循环搜索数据,不受区域限制的找到互联网中无保护的电脑。WiFi的发明带来了“接入点映射”技术,车内装根天线,然后在城里转悠,立刻就能探测到易破解或不设密无线网。本周末,在DEF CON黑客大会上,Bransfield将推介一款逻辑运算新产品:“智能宠物项圈”。他设计的这个装置价格不到100美金,却能够让任何一只室外活动的猫变身WiFi探测器成为黑客帮凶。猫咪SkitzyDespite the title of his DEF CON talk —;How To Weaponize YourPets;— Bransfield admits WarKitteh doesn#39;t represent a substantial securitythreat. Rather, it#39;s the sort of goofy hack designed to entertain the con#39;shacker audience. Still, he was surprised by just how many networks tracked by hisdata-collecting cat used WEP, a form of wireless encryption known for more than10 years to be easily broken. ;My intent was not to show people where to getfree WiFi. I put some technology on a cat and let it roam around because theidea amused me,; says Bransfield, who works for the security consultancyTenacity. ;But the result of this cat research was that there were a lotmore open and WEP-encrypted hotspots out there than there should be in 2014.;tupian尽管这回DEF CON黑客大会的主题是——“如何让宠物变成武器”,但布兰斯菲尔德坚信,智能宠物项圈不构成巨大安全威胁。相反,这种趣味设计是为众黑客。不过,他用喵星人探测使用有限等效保密(WEP)加密技术的网络数据,让他大吃了一惊,因为大家十多年前就知道这种无线加密技术易破解。“我的目的不是让人们知道哪有免费WiFi,只是觉得把探测技术装在猫咪身上,让它带着四处转悠这种想法很好玩。”从事网络安全工作的布兰斯菲尔德说,“但猫咪探测数据显示,很多人不设密或加密技术滞后,已经2014年了不应该还有这么多人忽视网络安全。”In his DEF CON talk, Bransfield plans to explain how anyone canreplicate the WarKitteh collar to create his own WiFi-spying cat, a featthat#39;s only become easier in the past months as the collar#39;s Spark Core chiphas become easier to program. Bransfield came up with the idea offeline-powered WiFi reconnaissance when someone attending one of his securitybriefings showed him a GPS collar designed to let people locate their pets bysending a text message. ;All it needed was a WiFi sniffer,; he says. ;I thoughtthe idea was hilarious, and I decided to make it.;黑客大会演讲中,布兰斯菲尔德准备讲解如何复制智能宠物项圈,打造自家WiFi探测猫。这项壮举花了数个月才完成,因为星火核心程序容易编写。曾经有个人在安全简报会上向他展示了一个发射信号定位宠物GPS的项圈,布兰斯菲尔德就是那时候冒出用猫进行无线探测想法的。“它所需要的不过是一个WiFi嗅探器,”他说,“我认为这个想法很有意思,所以我决定做一个。”His first experiment involved hiding an HTC Wildfire smartphone inthe pocket of a dog jacket worn by his co-worker#39;s tabby, Skitzy. Skitzyquickly managed to worm out of the jacket, however, losing Bransfield#39;s gear.;It was a disaster,; he says. ;That cat still owes me a phone.;首次实验中,他把一个HTC野火智能手机藏在宠物外套口袋里,然后给他的虎斑猫搭档Skitzy穿上。但是Skitzy很快就甩掉外套,搞丢了布兰斯菲尔德的装置。“那简直是场灾难,”他说,“那只猫欠我一部手机。”智能项圈原件线路同美元尺寸对照Bransfield spent the next months painstakingly creating theWarKitteh, using Spark#39;s Arduino-compatible open source hardware and enlistingNancy to sew it into a strip of cloth. When he finally tested it on Skitzy,however, he was disappointed to find that the cat spent the device’s entirebattery life sitting on his co-worker#39;s front porch.接下来的几个月里,布兰斯菲尔德呃精力都放在了打造智能宠物项圈上。南希帮他把原件缝进了布条里,然后戴在Skitzy身上测试。但是,Skitzy令他失望了,猫咪坐前廊上不动弹,一直到电池没电。Coco turned out to be a better spy. Over three hours, he revealed23 WiFi hotspots, more than a third of which were open to snoops or usedcrackable WEP instead of the more modern WPA encryption. Bransfield mappedthose networks in a program created by an Internet collaborator, usingGoogle Earth#39;s API. The number of vulnerable access points surprisedBransfield; he says that several of the WEP connections were Verizon FiOSrouters left with their default settings unchanged.结果显示,可可是只出色的间谍猫。三个多小时里,他探测了23个WiFi点情况,发现超过三分之一的点完全对外开放,或只是使用易破解的WEP而非更先进的WPA加密技术。布兰斯菲尔德将这些网络点通过谷歌地球的应用程序接口(API)在由英特网合作创建的程序中绘制出来,安全防护薄弱的网点数量之多令人吃惊。布兰斯菲尔德说,少数WEP连接点是默认威瑞森公司光纤路由器出厂设置的。Though he admits his cat stunt was mostly intended to entertainhimself, he hopes it might make more users aware of privacy lessons those inthe security community have long taken for granted. ;Cats are more interestingto people than information security,; Bransfield says. ;If people realize thata cat can pick up on their open WiFi hotspot, maybe that#39;s a good thing.;虽然他承认猫咪探长主要是为了自己,但也希望能让更多人认识到,在高安全度的社区也应该注意隐私保护。“对人们来说猫咪比信息安全有趣。”布兰斯菲尔德说。“如果人们能够意识到连猫咪都能打开他们的WiFi,这未必不是件好事。” /201408/322104


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