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原标题: 玉山县人民医院激光祛痘多少钱快乐知识
Apple#39;s chief executive, Tim Cook, has said he is ;extremely sorry for the frustration; users have found with its new mapping service, adding that if they are dissatisfied they can use rival products.苹果首席执行官蒂姆#8226;库克表示,用户已经发现其新的地图务的错误,他 “对此非常抱歉”,补充说如果他们不满意,可以使用竞争对手的产品。The dramatic move by Cook follows growing complaints about the quality of the data offered by the new Maps app which was introduced with iOS 6, the newest version of the mobile software powering the iPhone and iPad.这戏剧性的一幕发生在iOS 6系统的新地图应用提供的数据质量遭到不断抱怨之后,iOS 6是持iPhone和iPad的移动软件新版本。;We are doing everything we can to make Maps better,; Cook wrote in a letter posted on Apple#39;s site – a method frequently used by Cook#39;s predecessor Steve Jobs to issue messages when Apple was facing criticism.“我们将采取一切可能的举措,使地图务变得更好,”,库克在苹果网上的致歉信中写道,——库克的前任史蒂夫#8226;乔布斯经常使用的方法,即当苹果公司面临批评时他就发布信息。Apple has apologised in the past for errors – though sometimes grudgingly.苹果公司已经为过去的错误道歉 - 尽管有时并不情愿。Cook says in the letter that ;we wanted to provide our customers with even better Maps including features such as turn-by-turn directions, voice integration, [satellite view] Flyover and vector-based maps [which store data in a single file rather than needing repeated downloads to work]. In order to do this, we had to create a new version of Maps from the ground up.;库克在信中说:“我们希望向用户提供更好的地图务,包括按方向导航、语音和俯瞰视图(Flyover)功能,并引入矢量地图数据。为了做到这一点,我们从头开始开发了新版地图务。”Although iOS 6 was only released formally on 19 September, Cook says there are now more than 100m devices using it with the new Apple Maps, ;with more and more joining us every day.; He said that users ;have aly searched for nearly half a billion locations; and that such feedback will improve the quality.库克说,虽然iOS6在 9月19日才正式发布,但目前已有超过1亿部iOS设备使用新版苹果地图,每天还有更多用户加入。他说用户已经搜索了近5亿个位置。这种反馈将提高产品质量。Unusually, Cook recommends that users who are dissatisfied with Apple#39;s offering should try rival services. These include apps by MapQuest, Waze and Microsoft#39;s Bing, or maps from Google and Nokia via web browsers.不同寻常的是,库克建议对苹果公司产品不满意的用户应该尝试其竞争对手的务。这些包括MapQuest、Waze和微软必应的地图应用,或来自谷歌和诺基亚网站上的地图务。However, Google#39;s executive chairman, Eric Schmidt, indicated earlier this week that the search giant is not presently developing an app for iOS.然而,谷歌执行董事长埃里克#8226;施密特表示,本周早些时候这家搜索巨头目前并没有开发一种适用于iOS的应用程序。#39;#39;What were we going to do, force (Apple) to include the software?; Schmidt said in Tokyo on Monday, adding that Google has no plans at present to complete its iOS Google Maps app and submit it to Apple. That decision lies with Apple, Schmidt said.“我们应该做的难道是迫使苹果兼容我们的软件吗?”施密特周一在东京表示,他补充说谷歌目前没有计划完成其iOS的谷歌地图应用程序并把它交给苹果。这一决定取决于苹果。#39;#39;We think it would have been better if they had kept ours. But what do I know?; he added.“我们认为如果苹果运用我们的软件这将会更好。但我知道什么?“他补充说。 /201209/202301

A new guest arrived just in time for Thanksgiving dinner, but apparently didn#39;t survive the festivities. 一个新客人及时赶赴感恩节晚餐,但显然没在节日活动中活下来。 The visitor, a pristine comet called ISON that left its home at least a million years ago, made its closest approach to the sun Thursday afternoon. 这位访客是一颗名叫伊森(ISON)的原始彗星,自走出家门已至少有100万年,它于美东时间周四下午飞抵近日点。 But based on images arriving from various spacecraft, the consensus among scientists appeared to be that ISON, like the mythical Icarus, didn#39;t survive its close encounter with the sun. 然而根据多个航天器发回的照片,科学家似乎一致认为,伊森同神话人物伊卡洛斯(Icarus)一般,已在与太阳的近距离接触中“死去”。 The comet#39;s sweep near the sun was a moment that thousands of astronomers around the world had anxiously awaited, and before hopes dimmed about its survival, ISON was predicted to possibly loop around the star and emerge as a bright object visible to the naked eye in the skies of the Northern Hemisphere. 此前,全世界上千位天文学家翘首期盼着彗星扫过太阳的那一刻,并且在其“生还”希望变得渺茫前,科学家曾预测伊森或将环绕太阳并在北半球上空散发出肉眼可见的明亮光芒。 However, scientists now suspect it fragmented into countless pieces-never to be seen again. 而现在科学家怀疑它已破碎成无数个碎片,再也无法见到。 Before the close approach, observations #39;showed that the comet had brightened and then lost brightness. So there#39;s a lot of conjecture that it might be fading,#39; said Padma Yanamandra-Fisher, a planetary scientist at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo., before the comet made its close pass with the sun. 科罗拉多州尔德太空科学研究所(Space Science Institute)的行星科学家费希尔(Padma Yanamandra-Fisher)在彗星接近太阳之前说,观察显示,这颗彗星在靠近太阳前曾一度变亮又失去了亮度。因而许多人猜测它或许正在消亡。 Since it was spotted more than a year ago, ISON#39;s behavior has constantly surprised astronomers, and they had held out hope that the comet could still put on a pretty display. On Monday, for example, it looked like it wouldn#39;t survive. Yet it was still there on Tuesday. 自一年多前被发现以来,伊森的运行状态就不断地令天文学家感到惊讶,而他们一直期望这颗彗星仍能展现出美丽的奇观。比如周一这颗彗星看起来似乎将解体,然而周二它依然存在着。 In addition to being a cosmic tease, ISON was one of the most tracked comets in history. 除了是个天体淘气鬼,伊森还成为了有史以来追踪者最多的彗星之一。 Thousands of telescopes-amateur, professional and space-borne-were being trained on this relatively tiny clump of ancient rock and ice no more than three or four miles in diameter. 上千台业余、专业和太空望远镜都被瞄准这颗原始彗星。该彗星体型较小,由石块和冰组成,直径不超过五、六公里。 The comet was discovered in September 2012 by Russian astronomers Vitali Nevski and Artyom Novichonok using data from the International Scientific Optical Network, whose initials provided the name. 2012年9月,俄罗斯天文学家涅夫斯基(Vitali Nevski)和诺维切诺克(Artyom Novichonok)利用国际科学光学观测网(International Scientific Optical Network, ISON)的数据发现了这颗彗星,并以观测网的英文缩写命名了这颗彗星。 Nothing like ISON has been seen in living memory. It is a relatively rare #39;sungrazer,#39; a comet that flies especially close to our sun. 现世从未见过像伊森这样的彗星。它是一颗罕见的掠日彗星,其飞行轨道与太阳极其贴近。 Unlike periodic comets that come and go like the famous Halley#39;s, ISON is pristine and was making its first journey toward the sun. Its composition-mainly rock and ice-has barely changed since it formed some 4.5 billion years ago, making it one of the oldest objects in the solar system. 不同于像著名的哈雷彗星(Halley)这样的频繁来往的周期彗星,伊森是一颗原始彗星,而这是它第一次飞向太阳,其组成(主要为岩石和冰)自约450万年前彗星形成以来几乎没有变化,这使得它成为太阳系里最古老的天体之一。 That had scientists intrigued, because ISON#39;s proximity to the sun, and the chance to study what it is made of, could provide valuable clues about origins of the solar system. 令科学家感兴趣的原因不仅是伊森离太阳之近,还因其成份研究能够为太阳系起源提供有价值的线索。 When a new comet flies close to the sun, the tremendous heat can help reveal rarer materials, such as metals, of which it is made. 当一颗新的彗星飞近太阳时,极大的热量会将构成这颗彗星的稀有材质暴露出来,例如金属。 #39;It#39;s the first time in 200 years that we#39;ve seen a comet that#39;s both a sungrazer and brand new,#39; said Matthew Knight from the Lowell Observatory in Arizona. 亚利桑那州洛厄尔天文台(Lowell Observatory)的奈特(Matthew Knight)说,这是200年来我们所看到的第一颗崭新的掠日彗星。 If ISON had survived, scientists predicted it would have been poised to put on a display in the first week of December, at least for Northern Hemisphere viewers. 如果伊森没有解体,科学家预测它将会在12月的第一周展现光芒,至少北半球的人们将能看到它。 #39;It would have a very long and bright tail as it comes up from the horizon shortly before sunrise,#39; said Dr. Knight, before Thursday#39;s fatal close encounter. 奈特在周四彗星“致命”的近日之旅前说,它将在接近日出时从地平线升起,并拖着一条很长很明亮的彗尾。 #39;If you go out 30 minutes before [sunrise], you should be able to see it with the naked eye.#39; 他说,如果你在(日出)30分钟前来到户外,你应该就能用肉眼看到它。 But that was only if ISON had survived Thursday#39;s flyby. 不过前提是伊森能在周四飞过太阳时“存活”下来。 /201312/266994From meat thermometers monitored with a smartphone to Wi-Fi-equipped dog collars, devices and services in homes and businesses are increasingly being connected to the Internet, a long-awaited trend that is causing a surge of optimism in the tech sector.从以智能手机监控的肉类温度计到配备Wi-Fi的犬只项圈,家用和商用的设备与务越来越多地与互联网相连,这一人们期待已久的趋势正引发科技行业汹涌的乐观情绪。Large and small companies are churning out a number of Internet-connected gadgets, a central theme as the Consumer Electronics Show opens this week in Las Vegas.大大小小的公司纷纷推出众多连接互联网的设备,这是消费电子展(Consumer Electronics Show)本周在开幕之际的一个中心主题。Devices on the market or the drawing board include smart door locks, toothbrushes, wristwatches, fitness trackers, smoke detectors, surveillance cameras, ovens, toys and robots.已经上市或尚在设计中的设备包括智能门锁、牙刷、腕表、健身记录仪、烟雾探测器、监控摄像头、炉具、玩具和机器人。But the much-ballyhooed Internet of Things still is largely a collection of possibilities. Sales of the new-wave products are threatened by a number of stumbling blocks that could slow investment--from conflicting wireless-communications standards to debates about how much processing power should be built into gadgets.但规模大大膨胀的“物联网”(Internet of Things)在很大程度上仍然只是各种可能性的集合。这些新浪潮产品的销售受到众多可能减缓投资的障碍威胁――从互相矛盾的无线通信标准到有关设备处理能力的争论不一而足。Some industry executives say privacy concerns may be even more serious, without a consensus on how to exploit all the data that could be generated by a flood of new sensors and Internet-connected cameras.一些业内高管认为,人们对隐私的担忧可能更严重,因为一大批新传感器和连接互联网的视频摄像头将产生大量数据,这些数据如何加以利用尚未形成共识。#39;Big data is worth absolutely nothing without big judgment,#39; says Joseph Bradley, director of what Cisco Systems Inc. calls its #39;Internet of Everything#39; consulting practice.思科系统(Cisco Systems Inc.)“万物互联”(Internet of Everything)咨询务的负责人布拉德利(Joseph Bradley)说,如果没有重要的判断力,大数据绝对是毫无价值。Nonetheless, heavyweights like General Electric Co., Intel Corp. and Qualcomm Inc. are jockeying for position.然而,通用电气(General Electric Co.)、英特尔(Intel Corp.)和高通(Qualcomm Inc.)等重量级企业都在纷纷抢占有利地位。#39;I#39;ve never seen our industry go as fast as it is, or create as much value,#39; says Marc Benioff, chief executive of Salesforce.com Inc. #39;It#39;s a very magical time.#39;Salesforce.com Inc.首席执行长贝尼奥夫(Marc Benioff)说,我从未见过我们的行业如此迅猛地发展,或创造如此之大的价值。这是个极度神奇的时代。Cisco estimates that the number of devices connected to the Internet will swell from about 10 billion today to 50 billion by 2020, as wireless links sp beyond smartphones and PCs to many other kinds of devices. The Silicon Valley giant#39;s chief executive, John Chambers, is expected to discuss the opportunities Tuesday in a keynote speech at CES.思科估计,随着无线连接从智能手机和电脑扩散到众多其他类型的设备,连接互联网的设备数量将从当前的约100亿迅速增加到2020年的500亿。这家硅谷巨头的首席执行长钱伯斯(John Chambers)预计周二在消费电子展的主旨演讲中将探讨相关机会。Gartner Inc. puts the number of connected devices at fewer than 30 billion, but sees 9 billion in additional revenue for product and service suppliers by 2020 and .9 trillion in total economic impact from cost savings, improved productivity and other factors.市场研究机构Gartner Inc.预计到2020年连网设备数量不到300亿,但预计产品和务提供商营收将增加3,090亿美元,同时因成本节省、生产率提高和其他因素给经济造成的影响总计达1.9万亿美元。The vision of a world of smart gadgets emerged even before the Web. A.C. #39;Mike#39; Markkula, a co-founder of Apple Computer Inc., had a brainstorm in the mid-1980s about combining functions for networking and controlling devices on a single chip. Those #39;neurons,#39; as they came to be called, were expected to sp widely once their cost fell to around . But the company he founded, Echelon Corp., didn#39;t hit that target and has had a bumpy history.对于智能设备世界的设想早在互联网时代之前就已有之。苹果电脑公司(Apple Computer Inc.)联合创始人马库拉(;Mike; Markkula)在上世纪80年代就灵机一动提出了将网络与控制设备的功能集合于一块芯片上的想法。人们预计,这种后来被称为“神经元”的芯片成本一旦下降到1美元左右,将会广为传播。但马库拉创建的公司Echelon Corp.未能达到这个目标,经历了坎坷历史。#39;I keep kicking myself,#39; he says. #39;I was 20 years too soon.#39;马库拉说,我一直严厉自责。我的想法早了20年。Chip makers did steadily push down the cost of adding intelligence to everyday gadgets, often to less than . Another driver has been the onslaught of smartphones and tablets, which can serve as handy Web-connected remote controls for devices in the home and workplace.芯片生产商确实稳步压低了将日常设备智能化的成本,这类成本通常不到5美元。另一个推动力是智能手机和平板电脑的横空出世,它们可以作为方便的家用和商用设备连网遥控器。Potential benefits range from fairly prosaic to profound. Consumers, for example, can now use smartphones to remotely check if they locked doors, left the lights on or turned down the thermostat. Retailers can help smartphone users find goods on store shelves, and wirelessly pitch sales promotions. Parking meters can communicate with smartphone users.可能的好处从平平无奇到意义深远。例如,现在消费者可以利用智能手机远程检查自己是否锁了门、忘记关灯或是否关掉了恒温器。零售商可以帮助智能手机用户找到商店货架上的商品,并通过无线网络进行促销宣传。停车计时器也可以与智能手机用户交流。Companies like Silver Spring Networks Inc. sell wireless meters to manage energy usage, while GE exploits data generated by sensors to monitor the health of jet engines and gas turbines.Silver Spring Networks Inc.这样的公司销售管理能源使用的无线计量表,通用电器则利用传感器产生的数据监控喷气式发动机和燃气涡轮的情况。The opportunities have attracted a number of startups, some of which have managed to raise substantial funding from venture capitalists. The best-known is Nest Labs Inc., a maker of Wi-Fi-equipped thermostats and smoke detectors led by former Apple Inc. executive Tony Fadell. Another example is August, which is developing smart door locks and has raised million to date.这样的机会吸引了一大批初创企业,其中一些成功地从风险投资家那里筹集了可观的资金。其中最有名的就是Nest Labs Inc.,该公司生产配备Wi-Fi的恒温器和烟雾探测器,其领导者是苹果公司(Apple Inc.)前高管法德尔(Tony Fadell)。另一个例子是生产智能门锁的August,迄今已筹资1,000万美元。Others are leaning heavily on crowdfunding sites like Kickstarter and Indiegogo, as investors worry about the potential costs of hatching hardware startups--and the likelihood that entrenched companies will adapt their existing products to dominate Internet-of-Things opportunities.其他一些初创企业严重依赖Kickstarter和Indiegogo之类的众投网站,原因是投资者担忧硬件初创企业的潜在孵化成本,以及地位稳固的公司将调整现有产品、主导“物联网”机遇的可能性。#39;The body count is quite high of startups that have made hardware,#39; says Jason Johnson, August#39;s CEO and founder of the Internet of Things Consortium.August首席执行长、非营利组织Internet of Things Consortium的创始人约翰逊(Jason Johnson)说,生产硬件的初创公司为数众多。For those reasons, some startups are developing new services to help manage connected devices, while existing companies are modifying business models to exploit the data likely to flow from them. Insurance companies, for example, can respond to sensors and wireless connections in cars to charge drivers by the mile and speed they drive, instead of by where they live.出于这些原因,一些初创公司在开发新的务以帮助管理互联设备,而现有的企业则纷纷修正业务模式,以利用互联设备可能产生的数据。例如保险公司可以利用汽车中的传感器和无线连接,依据驾驶里程数和行驶速度来向驾车者收取费用,而不是依据驾车者的居住地。#39;The value of the devices will be secondary to the services they enable, #39; says Thomas Lee, a Stanford University professor of electrical engineering and co-founder of Ayla Networks Inc., an online service hoping to help turn ordinary products into cloud-connected devices.斯坦福大学(Standord University)电气工程学教授、Ayla Networks Inc.联合创始人Thomas Lee说,这些设备本身的价值相比它们使之成为可能的务来说是次要的。Ayla Networks是一个网络务,希望帮助将普通产品转化为云联网设备。So far, however, smart-home products seem mainly to be attracting technology enthusiasts. Only 1% to 2% of American consumers surveyed by Forrester Research in mid-2013 were using five widely touted home-automation offerings. Some 28% of respondents said they were interested in controlling appliances with a smartphone, but 53% weren#39;t.然而到目前为止,智能家用产品似乎主要还是吸引着科技迷。研究公司Forrester Research在2013年中调查的美国消费者中,仅有1%至2%的受调查者在使用五种广受吹捧的家用自动化产品。大约28%的受调查者说,他们对于以智能手机控制家电有兴趣,但53%的人表示没兴趣。Other hurdles face companies tackling the Internet of Things, including a fragmented assortment of wireless communications technologies. In home automation, for example, device makers face options that include Insteon, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Zigby, Z-Wave and earlier proprietary technologies.还有其他一些障碍令企业难以抓住“物联网”的机遇,包括无线通信技术形形色色的类型。比如在家庭自动化方面,设备生产商就面临着多种选择,包括Insteon、Wi-Fi、蓝牙、Zigby、Z-Wave和更早的专利技术。#39;It#39;s not that things aren#39;t getting connected--they are getting connected badly,#39; says Rob Chandhok, president of Qualcomm#39;s interactive platforms unit.高通的互动平台部门负责人钱德霍克(Rob Chandhok)说,实际上并不是没有实现“万物互联”,而是它们互联的方式太糟糕了。Qualcomm is trying to rally hardware makers around a technology called AllJoyn to help devices discover each other and collaborate. Meanwhile, startups trying to sell their own control devices are going through contortions; Revolv Inc., for example, is marketing a hub that can communicate using seven different radio technologies.高通正试图让硬件生产商团结在一项名为AllJoyn的技术周围,帮助各种设备相互发现并协作。与此同时,那些试图出售自己的控制设备的初创公司也在经历种种扭曲;如Revolv Inc.正在营销一款中央枢钮设备,可以利用七种不同的无线电技术进行通信。Mike Soucie, Revolv#39;s co-founder and marketing head, says agreements on key communications technologies may be five to 10 years away. Any standards that do emerge are likely to apply to a single market--like home security or transportation--rather than to many industries, predicts Gilad Meiri, chief executive of Neura Inc., a startup developing technology to help orchestrate connected devices.Revolv联合创始人兼营销负责人苏西(Mike Soucie)说,可能要五至10年才能就关键的通信技术达成协议。初创公司Neura Inc.首席执行长梅里(Gilad Meiri)说,得以浮现的任何标准都有可能是适用于某个单一市场(如家庭安全或交通),而不是在多行业通行。Neura致力于开发相关技术,帮助协调互联设备。Assuming devices can communicate, manufacturers need conventions for telling them what to do and how to work together. Meanwhile, other basic questions remain--like just how much intelligence should everyday devices have?假设不同设备之间能够实现交流,生产商就需要有统一的标准来下达指令以及让这些设备相互合作。同时也还有其他一些基本的问题――比如日常设备应当具备多高的智能?Companies like Intel and ARM Holdings PLC, which license technology to chip makers, stress the benefits brought by processors that can run sophisticated software and protocols that allow them to connect directly to the Internet.英特尔和ARM Holdings PLC这类向芯片生产商提供技术许可的公司强调可运行复杂软件和协议的处理器所带来的好处,这样的处理器可让设备直接连接互联网。But others believe such complex technology can reduce the reliability of home appliances and other devices, while raising the odds of bugs or security holes that could be exploited by attackers. They prefer simpler chips called microcontrollers, which are harder to reprogram to do unintended things.但也有人认为,如此复杂的科技可能降低家用电器和其他设备的可靠性,同时增加可能被攻击者利用的安全漏洞的机率。他们更青睐名为微控制器的较小芯片,这类芯片更难以通过再编程去从事计划之外的任务。#39;I want my refrigerator to be a thing; I don#39;t want it to be a computer, #39; says Shane Dyer, chief executive of Arrayent Inc., a startup marketing a Web-based service to manage microcontroller-powered devices.初创公司Arrayent Inc.的首席执行长戴尔(Shane Dyer)说:我希望我的冰箱是个物件;我不希望它成为一台电脑。Arrayent营销一项基于网络的务,用于管理以微控制器掌控的设备。Moreover, the data generated by connected devices could be used in ways consumers don#39;t like and create liabilities for companies. Chris Bruce, chief executive of Sproutling--a startup developing a smartphone-connected baby monitor--wonders if services that store data from connected devices might get subpoenas if something bad happens.另外,联网设备所产生的数据可能被用于消费者不愿意的用途,并给企业带来麻烦。初创公司Sproutling首席执行长布鲁斯(Chris Bruce)在思考,如果发生不好的事情,那些存储联网设备所产生数据的务会不会被诉诸法庭。该公司开发与智能手机相连的婴儿监视器。There are at least as many questions about the fast-growing flood of data from Internet-connected security cameras.连接互联网的安全摄像头产生了迅速增长的数据洪流,这些数据也同样引起了众多问题。#39;It is more than a little creepy,#39; says David Alan Grier, an associate professor of science and technology policy at George Washington University and 2013 president of the IEEE Computer Society. #39;There is going to have to be some clear thinking and some clear understanding of what is going on.#39;乔治华盛顿大学(George Washington University)科学与技术政策副教授、2013年IEEE Computer Society主席格里尔(David Alan Grier)说,这令人很有些毛骨悚然。未来人们必须清晰地思考和了解这一切是怎么回事。 /201401/271782Something odd is going on with Japan’s labour market. Unemployment is at 3.7 per cent. Recently, it has been as low as 3.5 per cent, considered by some economists to be pretty much full employment. (The uptick is only because the previously discouraged are flooding back to work.)日本劳动力市场正在上演一些奇怪的事情。目前失业率为3.7%。最近,失业率最低曾降至3.5%,一些经济学家认为这几乎称得上完全就业。(失业率上升只是因为以前那些就业意愿丧失者正涌入劳动大军。)The trend is being helped by demographics, which sees more baby-boomers retiring than millennials starting out. For every 100 people looking, there are 110 jobs on offer, the best ratio in 20 years. In some industries, including truck driving and healthcare, employers cannot find workers for love nor money. Building site foremen are in desperately short supply as construction companies work overtime to rebuild the tsunami-devastated coast and prepare for Tokyo’s 2020 Olympic Games. One restaurant chain specialising in beef-and-rice dishes was forced to close a 10th of its roughly 2,000 restaurants this summer because it could not find enough staff.人口状况助推了这种趋势,生于婴儿潮时期的退休人员数量现在超过了开始就业的千禧一代。现在每100个求职者有110个工作岗位可选择,这是20年来的最佳比率。在一些行业(包括卡车驾驶和医疗),雇主无论如何都招不到人。建筑工地工头严重短缺,因为建筑公司在加班加点,重建被海啸摧毁的海岸,以及为东京2020年奥运会做准备。今年夏季,由于无法雇到足够多的员工,一家专营牛肉饭的连锁餐厅被迫将其约2000家门店关闭了十分之一。You would have thought that wage inflation would be going crazy as a result. Unfortunately for Japan, you would be wrong. The government has badgered companies, which are making record profits, to share the love. Some have responded with modest wage increases, but not enough to keep pace with prices, which are rising thanks to monetary stimulus and a 3 percentage-point increase in sales tax.你原本会认为,薪资因此会疯狂上涨。不幸的是,对于日本而言,你错了。企业正赚着创纪录的利润,日本政府一直追着要求它们分享成果。一些企业适度上调了薪资,但不足以跟上通胀的速度,由于货币刺激以及消费税上调3个百分点,日本物价一直在上涨。It is just possible that labour-market tightness is finally filtering through. In July cash earnings for regular employees rose a hefty 2.6 per cent, the fastest increase for 17 years. But much of this has come in cash bonuses, not in the base pay that gives workers lasting confidence.可能劳动力市场的紧张最终在产生影响。今年7月,正式员工的现金收入大增2.6%,为17年来最高。但很多是以现金奖金的形式发放,而非让员工获得长久信心的基本工资。Japanese wages do not seem to be responding to normal market pressures. Why not? The conundrum has its roots in the altered structure of the labour market. Contrary to common perception, Japan has an exceptionally flexible workforce. Outside the ranks of the protected “job-for-lifers” – a much rarer breed these days – nearly 40 per cent of workers are about as flexible as you get. They work in poorly paid jobs for hourly rates. Benefits are all but non-existent. For most of these workers, sometimes referred to as the “precariat”, unemployment is a mere “sayonara” away.日本薪资似乎不会对一般的市场压力做出回应。为什么呢?这一难题植根于劳动力市场的结构变化。与普遍看法相反,日本的劳动力大军特别灵活。除了受到保护的终身工作者(这在当今已是相当罕见了),近40%的劳动者都非常灵活。他们从事薪资较低的工作,领取时薪。福利几乎不存在。对于多数此类劳动者(有时被称为无产阶级)而言,失业近在咫尺。Of course, Japan is hardly alone in seeing the bifurcation of its jobs market. Non- or semi-skilled work commands a lower price in a world where technology and cheap foreign labour are y substitutes. In Japan, though, this is proving a particularly thorny problem. For its reflationary experiment to work, wages must begin to rise in line with inflation. But the casualisation of the labour force is short-circuiting that process. Moreover, people in the precariat are less likely to marry and have children. If Japan is to solve its demographic problem, it will have to tackle the labour issue.当然,日本很难说是唯一一个就业市场出现这种两极分化的国家。在技术和外国廉价劳动力随时可充当替补的情况下,从事非技术或半技术工作所能要求的薪资自然较低。然而在日本,事实明这是一个尤其棘手的问题。要让通货再膨胀发生作用,薪资必须开始与通胀同步上涨。但劳动力中的散工现象正在让这个过程短路。另外,属于无产阶级的人们更不可能结婚和生育子女。如果日本要解决其人口问题,它必须解决这个劳动力问题。What can be done? At least three things. The first is to narrow the gap between over-protected permanent workers and under-protected non-permanent ones. Akira Kawamoto of Keio University argues that coddling one section of the workforce does not serve Japan’s interests well. Absolute job security stifles risk-taking, he says, something that Japan desperately needs. Simply making life less cushy for permanent workers is not likely to do any good on its own.日本可以采取何种措施?至少有3项措施。首先是缩窄受到过度保护的固定员工和没有得到充分保护的非固定员工之间的差距。庆应义塾大学(Keio University)的川本明(Akira Kawamoto)指出,娇惯某一部分劳动者不太符合日本的利益。他表示,绝对的就业安全会扼杀冒险行为,而这种冒险是日本现在亟需的。但仅仅让固定员工的生活变得不那么安逸,可能不会带来任何好处。If adding to Japan’s aggregate demand is the goal, the big push should be on improving the wages and conditions of temporary workers. Crucially, it should be made far easier for them to migrate to permanent jobs and for workers of all descriptions to move more freely between companies. An open, fluid labour market would help cross-fertilise ideas and allocate resources to productive parts of the economy.如果扩大日本总需求是目标的话,那么日本应大举改善临时工的薪资和工作条件。重要的是,日本应让他们更容易转入固定工作,并让所有类型的员工更自由地在企业间跳槽。一个开放且流动的劳动力市场将有利于催生更多创意,并将资源配置到具有生产效率的经济领域。Second, immigration policy needs to be bolder. True, allowing in lots of foreign workers might put downward pressure on wages, at least initially. Yet there are some jobs that Japanese are simply not prepared to do. If foreigners were brought in, for example, to provide affordable care for children and the elderly, this could free Japanese women to have more fulfilling careers.其次,移民政策需要更为大胆。确实,允许大量外国劳动者进入可能会对薪资构成下行压力,至少一开始会如此。然而,有一些工作是日本人不愿意从事的。例如,如果引入外国人为儿童和老人提供价格实惠的看护务,那么这可能会让日本女性解放出来去从事更有成就感的职业。That brings us to the third point. Women are flooding into the workforce in unprecedented numbers. Nearly 65 per cent of women aged between 15 and 65 are working, the highest percentage since records began in 1968.这就要谈到第三项措施。空前数量的女性正涌入劳动大军。近65%的年龄在15岁至65岁之间的女性在工作,为自1968年有记录以来最高。There is a catch. The majority of these jobs are badly paid, part-time or both. Too many companies still view men as the primary wage earner: younger women are there to look pretty and older women to do the drudgery. If Japan is to progress, such attitudes need to change.这里存在一个难题。其中大部分工作要么薪资不高,要么为兼职工作,或者两者兼具。太多企业仍然将男人视为主要雇佣劳动者:较为年轻的女性是为了充当“花瓶”,而年纪较大的女性则去做那些脏活累活。如果日本要进步的话,这种态度需要改变。Legislation can help. One simple measure would be on tax. At present the head of a household, usually male, can claim a dependent tax exemption for his wife so long as she earns less than about ,000 a year. Neutral tax treatment of second earners would remove this disincentive, encouraging married women to pursue full-time careers. And if the men did not like it, they could always stay at home and look after the kids.立法可以起到一定帮助。一项简单的措施是税收立法。目前,户主(通常为男性)可以为妻子申请赡养免税,只要妻子的年收入不足1万美元。给予家庭中第二赚钱者中性税收待遇,将消除这种抑制工作积极性的因素,从而鼓励已婚女性从事全职工作。如果男性不喜欢,他们可以呆在家里照顾孩子。 /201409/329207

Another week, another regulatory battle for Uber, the Silicon Valley private car hire network with a German name. This time it is in Germany, where a Frankfurt court has banned its Uber Pop“ride-sharing” service that introduces passengers to unlicensed drivers through a smartphone app.又一起监管争斗,焦点是Uber这个起了德语名的硅谷私营拼车网络。法兰克福一家法庭禁止了其Uber Pop“拼车”务——该务通过一款智能手机应用,为没有出租车牌照的车主招揽乘客。In a narrow sense, the court is right. Not only is Uber breaking German law but the country is correct to demand that a company that operates what is blatantly a private hire business is appropriately licensed and regulated. Pretending that Uber Pop is part of the “sharing economy” and should be allowed to skirt the rules is neither fair to taxi-drivers nor sound policy.从狭义角度看,法庭是正确的。不但Uber违反了德国法律,而且德国要求一家经营私人租车业务的公司通过正当途径获得执照并接受监管,是正确的。以Uber Pop是“分享经济”的一部分为由绕过规则,不仅对出租车司机不公平,也不是稳妥的政策。In the broad sense, however, Uber is right. If what the state of California now calls a Transportation Network Company – a technology platform such as Uber and Lyft that expands the market for minicabs and private hire – is prevented from operating on a commercial basis, it is bad for consumers. The potential benefits of innovation are lost.然而,从广义角度看,Uber又是正确的。如果加利福尼亚州目前所称的交通网络公司(Transportation Network Company)——如Uber和Lyft这样的扩大了电话预约出租车和私车出租市场的技术平台——被禁止商业运营,那对消费者是不利的。创新的潜在收益会被浪费掉。Germany is a good test of the skirmishes in which Uber is engaged around the US and Europe. Its regulations – although they involve some very long words, such as Personenbef#246;rderungsschein, the licence for taxi drivers – have served consumers fairly well. Most cities have plenty of Mercedes taxis, which are both comfier and cheaper than London cabs.德国是Uber在美欧各地卷入的遭遇战的一块良好试金石。德国的法规——尽管有些使用了Personenbef#246;rderungsschein这样特别长的名字——迄今为消费者起到了相当好的作用。大多数城市拥有足量的梅赛德斯(Mercedes)出租车,与伦敦出租车相比,不但更舒适,而且更便宜。It is also a world leader in actual, as opposed to rhetorical, ride-sharing. There are lots of carpooling agencies, including Carpooling.com, that co-ordinate travel as a mutual service. Drivers share the fuel costs with passengers on long-distance rides, without profiting.德国也是事实上的——并非口头上的——拼车市场世界领袖。德国拥有Carpooling.com等大量拼车机构,可以协调出行,提供一种共享务。车主与远程搭载乘客共担燃料费用,并非为了盈利。As in many other countries, however, the city regulations are tilted in favour of the co-operatives that operate the bulk of taxi services. German private hire operators have little freedom of manoeuvre – they face restrictions including having to operate from registered offices to which all the cars must return between rides – and most people use taxis.不过,就像其他许多国家一样,城市法规仍向运营大部分出租车务的联营机构倾斜。德国私车出租运营商基本没有回旋空间——他们受到各种限制,包括必须通过注册办公室运营,所有车辆在结束一次务后,必须返回经营地点,才能启动下一次务——大多数人都使用出租车。Uber obeys the private hire rules for its Uber Black limousine service – both drivers and cars are licensed and commercially insured – while defying them for Uber Pop, its basic service. Uber Pop drivers use their own vehicles and are not officially licensed, although the company carries out criminal record checks and says they are fully insured.Uber旗下的Uber Black豪华轿车务遵守私车出租规则,司机和车辆都已取得执照并已参加商业保险,而其基本务Uber Pop没有遵守规则。Uber Pop司机使用的是私车,也没有获得商业执照,尽管该公司进行犯罪记录核查,并称司机们有完善的保险。The company has adopted its usual approach in awkward markets – if it comes up against a regulatory barrier, it ignores it and hopes to gain popular backing for a change in the rules. In London, transport authorities have allowed Uber to operate despite protests from taxi drivers that its app is an illegal taximeter.Uber在难缠的市场采取了其惯常手法——如果遭遇监管障碍,就不予理会,寄望获得公众持以改变规则。在伦敦,交通当局已放行Uber展开运营,尽管出租车司机抗议称,Uber的应用是一种非法计程表。The company, which raised .2bn in funding from backers including Google Ventures and Kleiner Perkins at a bn valuation in June, is in a hurry to establish its network before Lyft and other rivals. Treating legal challenges as a cost of doing business is characteristic of its aggression – it is also poaching drivers from Lyft in the US.今年6月,Uber从Google Ventures和Kleiner Perkins等资金后台筹得12亿美元,使其估值达到170亿美元。Uber急于抢在Lyft等竞争对手之前建立自己的网络。把法律挑战视为一种经营成本,是Uber咄咄逼人特点的体现;它在美国正试图吸引Lyft的司机跳槽。Taxi Deutschland, the consortium of taxi operators that brought the Frankfurt case, accuses Uber of “[wrapping] itself in a start-up look and selling itself as a new economy saviour” while hurting the public good. It is not alone in being sceptical – Berlin’s DIW research institute argued recently that the taxi market should not be subjected to “full deregulation”.出租车运营商联盟Taxi Deutschland在法兰克福法庭对Uber提起了诉讼,指责Uber“把自己‘装扮成’一家初创企业,以新经济救世主的身份进行自我推销”,同时损害了公共利益。不仅该联盟产生怀疑,柏林的德国经济研究所(DIW)不久前也声称,出租车市场不应“完全放开管制”。Regulation of taxis clearly has benefits – people climb into taxis and private hire cars without knowing who the driver is or how safe the vehicle is, and they need some safeguards. They also benefit from official taxis being required to take a passenger to any destination, based on a clear fare structure.对出租车实施监管显然有很多好处——人们钻进出租车和私租汽车时,不知司机是谁,也不知车辆是否安全,他们需要一些安全保障。官方许可的出租车必须按乘客要求前往任何地点,收费结构清清楚楚,乘客从中受益。It makes sense to give taxis privileges, such as the right to be hailed in the street, to compensate for being tightly regulated (and not, for example, applying “surge pricing” at times of scarcity, as Uber does). It would be short-sighted to permit a free-for-all private hire, or unfettered amateur ride-sharing, and put taxis out of business.对出租车给予特权是合情合理的(比如有权在街头接纳招手打车的乘客),这些特权是对受到严密监管的补偿(比如说,他们不能像Uber那样,在供应紧缺时段实行“峰时价格”)。放行所有私车出租,或任由业余司机提供拼车务,从而把出租车赶出市场,将是短视做法。The problem, however, is not that taxis are endangered, but the opposite – they are overly protected. “The private for-hire market is very extremely locked down in many cities,” says Pierre-Dimitri Gore-Coty, the head of Uber in western Europe. Two legislative efforts to liberalise private hire in Germany have failed amid taxi opposition.但问题不是出租车被置于危险之中,而是相反,它们受到了过度保护。Uber西欧业务主管皮埃尔-迪米特里#8226;戈尔-柯提(Pierre-Dimitri Gore-Coty)表示,“在很多城市,私车出租市场非常受限。”在德国,由于出租车行业的反对,两次放开私车出租市场的立法努力以失败告终。As a result, the bulk of the market in many cities is taken by taxis, with a slice of private hire operators at the top and bottom. These provide executive limousines for companies and radio cabs for people who do not want to pay the taxi fare. Taxis face very weak competition in the middle – well-trained and courteous drivers in smart, clean cars.其结果是,许多城市的大部分市场份额由出租车占据,私车出租运营商仅在顶层和底层市场占据很小份额。后者向企业提供高管豪车,向不想付打车费的人提供电话预约的出租车。在中层市场,受过良好培训、彬彬有礼的司机开着整洁的出租车,他们面临的竞争非常弱。Where Uber and others have been allowed to enter in a regulated way – Uber drivers in London must hold a commercial licence and insurance – they have helped to expand it. There are more cars for hire in London and the quality has risen. Minicabs used to be battered and smelly bangers; many are now BMWs.在Uber等公司获准以受监管方式进入的地方——Uber司机在伦敦必须持有商业牌照和保险——这些公司帮助扩大了市场。伦敦有了更多轿车可供出租,务质量也得到了提升。过去的电话预约出租车是破旧不堪、味道难闻的老爷车;如今许多都换成了宝马(BMW)。There is starting to be a similar effect in France, where the number of limousine companies has grown rapidly as a result of new entrants being allowed. It is better for cities to reap the advantages of new technology than try to ignore it, and provoke an outbreak of illegal ride-sharing by outsiders.法国也开始出现类似效果,由于新公司获准进入,豪车出租公司的数量大幅增加。城市最好利用新科技的优势,而不是努力忽视它,导致不受监管的非法拼车现象大量涌现。As Germany has found, Uber is not only willing to become a ride-sharing outlaw, but the resulting publicity serves it well. Infuriating, aggressive and American it may be; it is still worth learning from.正如德国所发现的,Uber不但愿意在拼车领域打法律的擦边球,而且随之而来的宣传效果对它很有利。尽管Uber可能令人抓狂、咄咄逼人且具有美国人的做派,但它仍有值得借鉴的地方。 /201410/333773

Daimler has given frazzled employees the opportunity to delete automatically all emails received while they are on holiday. The carmaker’s move underlines what everyone aly knows: personal technology can abrade the self. Finding several thousand un messages makes one’s first day back at work peculiarly horrible.戴姆勒(Daimler)公司已经准许其疲惫不堪的雇员自动删除度假期间收到的全部邮件。这家汽车生产商的做法凸显了一个众所周知的问题:个体技术(personal technology)可能折磨自我。在重返工作的第一天发现数千封未读邮件实在让人不寒而栗。This is not the fault of device makers, social networks or mobile data operators. It is a consequence of our determination, fed by professional and personal paranoia, to use all their products and services at once. The malady’s symptoms are a fractured attention span, insomnia triggered by exposure to blue light and an ever wider, shallower friendship group.这并不能归咎于设备生产商、社交网络或移动数据运营商。我们是自食其果:出于职业的和个人的偏执,我们决定同时使用全部这些产品和务。这种顽疾的症状表现为注意力碎片化,暴露于蓝光所导致的失眠,以及更广阔却也更肤浅的朋友圈。I spotted a typical sufferer last month on a train rolling through Concord, Massachusetts, home of Henry David Thoreau, a nature philosopher who believed that in 1840s America: “The incessant anxiety and strain of some is a well-nigh incurable form of disease.” True to that diagnosis, our contemporary victim was tetchily switching between mobile phones as bandwidth fluctuated. He was also juggling an iPad and a pager. He was organising a business trip to Indianapolis. He should have alighted at Concord and thrown his devices in Walden Pond, the lake where Thoreau swam after retreating from modern life.上个月,我在火车上发现了一名典型“患者”。这列火车当时正穿越亨利#8226;戴维#8226;梭罗(Henry David Thoreau)的家乡,马萨诸塞州的康科德(Concord, MA)。这位自然主义哲学家认为,在19世纪40年代的美国:“一些人持续不断的焦虑和压力几乎成为了一种不可治愈的疾病。”如同梭罗的诊断,这位当代“患者”随着带宽波动而恼怒地在几个手机之间切换,他还摆弄着一部iPad和一个寻呼机。他在组织一次前往印第安纳波利斯的商务旅行。他真应该在康科德下车,然后把他的设备都扔到瓦尔登湖(Walden Pond)湖里去,也就是梭罗从现代生活退隐后游泳的湖泊。Each technological revolution triggers a reaction against it. Thoreau was in part rebelling against the railway that ran, and still runs, past Walden. This not only redistributed Americans – some doubtless on business trips to Indianapolis – in a manner he thought unnecessary. It also stimulated written communication in the form of letters. Thoreau believed most of these were a waste of time. Similarly, when mass production became a spring tide in the 19th century, British polemicists such as William Morris and John Ruskin were there to wave it back.每一场技术革命都会引发相应的反对。梭罗在一定程度上反抗当时经过(现在也依然经过)瓦尔登湖的铁路。这条铁路不仅是用一种他觉得没有必要的方式把美国人重新分配到各个地方(其中一些人无疑是在前往印第安纳波利斯的商务旅行的途中),还刺激了书信形式的文字交流。梭罗认为其中绝大部分只是浪费时间而已。类似的,当大批量生产成为19世纪的大潮之时,威廉#8226;莫里斯(William Morris)和约翰#8226;拉斯金(John Ruskin)等英国辩论家希望将这股浪潮推回去。The reaction to intrusive information technology is inchoate so far. Some Californian cafés ban Google Glass, which they see as spywear masquerading as eyewear. There are sporadic media storms about the proportion of internet content that is pornographic. German singer Cris Cosmo had a minor hit with a ditty entitled “Schiess auf Facebook” a few years back, but social media helped foster its success. No latter-day Thoreau has yet gained popular traction with a philosophy of digital detoxification. There is plainly a gap in the market.迄今为止,对侵入式的信息技术的反抗才刚刚抬头。一些加州的咖啡馆禁止使用谷歌眼镜,他们认为这是一种伪装成眼镜的间谍器材。还有一些零星的针对互联网色情内容比重的媒体风暴。几年前,德国歌手克里斯#8226;科斯莫(Cris Cosmo)有一首小有名气的单曲《Schiess auf Facebook》,歌曲是抨击Facebook的,但正是社交媒体帮助促成了这首歌的成功。当代的梭罗们还没有拿出凝聚人气的数字排毒哲学。这显然是一块市场空白。One part of Thoreau’s argument was anti-consumerist and sits in useful counterpoise to the idea that the latest Apple product is sufficient reward for working 50-plus hours a week. Having retreated to the woods, he lived on just over in his first year. This included the cost of building a hut, though not rent.梭罗的部分论点在于反消费主义,这有助于抗衡“苹果最新产品足够回报一周工作50多个小时”的观念。归隐山林后,梭罗仅花费了62美元便度过了第一年。其中还包括建造小屋的费用(尽管梭罗没有选择租房子)。The British economist, John Maynard Keynes, approaching the work-life balance from a slightly different angle in 1930, argued that rising industrial productivity would result in Britons needing to work only 15 hours a week. His thinking converged with Thoreau’s in imagining that individuals wanted more time to relax in preference to having more goods and services.1930年,英国经济学家约翰#8226;梅纳德#8226;凯恩斯(John Maynard Keynes)从一个略微不同的角度来探讨工作与生活的平衡。他认为,工业生产率的提高最终会使英国人每周仅需工作15小时。他的想法和梭罗相同之处在于,他们都认为比起得到更多的商品和务,人们更想要更多的休闲时间。Most do not. This is just as well for the staff of Daimler, who would lose their jobs if there was no demand for top-end cars that are functionally little different from cheap runabouts. The debate focuses on a purportedly unfair division of the spoils of economic activity rather than an unjust split of free time. By this latter measure, a typical banker is scraping by while a struggling actor is rolling in it.但大部分人并非如此。戴姆勒公司的员工也是这样。顶级汽车与便宜的汽车在功能上并无太大区别,但若没有对顶级汽车的需求,他们也就失业了。这场辩论集中于经济活动成果的不公平分配上,而非闲暇时间的不公平分配。如果依据后一个标准,一个典型的家在勉强度日,而一个苦苦挣扎的演员则享用不尽。Thoreau believed the mass of men lived lives of quiet desperation. What he had not grasped was that the mass of men do not care if they believe their next door neighbour’s life is marginally more desperate than their own.梭罗认为大多数人都生活在默默的绝望中。但他没认识到的是,只要大众认为隔壁邻居的人生比他们自己略微更加绝望,他们就不在乎这种状况。I disembarked at Concord while the multitasking businessman whizzed on down the rails. Walden Pond is busy these days, and today Thoreau’s daily swim would probably have ended in a collision with a kayak. But there is a satisfactorily lonely pool further into the woods, beside which the digital jitterbug can sit and purge the ones and zeros from his system.我在康科德站下车,而那个手忙脚乱的商人继续坐着火车飞速前行。如今的瓦尔登湖很繁忙,如果现在梭罗还每天游泳的话,可能会撞到某一艘皮艇。但是,在树林深处还有一个令人满意的孤寂的池子。被数字生活搞得神经紧张的人可以坐在水池旁,忘掉自己系统中的二进制数字。Elevated by my temporary rejection of modernity, I returned to a full inbox, 11-hour working days and commuting between home and work PCs with two mobile phones, a BlackBerry and an iPad. A business trip to Indianapolis seems inevitable.短暂地逃离现代性之后,我精神振作地回到了收件箱满满、每天工作11个小时的生活,带着两部手机,一部黑莓(BlackBerry)、一部iPad穿梭于家中的电脑和工作地点的电脑之间。前往印第安纳波利斯的商务旅行看来不可避免。 /201408/324414Apple seems to be gaining some ground in the world#39;s largest smartphone market.苹果公司(Apple)在全球最大智能手机市场的“版图”似乎有所扩大。In China, Apple#39;s market share rose slightly in the fourth quarter of last year, helped by strong demand for its new iPhone 5S, the latest market research data shows.最新市场研究数据显示,受新款iPhone 5S的强劲需求推动,苹果在中国的市场份额去年第四季度小幅上升。According to research firm IDC, Apple#39;s market share in mainland China rose to 7% in the quarter from 6% in the third quarter. The fourth quarter was the first full quarter after Apple launched its iPhone 5S and 5C in China in late September, on the same day the new phones came out in the U.S. and a host of other markets. In the past, iPhones went on sale in China months after they were launched in the U.S.据研究公司国际数据公司(IDC)说,第四季度苹果在中国内地的市场份额从第三季度的6%上升至7%。第四季度是苹果去年9月底在中国、美国及其他一些市场同时推出iPhone 5S和5C之后第一个完整的季度。过去,iPhone通常是登陆美国几个月后才在中国推出。Still, the latest quarterly ranking was yet another reminder that China#39;s smartphone market consists mainly of Android models that are much cheaper than the iPhone. With its 7% share, Apple was the fifth-largest smartphone vendor in China.尽管如此,最新的季度排名让人们再次看到,中国的智能手机市场主要由比iPhone便宜得多的安卓(Android)手机占主导。苹果销量在中国智能手机市场排第五,占7%的市场份额。Samsung, which sells smartphones at various price points from high-end to low-end, held onto its No. 1 position in China with a 19% share in the fourth quarter, followed by Lenovo Group with a 13% share. Coolpad -- the smartphone brand of Shenzhen-based Yulong Computer Telecommunication Scientific -- and Huawei Technologies came third and fourth, taking up 11% and 10% respectively.三星(Samsung)继续保持在中国销量第一的位置,第四季度市场份额为19%,其次是联想(Lenovo Group),市场份额为13%。三星销售从高端到低端等各种价位的智能手机。酷派(Coolpad)和华为技术有限公司(Huawei Technologies)分别以11%和10%的份额排在第三和第四位。酷派是深圳宇龙计算机通信科技(Yulong Computer Telecommunication Scientific)推出的智能手机品牌。Lagging just outside of the top five in the quarter is upstart smartphone maker, Xiaomi, with 6% of the market, a significant jump from about three years ago when the company first began offering phones. Though Xiaomi sits below Apple in China for now, IDC analyst Melissa Chau said the company is poised to get into the top five soon.第四季度销量排第六的是新贵智能手机生产商小米(Xiaomi),市场份额为6%,较大约三年前该公司首次开始销售手机时有大幅上升。尽管目前小米在华销量排名不及苹果,但国际数据公司的分析师Melissa Chau说,小米很快有望跻身前五。#39;[Xiaomi] is still rising, at some point it could come into top five on the growth path it#39;s on,#39; she said.她说,小米仍在上升,按它目前的增长势态,有朝一日可能跻身前五。Still, Apple, which sat just above Xiaomi in the fourth quarter, is expected to get a boost of its own in the current quarter through March due to its new agreement to sell its phones through China Mobile, which is by far the country#39;s largest carrier with more than 760 million subscribers. China Mobile, which started selling iPhones Jan. 17, is expanding its speedier fourth-generation network in the country, and the iPhone is expected to play a major role in getting more subscribers to sign up for 4G services.尽管如此,由于苹果与中国移动(China Mobile)达成新的手机销售协议,预计苹果销量在今年第一季度可能获得提振。中国移动是中国最大的移动运营商,有超过7.6亿用户。中国移动于1月17日开始销售iPhone。该公司目前正在中国扩大速度更快的4G网络,预计iPhone将在吸引更多用户使用4G务方面发挥重要作用。Apple couldn#39;t immediately be reached for comment.记者无法立即联系到苹果置评。As a measure of Apple#39;s performance in China, shipment volume is a tricky one that often triggers heated debates. Some argue that maintaining a certain level of market share by volume is essential, while others say Apple as a high-end brand doesn#39;t have to compete on volume with cheap Chinese smartphones.发货量作为衡量苹果在华表现的一个指标也常常引发激烈争论。有些人称,通过提高销量保持一定水平的市场份额很重要,另外一些人则说,苹果作为一个高端品牌,不必在销量上与其他低价中国智能手机竞争。Either way, a slowdown in total smartphone sales in the fourth quarter from the third quarter shows that both high-end and low-end makers are now competing for a China market that is unlikely to return to the eye-popping growth levels it experienced over the past two years.无论怎样,第四季度智能手机总销量增速较第三季度放缓都是一个不争的事实,显示出高端和低端生产商都在争夺中国市场,而目前的中国市场不太可能重现过去两年那种惊人的增长水平。#39;Not everyone will be picking up a smartphone. A segment of the market won#39;t be able to afford them,#39; said Chau, pointing out that new users in China will increasingly be coming from smaller cities and rural areas.Chau说,并非每个人都会买智能手机,有些人买不起。她指出,中国新的智能手机用户将越来越多地来自较小的城市和农村地区。Still, Apple is competing to win over users who might look to upgrade their phone, or switch from Android, as fourth-generation networks continue to be built in China.尽管如此,随着中国继续建设4G网络,苹果正在努力争取可能寻求手机更新换代或从安卓转向其他系统的用户。In an interview with The Wall Street Journal earlier this month, Apple Chief Executive Tim Cook shared his view on market share. #39;I look at the mobile phone market as having three kinds of phones: feature phones, smartphones that function as or are used as feature phones, and real smartphones,#39; he said. #39;I do care about the market share of the last category and you want to be relevant.#39;在本月早些时候接受《华尔街日报》采访时,苹果首席执行长库克(Tim Cook)讲述了自己对市场份额的看法。他说,我认为手机市场有三类手机:功能手机、被当做功能手机使用的智能手机和真正的智能手机。我确实关心最后一个类别的市场份额,我们希望参与其中。 /201402/276580In 2006, self-proclaimed hustler Gary Vaynerchuk decided it was time to try something new. Over the previous 10 years, Vaynerchuk had expanded his father’s liquor store into a successful wine business called Wine Library. However, for the ambitious young man, this was only the beginning. He had always had a nose for trends, and he could sense a real shift in how customers were making buying decisions. He wanted to capitalize on it.2006年,自称是小商贩的加里·沃伊涅尔查克决定,是时候尝试新东西了。过去10年中,沃伊涅尔查克已经把他父亲的酒铺扩大成了一家名叫“葡萄酒图书馆”(Wine Library)的成功酒企。然而,对于这位雄心勃勃的年轻人来说,这仅仅是个开始。他一直很善于发现潮流所向,能够感觉到客户作出购买决策的方式正在发生切实的转变。他打算利用这种变化赚一笔。Vaynerchuk set up a camera and had a colleague shoot him talking about wine. He was direct, brash, funny, and above all, informative. But what really set him apart was his sheer work ethic. He posted a new episode of his “ blog,” which he dubbed Wine Library TV, five days a week and relentlessly supported the content by tweeting in every spare moment, until three in the morning and beyond.沃伊涅尔查克架设了一个摄像头,让一位同事拍摄他聊葡萄酒的画面。他的直截了当,尖锐犀利,风趣幽默,最重要的是,信息量非常大。但不知疲倦的工作态度才是他真正与众不同的地方。他每周有5天会都发布一段全新的“视频客”(他把它戏称为“葡萄酒图书馆电视”),而且一有空就发微,坚持不懈地为视频内容提供持,一直到凌晨三点,甚至更晚。Vaynerchuk’s methods paid off. Not only did his wine selling business grow to unparalleled heights, he became a bestselling author with books like Crush It!and Jab, Jab, Jab Right Hook. He was featured on the covers of top business magazines and received invitations to speak in front of massive audiences of entrepreneurs and executives. His fans even began calling themselves Vayniacs.沃伊涅尔查克的方法得到了回报。不仅葡萄酒销售生意增长到了空前的高度,他本人也成了一位畅销书作家,代表作包括《粉碎它!》(Crush It!)和《右钩拳》( Jab, Jab, Jab Right Hook)。此外,他频频登上顶级商业杂志的封面,而且还经常受邀在大批企业家和高管面前发表演讲。他的拥趸甚至开始以“沃伊脑残粉”自称。Gary Vaynerchuk’s ascent to online stardom and real world riches typifies a powerful trend in business today. The idea, written about in countless articles and business books, is that the only way to make it in the digital age is to relentlessly promote your “personal brand,” especially though social media.加里o沃伊涅尔查克崛起为网络明星、同时在现实世界赢得万贯身家的经历代表了当今工商界的一个强大趋势。这种理念已经被无数文章和商业书籍探讨过,它就是:在数字时代收获成功的唯一途径是,不遗余力地推广你的“个人品牌”,特别是通过社交媒体。The intensity of this process can be daunting. As such, a cottage industry of inspirational business advice has sprouted online, full of aphorisms that combine self-help and tough love. In fact, Vaynerchuk put it best during an interview on Mashable, where he looked into the camera and stated with his characteristic confidence, “If I’m more successful than you, there’s one reason for it—it’s because I outworked you.” And by work, he means spending a huge number of hours building fans of his Internet persona.这个进程的强度可能令人胆寒。正因为如此,一个致力于提供励志商业建议的作坊式产业已经在网上破土而出,它充满了集自助和严厉之爱于一身的格言警句。事实上,还是沃伊涅尔查说得最清楚不过。他在接受社交媒体客Mashable采访时盯着摄像头,带着他特有的自信,言之凿凿地说:“如果我比你更成功,那只有一个原因——因为我比你工作得更努力。”他所说的工作指的是,花费大量时间为他的网络形象打造粉丝群。It is a recipe for success that is attractive, intuitive, and appealing to our fundamentally American belief if you hustle long and hard enough to get yourself in front of people, you can make all your dreams come true. There’s only one problem—for many of us, it doesn’t work.这是一种极具吸引力、非常直观的成功秘诀,非常符合美国人秉持的一项基本理念:如果你比其他人更加持久、更加努力地拼搏,你所有的梦想都可以变为现实。这里只有一个问题——对于许多人来说,这样做根本行不通。The soaring popularity of “self branding” is just one of the topics addressed in David Zweig’s new bookInvisibles: The Power of Anonymous Work in an Age of Relentless Self-Promotion (Portfolio/Penguin), which is slated for release later this month. Named as a Top Business Book to Read in 2014 by Adam Grant, a Wharton professor and bestselling author in his own right, Zweig challenges the pervasive notion that the people who spend the most time getting others to pay attention to them win. He accomplishes this by conducting in-depth profiles of individuals who are at the zenith of professional success in their fields and who actively shun the spotlight.“自我品牌营销”不断飙升的人气仅仅是大卫o兹威格的新书《隐形:在自我推销时代中匿名工作的力量》(Invisibles: The Power of Anonymous Work in an Age of Relentless Self-Promotion)探讨的主题之一。这部定于本月末发行的著作被沃顿商学院(Wharton)教授、畅销书作家亚当o格兰特誉为2014年最值得期待的商业书籍。兹威格试图挑战一个普遍认同的观点:花费最多时间争夺其他人眼球的那个人终将获胜。为了达到这个目的,他深入剖析了一些正处于各自职业生涯顶峰,同时主动避开聚光灯的成功人士。Some of those Zweig examines in his book include one of the world’s leading perfume developers, the structural engineer of the largest building on earth, and the guitar technician for the multiplatinum rock band Radiohead. All of the highly successful (and well-paid) masters featured in Invisibles work long hours, in some cases as long or even longer than what the self-branding Maharishis prescribe. But instead of spending these hours on promotional hustle, they dedicate time to working on and refining their actual craft.这本著作审视的成功人士包括一位全球顶级香水开发商,全球最大建筑物的结构工程师,以及发行过多张白金唱片的摇滚乐队电台司令(Radiohead)的吉他手。在《隐形》一书中,所有大获成功(而且收入不菲)的大师级人物都在长时间工作,其中一些人的工作时间跟自我营销的精神领袖所指示的时间一样长,甚至还要更长。但他们并没有利用这些时间叫卖,而是全身心地工作,打磨自己的技艺。Zweig’s argument is not that marketing is evil or useless. “I’m not suggesting that some types of professionals don’t need to self-promote,” he writes, “Many of us do.”茨威格并不是要说,营销是邪恶的,也不是要论营销是无用的。“我并不是说某些类型的专业人才不需要自我推销,”他写道。“很多人都需要。”There’s no denying that people like Gary Vaynerchuk have built empires by working into the wee hours of the morning to draw attention to themselves and their brands. In an age where doing an Internet search is the first step in virtually every buying decision, those who don’t maintain an online presence have a tough road ahead of them—no matter how well-crafted their work. The author’s overriding point is simply that a culture that favors around-the-clock hustle at the expense of all else holds back as many businesses as it helps.不可否认,以加里o沃伊涅尔查克为代表的自我推销一族往往工作到凌晨时分,为自己和自己的品牌赢得了关注,最终建立起了自己的商业帝国。在如今这个时代,上网搜索已经成为几乎每一项购买决策的第一步,那些没有在网络上安营扎寨的人往往要面临一段坎坷的前程——无论他们的产品工艺多么精良。兹威格最重要的观点很简单:如果一种文化青睐的是不计代价、24小时全天候的吆喝叫卖,那么它能推动多少企业,就一样也能拖累多少企业。So the question remains: How do you compete if your particular business requires you to be up until three in the morning making wine instead of selling the wine that someone else has made?因此,问题仍然是:如果你经营的那门生意需要你直至凌晨三点还在酿酒,而不是叫卖其他人已经做好的酒,你怎么去竞争?One option is to eschew personal brand building in favor of building a community. Instead of personally writing every blog post, answering every comment, and crafting every tweet, you might instead build a network of people in your industry willing to share in content creation duties. By positioning yourself as the lynchpin of that community, you often gain as much visibility as you would otherwise.一种选择是,不要建设个人品牌,转而建设一个社区。不是亲自撰写每篇客文章,回答每一个,构思每条微,你或许应该在你的产业内打造一个人际网络,让其他人分担内容创作任务。如果你摆正位置,设法成为这个社区的轴心,你往往可以获得同样多的曝光度。Another approach is to arm your employees with the tools, training, and encouragement to each contribute a small amount of content over an extended period of time. While it may feel good to take a solo in the spotlight, letting everyone on your team chip in can multiply the effect while still leaving plenty of time for you to do the work that really matters.另一种方法是,用工具和培训武装你的员工,鼓励每个人在一段较长期间内贡献少量内容。虽然一个人独占聚光灯的感觉或许很好,但让团队中每个人都参与进来,往往能够成倍放大推销效果,这样做还可以给你留出足够多的时间,让你从事真正重要的工作。Whatever promotional strategy you ultimately choose, there’s one thing that’s clear—for many of us, shifting the focus from “me” to “we” is the secret to building, marketing, and selling something truly great.无论你最终选择何种推销战略,有一件事情非常明显——对于我们许多人来说,把重心从“我”转移到“我们”,是构建、营销和销售真正伟大的产品的秘诀所在。Michael Schein is the founder and principal of Michael Schein Communications, a digital marketing firm that has created or facilitated content creation for companies including eBay, LinkedIn, Avectra.本文作者迈克尔·施恩是迈克尔o施恩通信公司创始人兼负责人。这家数字营销公司已经为包括eBay、LinkedIn和Avectra等公司创造了许多营销内容。 /201407/310079

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