时间:2019年07月18日 09:02:52

Scientists have improved the vision of a small number of patients suffering from a rare and incurable eye disease by replacing a defective gene with a healthy one-a boost for a technique known as gene therapy.通过将有缺陷的基因替换成健康的基因,科学家已经使少数患有一种罕见、难愈眼病的病人改善了视力。这对一项被称为基因疗法的技术是个推动。The patients have choroideremia, a degenerative disease caused by defects in a single gene that leads to blindness and affects 1 in 50,000 people. In an early-stage trial published Wednesday in the Lancet, the researchers used a deactivated virus to safely ferry billions of healthy, lab-made versions of the gene into the retina. That appeared to restore the function of light-sensitive cells, which the disease impairs.上述病人患有脉络膜缺失症。这是一种由单一基因缺陷造成的退化性疾病,会导致失明,每50,000人就有1例。医学期刊《柳叶刀》(Lancet)周三刊登了初步试验的结果。在试验中,研究人员使用了一种失去活性的病毒来携带实验室制作的健康基因,将数以十亿计的这类基因安全地注入视网膜。这在表观上恢复了疾病损害的感光细胞的功能。#39;We were surprised by the magnitude of vision improvement#39; in the patients, said Robert MacLaren, a professor of ophthalmology at the University of Oxford in England and leader of the clinical trial.英国牛津大学(University of Oxford)眼科学教授、上述临床试验的负责人麦克拉伦(Robert MacLaren)称,病人视力的改善程度出乎意料。The experiment marks one of the first times that gene therapy has targeted the main light-sensing cells in the retina. It thus offers a possible route for treating far more common causes of blindness that affect the same cells, such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration.这是以视网膜主要感光细胞为目标开展基因疗法的首批试验之一,由此可能给治疗影响主要感光细胞的更常见失明症(比如色素性视网膜炎和老年黄斑退化)提供一条途径。Gene therapy involves the use of DNA, rather than a protein or drug, to treat an ailment. The idea is that if the DNA gets properly embedded in the target cells, it can potentially remain there indefinitely and deliver benefits for a long time.基因疗法使用DNA治疗疾病,而不是使用蛋白质或药物。这种疗法的思路是,在被妥善嵌入目标细胞的情况下,DNA可能会永远留在细胞中,从而给病人带来长期的益处。Gene therapy fell out of favor after a handful of early studies led to cancer and death. That#39;s a big reason why it hasn#39;t yet led to a single authorized treatment in the U.S.基因疗法一度失去关注,因为一些早期研究曾经导致癌症和死亡。这就是美国还没有批准任何一项基因疗法的重要原因。Now, the technique is making a comeback. For example, in three early-stage clinical trials done a few years ago, the technique was used against a retinal disease called Leber congenital amaurosis. And in November 2012, European regulators approved a gene therapy treatment for a rare condition that leaves patients unable to properly digest fats-the first such approval in the Western world.现在这种技术正在重获关注。例如,在几年前完成的三项早期临床试验中,基因疗法技术被用于治疗一种名叫莱伯氏先天性黑蒙症的视网膜疾病。另一个例子是在2012年11月,欧洲监管机构批准用一项基因疗法治疗一种导致病人不能有效消化脂肪的罕见症状,开启了西方世界批准基因疗法的先例。The ailment treated in the Lancet study, choroideremia, is caused by defects in a single gene on the X chromosome and mainly affects boys. Many start losing night vision by age 10 and become legally blind in their 40s.《柳叶刀》上发表的研究治疗的脉络膜缺失症是由X染色体的单一基因缺陷引起的,主要患者为男孩。许多患者在10岁时开始失去夜视力,在40岁-50岁时变得彻底失明。Because of the defective gene, light-sensitive cells in the retina slowly stop working and then die. Prof. MacLaren#39;s team decided to make healthy versions of the gene in the lab, load each onto a small virus (one that doesn#39;t cause disease in people) and inject the mix under the retina.受基因缺陷影响,视网膜中的感光细胞会慢慢地停止工作并死亡。麦克拉伦教授的团队决定在实验室制作健康的基因,并将每个基因都装进一个微小病毒(这种病毒并不会导致人类患病)中,然后将这种混合体注入到视网膜下面。The therapy is given in one eye so it#39;s easy to compare the progression of the disease with the untreated eye. #39;Every injection has 10 billion viral particles, each carrying one copy of the gene,#39; said Prof. MacLaren. #39;We have to target millions of cells.#39;每个患者只有一只眼睛接受了这种疗法,因此通过未经治疗的那只眼睛,研究人员很容易就能对比病症的变化。麦克拉伦教授说,研究人员每次注入100亿个病毒颗粒,每个颗粒都携带一份基因。他说,我们需要将数以百万计的细胞作为目标。The trial began with six patients. Two still had excellent visual acuity-clearness of vision-which is measured by ing lines of letters on a sight chart. Two other patients had good acuity and two had reduced acuity.试验是从六位病人开始的。其中两位病人仍拥有非常高的视敏度,两位病人拥有较高的视敏度,另外两位病人有着较低的视敏度。视敏度也被称为视觉清晰度,通过让病人阅读视力测验表上的字母来衡量。Six months after the operation, the two patients with reduced acuity showed improved vision, being able to two and four more lines on the sight chart. The others could see better in dim light. The gains were sustained over several months of follow-up.术后六个月,两位视敏度较低的病人出现了视觉改善的现象,能够在视力测验表上多看清两到四行字母。其他病人在弱光环境下的视力也得到了增强。这种症状改善在随后的几个月内得以维持。A 65-year-old in the trial said that when he now watches a soccer game on TV the #39;green of the pitch is brighter and the numbers on the shirt much clearer.#39; Another who went through the procedure says he can now see stars in the night sky, which he hadn#39;t seen for a long time.接受临床试验的一位65岁患者称,现在当他在电视上观看足球比赛时,绿色的场地更亮眼了,球衣上的号码也更清楚了。另一位接受手术的患者称,他很久都无法看到夜空中的星星,现在他能看到了。Altering a patient#39;s DNA is risky because it can trigger dangerous side-effects. In this case, there was no sign of an immune reaction in the first six months of the follow-up, according to the Lancet study.改变患者的DNA是有风险的,因为这可能引来危险的副作用。《柳叶刀》上的研究显示,之后的六个月,患者并未出现有免疫反应的迹象。The scientists hope to treat patients before their sight falters. #39;We want to preserve the vision they#39;ve got,#39; said Prof. MacLaren. He now plans to test the technique on a larger group of about 30 patients.这些科学家希望在患者彻底失去视力前进行治疗。麦克拉伦教授说,我们希望使患者现有的视力得到维持。他现在计划对约30位患者构成的更大群体测试这项技术。 /201401/274334

A chef has created an off the scale chicken dish so spicy he claims it can cause ‘facial paralysis’.一名厨师发明了一种超级辣的鸡肉菜肴,他宣称这道菜会让食客辣到面瘫。Muhammad Karim, 34, has to wear a gas mask whenever he prepares his Atomic Kick Ass Drumsticks to stop the powerful vapours knocking him out.34岁的穆罕默德-卡里姆在做这道被他称为“原子踢屁屁鸡腿”的菜肴时,必须带上防毒面具才能不被蒸汽辣晕。His super-hot meal registers a whopping 12million on the Scoville heat measurement scale and is almost three times as a powerful as pepper spray used by police.他这道超级辣菜的史高维尔指标高达1200万,差不多是警用胡椒喷雾的3倍。 注:史高维尔指标是度量辣度的单位。检测方法是把辣椒汁水稀释到品尝不出辣味。1200万单位意味着要稀释1200万倍。‘We have made sure that our staff are trained in first aid so we can look after the customers before the paramedics arrive,’ a director and executive chef of Bindi restaurant in Grantham, Lincolnshire explained.这家名叫宾迪的饭店位于林肯郡的格兰瑟姆。饭店的董事兼行政主厨解释道:“我们确保职员们都经过急救训练。他们可以在急救人员到来之前照料顾客。”‘The body gets this massive rush which can paralyse their face for up to 30 minutes and give them body shakes. The last guy who tried it was sweating all over.’“这道菜肴会对身体造成巨大冲击。能够导致最多30分钟的面部瘫痪以及浑身颤抖。上次尝试这道菜的食客从头到尾汗流不止。”‘He was slapping his face to try and feel anything but it was paralysed. It is the adrenalin and the body trying to sort itself out.’“他抽打自己的脸颊想看看是否还有知觉,可是脸已经瘫痪了。这是因为肾上腺素的缘故,身体正在试图自我调整。”Only 20 people have so far accepted the challenge to eat 10 drumsticks in 15 minutes with a prize of £100 on offer for anyone successful.店家将奖励在15分钟内吃下10个鸡腿的顾客100英镑。目前只有20人接受了这一挑战。The meal contains two of the spiciest chillies in the world, including the Carolina Reaper which hits 1,569,300 on the Scoville heat measurement scale.这道菜里含有世界上最辣的两种辣椒,其中卡罗来娜死神辣椒的史高维尔指标高达1,569,300。 /201406/307094

The warm weather outside may look perfect for outdoor exercise. But for those who are not that sporty, what could be nicer than having a relaxing afternoon tea with a few good friends and taking a break from studying?温暖的天气最适合进行户外活动了。但对那些非运动型的人来说,还有什么能比在学习之余、约上三五好友一起畅享轻松下午茶来得更惬意呢?But are you familiar with the culture of afternoon tea ― its origins, what’s included, and the proper etiquette? We sum up a few things you need to know about this traditional English custom so that you can enjoy it more.但你了解下午茶文化吗?包括它的起源、内容以及礼仪?为了让你更尽兴地享受这一英式传统,我们为你盘点了一些喝下午茶的必备知识。Where it all began起源While the tradition of drinking tea dates back to more than 3,000 in China, it was not until the mid 17th century that the concept of “afternoon tea” first appeared in the UK.在中国,饮茶的传统可以追溯到公元前3000年,而直到十七世纪中叶,英国才首次出现了“下午茶”的概念。In 1840, Anna Maria Russell, the seventh Duchess of Bedford, started asking for a tea tray with butter, b and cakes at 4 pm every day, as she found she was hungry at this time and the evening meal in her household was served fashionably late at 8 pm. She found this new habit difficult to break and soon invited other ladies in society to join her.1840年,第七世贝德福德公爵夫人安娜?玛利亚?罗素每天都会吩咐仆人在下午4点备好一个盛有黄油、面包以及蛋糕的茶盘,因为她发现自己每天下午4点都会饿,而当时时兴的晚餐时间是晚上8点。很快她发现这个新习惯令人欲罢不能,便邀请另一些女士来加入其中。This pause for tea quickly became a fashionable social event. During the 1880s, upperclass and society women would change into long gowns, gloves and hats for their afternoon tea.这种茶歇很快便成了当时的社会潮流。到了19世纪80年代,上流社会女性则会为了享用一顿下午茶而专门换上长礼、手套以及帽子。What an afternoon tea includes下午茶的内容Traditional afternoon tea, which is typically served between 4 pm and 6 pm, is technically a small meal, not a drink. It consists of a selection of dainty sandwiches (thinly sliced cucumber sandwiches with the crusts cut off are a classic), freshly baked scones served with cream and fruit jam, cakes and pastries. Of course, tea or coffee, served with milk and sugar, is also provided.传统的下午茶一般会于下午四点至六点间供应。确切来说,这是一顿简餐,并非仅仅喝茶而已。餐点包括精致的三明治(去边面包制成的薄片黄瓜三明治则是经典之选)、新鲜出炉的英式松饼配上奶油和果酱,还有蛋糕和其他甜点。当然少不了搭配奶和糖的咖啡或茶。Nowadays, you can enjoy a traditional yet fancy afternoon tea with pot-brewed tea and delicate snacks in many restaurants and hotels. But in the average home, afternoon tea is likely to be much simpler ― biscuits with a mug of tea, usually produced using a teabag.如今,你能在很多的餐厅和酒店享受到这样一顿传统而别致的下午茶——一壶沏好的香茗,配上数样精美糕点。但在寻常人家,下午茶往往就简单得多了——用马克杯冲泡一个茶包,再配上几块饼干就可以了。Etiquette of afternoon tea下午茶礼仪As with everything, a particular etiquette is associated with afternoon tea. Here are a few tips for ensuring your tea taking standards are faultless.事事皆有礼仪,下午茶亦不例外。下面这些小贴士,可以确保你享受一次完美的下午茶。1. By definition, afternoon tea is a dainty meal. So, when you drink your tea, take small sips rather than “glugging” it down. There’s a definite order to taking tea, but the actual drinking of tea can take place throughout the “meal”.1.显然,下午茶是精致的一餐。所以,饮茶时要小口啜饮,不能端杯见底。虽然喝茶的顺序有讲究,但实际上,在整个下午茶过程中,你随时可以品尝香茗。2. Similarly, the food served should be consumed in a restrained fashion as well. Sandwiches are eaten first, followed by the sweet snacks, such as cakes, pastries and scones.2.同样,品尝下午茶食物也是十分讲究的。先吃三明治、然后是甜点,例如蛋糕,点心以及英式松饼。3. Scones are always broken, never cut. They should be served with jam and clotted cream, or butter. The jam goes on first, followed by the cream or butter.3.英式松饼往往是小块的,不再作切分。一般会配上果酱、固体奶油或黄油。先抹果酱,然后再涂奶油或黄油。4. Crumpets are buttered whole and then cut before eating.4.吃烤饼时先要整体涂满黄油,食用前再切开。5. Cakes and pastries should be made so that the use of a pastry fork is not needed, although if that’s not the case, the use of such an implement is perfectly acceptable.5.蛋糕和点心都是事先准备好的,因此不需要使用糕点叉,但如遇例外,也完全可以使用这些餐具。6. If you take milk with your tea, pour the tea first and then add milk.6.若要在茶中添加牛奶时,切记要先倒茶再加牛奶。 /201310/260157

文章编辑: 京东养生