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2019年06月19日 17:16:39 | 作者:百科共享 | 来源:新华社
As thousands in southwest China struggle in the aftermath of a devastating earthquake, the country#39;s main charity has a plea: forget rumors and scandals of the past and open your wallet now.在中国西南地区成千上万的民众奋力抗击一场毁灭性的地震灾害之际,中国的主要慈善机构向公众发出了这样的请求:忘记过去的种种谣言和丑闻,为抗震救灾慷慨解囊。In the early hours Monday morning, the Chinese Red Cross Foundation urged Chinese citizens to forget Guo Meimei, a woman who has caused damage to the organization#39;s reputation since 2011, when she claimed to work for the Red Cross and stirred considerable anger after bragging about her flashy, high-end lifestyle.周一凌晨,中国红十字基金会(Chinese Red Cross Foundation, 简称:红十字会)呼吁国内民众忘记郭美美。郭美美曾在2011年声称自己为红十字会工作,并因炫耀其浮华的高档生活方式而引发了民众的巨大愤怒。自此之后,郭美美事件给红十字会的声誉造成了严重伤害。#39;Numerous people have been fighting through the night for the rescue operation, as now time really is life. Is there anything more important, more urgent, more worthy of the investment of our hearts and souls?#39; the foundation said on its official microblogging site.红十字会在其官方微上称:“无数人正在为救援行动彻夜奋战,这个时候,时间真的就是生命。难道还有什么比这件事更重要、更揪心、更值得我们全身心投入的吗?”Ms. Guo had incensed Chinese in 2011 after showing off her opulent lifestyle by posting photos of luxury cars and expensive accessories, while unconfirmed rumors linked her with a high-ranking official at the Red Cross Society, prompting many Chinese to believe that the Red Cross funds were used to fund her luxuries.2011年,郭美美在网上发布了豪华跑车和昂贵饰品的照片,以此来炫耀自己奢侈的生活。此举引发了国内民众的愤怒,因为有未经实的谣言将其与红十字会的一位高层官员联系到了一起,促使许多民众相信红十字会的钱已被用来维持郭美美的豪华生活。The Red Cross denies any connection to Ms. Guo. Officials announced on Sunday that Ms. Guo has been in no way connected to the Red Cross, according to China#39;s official Xinhua News Agency.红十字会否认与郭美美有任何关系。据新华社报道,公安机关周日宣布郭美美与中国红十字会毫无关系。#39;So from this moment, forget about her, and put the limited energy and resources into this disaster, #39; the foundation said Monday. The people hit by the earthquake will need supplies immediately, the Red Cross notes on its microblog.红十字会周日称,所以,从这一刻起,请忘记她,把有限的精力和资源全部转向灾区。红十字会的微称,灾区民众急需救灾物资。The plea comes as rescuers are rushing to reach southwest China, where a 6.1 earthquake that struck Sunday in the city of Zhaotong has killed 381 people and injured 1,800 others. The impact could be greater, as the epicenter was in Ludian county, home to more than 265,900 people, according to Xinhua.红十字会这一表态正值救援人员火速赶往中国西南地区救灾之际。云南昭通周日发生6.1级地震,已经造成381人死亡,1,800人受伤。新华社称,由于震中心在人口超过265,900人的鲁甸,地震造成的伤亡可能会更大。While the government has been quick to react, the destruction of the earthquake is vast, with rescue efforts complicated by inclement weather. Houses have toppled, crushing lives and the livelihoods that many have built for themselves. Xinhua ed a Ludian resident as saying the streets were like #39;a battlefield after bombardment.#39;中国政府迅速采取了行动,但地震造成的破坏非常严重,恶劣的天气也使得救援行动遭遇困难。地震导致房屋坍塌,夺去了许多人的生命以及他们努力创造的生活。新华社援引一位鲁甸居民的话报道称,街道像被炮轰之后的战场。Chinese citizens have struggled to trust charitable organizations in China, where a number of scandals over the years has left people questioning if their donations are truly going to people who need them most.然而在中国,民众对慈善组织缺乏信任,过去几年来一系列的丑闻令人们质疑他们的捐赠是否真正到了那些最需要它们的人手中。The 2011 Guo Meimei scandal was made worse by persistent questions over the whereabouts of billions of yuan in donations for victims of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, a significant chunk of which was managed by the Chinese Red Cross, and did lasting damage to charity fund-raising efforts in a country aly short on trust. Unlike most Red Cross organizations around the world, China#39;s is tightly linked to the state, something that has further deepened mistrust of the charity among many Chinese.外界对为2008年四川地震受害者捐赠的数十亿人民币去向的质疑从来没有停息过,这也令2011年郭美美丑闻造成的影响加重。这些捐赠大部分都为红十字会管理。这些也给这个原本就缺乏信任的国家的慈善筹款带来了持久的影响。此外,不像全球大部分红会组织,中国红十字会与政府部门联系紧密,进一步加剧了许多中国人对这个组织的不信任。Ms. Guo could not be reached for comment.记者未能联系到郭美美置评。The Red Cross has made many attempts to move beyond rumors and problems in the past. And now, as it faces thousands of people who need help in some of China#39;s hard-to-reach areas, it will attempt to do so again.过去红十字会多次努力消除传言的影响。现在它面对的是中国交通最不便利地区成千上万名急需帮助的民众,红十字会将再一次作出努力。#39;Yes, relentless action is our only option to wash away the sewage, to overcome the rumors and overcome ourselves,#39; the Red Cross said on its microblog.红十字会在其微上写道,是的,只有不懈的行动才是我们唯一的选择,能涤出污水,战胜谣言,也战胜自己。 /201408/318648Despite second quarter earnings that largely met Wall Street estimates, Hewlett-Packard (HPQ) announced it would cut 11,000 to 16,000 jobs, bringing the total number of layoffs during its ongoing restructuring to roughly 50,000.虽然第二季度的收入基本符合华尔街的预期,但惠普(Hewlett-Packard)还是宣布将裁员11,000人到16,000人,使得惠普重组进程中的裁员总人数将达到50,000人。On Thursday, the tech company posted profits per share of 66 cents on revenues of .3 billion, which were down 1% from a year earlier. In comparison, Wall Street had predicted revenues of .5 billion. Sales in its personal computer business climbed 7% year-over-year while dropping 4% for printers and 2% in the enterprise division. The news leaked early when HP prematurely distributed its earnings press release more than an hour before the earnings call.周四,这家科技公司公布每股利润为66美分,收入273亿美元,同比下降了1%。华尔街预测的收入为275亿美元。个人电脑业务的销售额年比增长了7%,但打印机和企业部门却分别减少了4%和2%。惠普在业绩发布会前一个多小时就对外散发了业绩新闻稿,导致消息提前泄露。;We think the mix of revenues (strong PCs and weak every other segment) is concerning especially if the PC cycle starts to slow down post the initial benefit from Windows XP end of life cycle,; R Capital Markets analyst Amit Daryanani noted in a report.加拿大皇家资本市场(R Capital Markets)分析师阿米特o德莱纳里在一份报告中表示:“我们认为,这种收入组合(强劲的PC业务和疲软的其他部门)令人忧虑,尤其是在Windows XP系统寿命终结带来的初期的好处之后,个人电脑更换周期开始放缓。”The layoffs could also be cause for concern. HP, which remains in the midst of a challenging turnaround under CEO Meg Whitman, had previously projected it would cut 34,000 jobs, double the number it announced in 2012 as part of a major multi-year restructuring plan. The plan was expected to save HP as much as .5 billion annually and help the company invest further in areas like research and development, as well as marketing. Now, with the revised layoff figure, the company expects a total of 41,000 to leave by the end of fiscal year 2014 and the remaining number departing the following year.裁员也是令人担忧的问题。惠普仍在CEO梅格o惠特曼的带领下进行艰难转型。之前,这家公司曾预测,作为多年重组计划的一部分,公司将裁员34,000人,比2012年宣布的数字翻了一番。这个计划预计每年将为惠普节省35亿美元,可帮助公司进行其他领域的投资,例如研发和市场营销等。而根据此次修改的裁员数据,到2014财年年底,公司预计将裁员41,000人,剩余人员则在下一财年离开公司。 /201405/300898

中文在上,对照英文在下 统计的结果简单明了:在全球专利大战中,欧洲发明家落在了后面。至于这个结果重不重要,则远没有那么容易说清楚。The statistics are straightforward: European inventors are falling behind in the global patent rush. What is far less clear is whether this matters.过去30年的多数时间里,专利申请数领先的国家无疑是日本和美国,欧洲则在第三位徘徊。但从2000年代初起,中国开始异军突起。自2011年起的每一年,中国国内提交的专利申请,在数量上都超过全球各地任何其他知识产权局收到的申请。For most of the past 30 years, the leaders in patent filing were without doubt Japan and the US, with Europe bumping along in third place. But from the early 2000s, China began to emerge as a significant force, and each year since 2011 more patent applications have been filed in China than in any other intellectual property office around the globe.起初,中国企业争相申请的是国内专利。不过,它们很快就开始把目光投向国际市场。欧洲专利局(European Patent Office)最新数据显示,去年欧盟(EU)收到的专利申请中,中国方面提交的在数量上居第四位,而不到十年前中国还仅处于第12位。The initial rush was for domestically filed patents, but Chinese companies soon began looking for international markets, with the latest data from the European Patent Office (EPO) putting China fourth in the volume of patents filed in the EU last year, up from 12th less than a decade ago.如今,欧洲收到的专利申请大部分来自欧洲以外,德国是唯一一个跻身前五的欧洲国家。总体上说,去年欧洲专利局收到的专利申请超过27.4万份,是有史以来专利申请最多的年份。The majority of applications for patents in Europe now come from outside the continent, with Germany the only European country to make it into the top five. In total, more than 274,000 patents were applied for at the EPO last year, an all-time high.对Withers amp; Rogers专利律师丹尼斯#8226;凯塞里斯(Denis Keseris)来说,文章开头提到的那个结果是否重要,很简单:当然重要。他说:“部分企业还没有意识到知识产权的重要性。”他接着表示,为确保欧洲在创新中占据足够的分量,“我们应该提交比现在多得多的专利申请”。For Denis Keseris, patent attorney at Withers amp; Rogers, the answer to the question of whether this matters is simple: yes. “Some companies are not getting to grips with the importance of intellectual property,” he says, adding that for Europe’s share of innovation “we should be filing a lot more patents”.尽管英国向欧洲专利局提交的专利申请数量在以三年来最快的速度增长,但在人均专利申请数方面,英国仍落在欧洲多数大型经济体(意大利除外)的后面。While the UK’s filings to the EPO grew at the fastest rate in three years, it still lags behind most large European economies (with the exception of Italy) in terms of filings per head of population.代表英国特许专利律师协会(Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys)发表意见的专利律师马特#8226;狄克逊(Matt Dixon)称:“英国企业必须清醒过来,认识到专利不仅仅是为头发蓬乱的发明家设置的,还是日常创新战略的关键环节。”如果自己的产品不享有法律保护,企业将处于任由他人抄袭的境地。Matt Dixon, another patent attorney, speaking on behalf of the Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys in the UK, says: “British businesses need to wake up and realise that patents are not just for wild-haired inventors, but are a key part of everyday innovation strategy”. Without legal protection for their products, businesses are leaving themselves open to being copied.中国在欧专利申请数的急剧增长,部分是出于赶超的需要。与其研发出相比,中国的国际专利存量依然较少。中国企业要想争取欧洲的业务,就必须确保其技术背后的知识产权为自己所有、并且在欧盟具有合法性。Part of the reason for the burgeoning number of Chinese patents in Europe is a need to catch up. China’s stock of international patents remains small compared with its research and development (Ramp;D) spending. If Chinese companies are to compete for business in Europe, they will need to ensure that the IP underpinning their technology is owned by them and legal in the EU.中国政府向中国企业在国内提交的专利申请提供补贴,2012年,它开始向中国企业在境外提交的专利申请提供额外的补贴。此举反映了中国政府对这个问题的重视程度。As an indication of the importance that the Chinese government attaches to the issue, in 2012 it began offering subsidies for foreign filings in addition to those it offers for domestic filings.有一种常见的说法是,来自中国的许多专利申请质量较低。相关数据在一定程度上持了这种说法。虽然在提交给欧洲专利局的专利申请中,中国占了大约10%,但在获批的专利中,中国的占比却滑落至2%。The often repeated charge that many of the patent applications from China are of low quality has some support in the data. While China accounts for about 10 per cent of patents filed to the EPO, when it comes to patents granted the proportion drops to 2 per cent.一个更难回答的问题是,专利申请乃至专利获批情况是否能为我们了解国家间的相对创新态势提供什么有意义的线索。The more knotty question is whether patent applications — or even those that are granted — tell us anything meaningful about the comparative state of innovation between countries.英国知识产权局(Intellectual Property Office)对这个问题给出了否定的。该局不仅负责英国知识产权的总体政策,还负责英国专利、商标和设计权的批准。The UK’s Intellectual Property Office, which is responsible for overall UK intellectual property policy as well as granting UK patents, trademarks and design rights, thinks not.该局一名发言人表示:“单纯把专利数量作为创新水平的近似,是在以一种一维化和有很大欠缺的方式理解创新活动所特有的广度。”“To approximate a level of innovation purely on patent numbers would be a one-dimensional, and woefully inadequate, way to understand the bth of activity that characterises innovation,” according to a spokesman for the Office.这名官员强调,专利本身不是保护创新的唯一途径。他补充说,专利“提供正式的保护,但它不涵盖未注册的发明,比如商业秘密,也不考虑不基于发明的创新”。Stressing that patents themselves are not the only way to protect innovations, the official added that patents “provide formal protection but do not account for unregistered inventions, for example trade secrets, nor do they consider non- invention-based innovation”.伦敦卡斯商学院(Cass Business School)讲师埃琳娜#8226;诺韦利(Elena Novelli)的表态则更委婉一些,她说:“当然,专利申请数是一个衡量标准,但它不是终极衡量标准。”Elena Novelli, lecturer at Cass Business School in London, is more measured, saying: “Certainly, the number of patents filed is a metric, but it is not the ultimate metric.”至于到底有多少专利真的赚了钱,找不到什么严格的统计数据予以说明。但Bloomberg Business表示,2000年代中期有效的150万份美国专利中,只有大约3000份具备商业可行性。诺韦利士强调,即使是那些赚钱的专利,各自的价值也可能大不相同,大量发明被明并没有多少价值,只有少数发明具有很高价值。There are no hard and fast statistics on how many patents actually make money, but Bloomberg Business says that of 1.5m US patents in effect in the mid-2000s, only about 3,000 were commercially viable. Dr Novelli stressed that even among those which make money, their value can be very skewed, with a high number of inventions turning out not to have much value and only a few being of high value.人们展开了不少尝试,试图在更大的经济背景下考察创新,康奈尔大学(Cornell University)、欧洲工商管理学院(Insead)以及世界知识产权组织(WIPO)创立的“全球创新指数”(Global Innovation Index)就是其中之一。One attempt of many to try to look at innovation in a wider economic context is the Global Innovation Index, created by Cornell University, Insead, the business school, and the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO).除了研发出和许可费收入等变量,该指数还包含各国在YouTube网站的视频上传数以及在维基百科(Wikipedia)网站的月编辑次数等指标。若以该指数作为衡量指标搞个排行榜,欧洲则可大大松一口气:排名前五的国家是瑞士、英国、瑞典、芬兰和荷兰。中国则降至第29名。Alongside variables such as spending on Ramp;D and licence fee receipts, it also includes such things as uploads on YouTube and Wikipedia monthly edits in each country. Europe can rest far easier on this metric: the top five places are taken by Switzerland, the UK, Sweden, Finland and the Netherlands. China is down in 29th place. /201506/380656

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