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2020年02月29日 06:30:51 | 作者:国际指南 | 来源:新华社
An international court has awarded the shareholders of the now-defunct Yukos oil company more than billion, ruling that the Russian government wrongly seized the company from one of the country’s most powerful oligarchs.一家国际法庭裁定,现已不复存在的尤科斯石油公司(Yukos)的股东们应当得到超过500亿美元(约合3100亿元人民币)的赔偿。裁决认定俄罗斯政府从该国最强大的寡头之一手中不正当地夺走了这家公司。The award by a tribunal in The Hague the largest ever in international arbitration is the latest chapter in a dispute that began in 2003 when Russian authorities arrested Yukos’s chairman, Mikhail B. Khodorkovsky, and sold off his company over the next several years.海牙的一家仲裁法庭裁定的这宗赔偿,是国际仲裁史上金额最大的一宗003年,俄罗斯当局逮捕了尤科斯公司的总裁米哈伊尔·B·霍多尔科夫斯Mikhail B. Khodorkovsky),并在随后几年里将他的公司出售。这次的赔偿裁定是始003年的这场纠纷中最新的发展。Mr. Khodorkovsky gained control of Yukos through Russia’s privatization auctions in the 1990s, and the attack on the energy company was seen by some as the Kremlin’s effort to correct irregularities in that process. Others, including Yukos shareholders, saw the company’s troubles and Mr. Khodorkovsky’s imprisonment as an effort by Russia’s government to punish him for his political ambitions and take back the oil and gas industry.霍多尔科夫斯基在上世0年代俄罗斯的私有化拍卖中,取得了尤科斯的控制权,而之后这家能源公司受到的攻击,在一些人看来,是克里姆林宫试图纠正私有化过程中出现的违规做法。但包括尤科斯股东在内的另一些人则认为,这家公司遇到的麻烦,以及霍多尔科夫斯基的入狱,是俄罗斯政府在对他的政治抱负进行惩罚,也是政府在夺回油气产业的控制权。In siding with the shareholders, the ruling adds to the pressure on Russia, which faces increased scrutiny in the ed States and Europe for the escalating crisis in Ukraine. The Yukos case plays into broader concerns that Russia, under the leadership of President Vladimir V. Putin, has looked to stifle opposition and put valuable assets under Kremlin insiderscontrol.这项裁决持了股东的诉求,加剧了俄罗斯承受的压力。当前,俄罗斯由于激化乌克兰的危机,受到了美国和欧洲越来越严厉的审视。尤科斯公司的案件让人联想起更广泛的一些担忧,即在弗拉基米尔·V·普京(Vladimir V. Putin)的领导下,俄罗斯意图钳制反对派,并将其巨额财产放在克里姆林宫圈内人的手中。A three-person panel, in a roughly 600-page ruling, portrayed the seizure and breakup of Yukos as a politically driven campaign to neutralize Mr. Khodorkovsky while taking the lucrative oil company from which he derived most of his wealth. The panel said Russia “was not driven by motives of tax collectionin auctioning off a core business but “by the desire of the state to acquire Yukosmost valuable asset.”由三人组成的仲裁庭在长00页的裁定书中写道,没收并拆分尤科斯公司的行为是出于政治原因而采取的行动,目的是消除霍多尔科夫斯基的影响力,同时夺取他名下利润丰厚的石油公司。霍多尔科夫斯基的大部分财富都来源于这家公司。仲裁小组认定,俄罗斯在拍卖一项核心业务时,“动机并不是税收”,而是“意欲让国家取得尤科斯公司最有价值的资产”。“In short,the tribunal said, “it was in effect a devious and calculated expropriation.”仲裁小组表示,“简而言之,这实际上是一个精心策划的、狡诈的盘剥行为。”“This has to be a considerable source of embarrassment and frustration for the small group of people at the helmin Russia, said John Lough, a Russia analyst at Chatham House, a research organization in London.伦敦研究机构皇家国际事务研究所(Chatham House)的俄罗斯问题专家约翰·John Lough)表示,这为俄罗斯“掌舵的一小群人,带来了相当大的尴尬和挫折”。Still, the award, which was less than shareholders sought, may prove a largely symbolic blow. It is unclear how shareholders will collect the money from Russia.不过,这次裁定的赔偿低于股东提出的金额,而且这项裁定产生的冲击,基本上也只是象征性的。目前尚不清楚股东会怎样从俄罗斯收取赔偿金。Lawyers for the shareholders said they expected the government to resist paying the award and that the case could drag on for years. If Russia did not pay, the lawyers said, they would go to court outside Russia to seize state-owned commercial assets, focusing in particular on Rosneft, the state-owned oil giant. Rosneft acquired the crown jewel of Yukos, a unit called Yuganskneftegaz, for a bargain price in the bankruptcy proceedings.股东的代理律师表示,他们预期政府会拒绝给予赔偿,这个案件可能也会拖延数年。律师们表示,如果俄罗斯不做赔偿,他们会在俄罗斯以外的法庭起诉,要求没收俄罗斯国有的商业资产,尤其会关注国有石油巨擘俄罗斯石油公Rosneft)。在破产程序当中,Rosneft以极低的价格收购了尤科斯公司冠冕上的明珠尤甘斯克石油天然气公Yuganskneftegaz)。“We are thrilled with this decision, although we know it is not the end of the road,said Tim Osborne, director of GML, the holding company created by the Yukos founder that owned about 60 percent of the oil company.GML公司董事蒂姆·奥斯Tim Osborne)说,“这个裁定让我们感到振奋,尽管我们知道前面还有路要走。”GML是霍多尔科夫斯基建立的控股公司,持有尤科0%的股什?Russia’s Ministry of Finance said it would appeal. “Instead of an objective, impartial consideration of the case, the arbitration court ruled based on current developments and as a result adopted a politically biased decision,it said in a statement on its website.俄罗斯财政部称将会上诉。该部在其官方网站上发表声明称,“仲裁庭并未客观、公正地审理案件,而是根据当前的局势做出了裁定,因此出具的裁决有政治偏见。”The Yukos story traces back to the years after the fall of the Soviet Union. In the early 1990s, Moscow allowed a handful of aggressive traders and financiers to take over much of the oil business and other industries previously controlled by the state. Mr. Khodorkovsky, who had founded a bank called Menatep, gained control of Yukos in 1995 at a cheap price through an auction widely considered rigged.尤科斯公司的故事可以追溯到苏联解体后的那几年。上世纪90年代初,莫斯科允许少数一些有进取心的商人和金融业者,接手过去由国家控制的大部分石油生意和其他产业。霍多尔科夫斯基先是建立了一家名为梅纳捷Menatep)的,此后1995年在一场拍卖中以低廉的价格,取得了尤科斯公司的控制权。人们广泛认为,那次拍卖过程中有人做了手脚。Despite having little industry knowledge, Mr. Khodorkovsky helped revive the company by bringing in Western techniques like water injection and fracking. Production at Yukos almost doubled between 1995 and 2003.尽管霍多尔科夫斯基此前对这个行业几乎一无所知,他仍然通过引进注水法和水力压裂法等西方技术帮助公司重振雄风。从1995年到2003年,尤科斯的产量几乎翻了一番。But Mr. Khodorkovsky fell out of favor with Mr. Putin, who is said to have bridled at the chairman’s rumored political ambitions and aggressive lobbying on business matters. In October 2003, agents arrested Mr. Khodorkovsky at a Siberian airport. He served 10 years in jail on charges of embezzlement and tax fraud before being pardoned by Mr. Putin late last year.不过,霍多尔科夫斯基在普京那里失宠了,传闻这位尤科斯的总裁颇有政治野心,据说就是这一点和他游说商业事务时咄咄逼人的态度惹怒了普京0030月,警方探员在西伯利亚机场逮捕了霍多尔科夫斯基。他因受到挪用公款和税务欺诈指控而了十年徒刑,去年末,普京赦免了他。Shareholders viewed the ruling, made on July 18 and unveiled on Monday, as a victory.股东们把今年78日出台并于本周一公布的裁决视为一次胜利。“The findings were predictable for any unbiased observer,Mr. Khodorkovsky said in an emailed statement. “From beginning to end, the Yukos case has been an instance of unabashed plundering of a successful company by a mafia with links to the state.”“任何一名不带偏见的观察者都会预见这样的裁决结果。”霍多尔科夫斯基在用电子邮件发表的声明中表示。“尤科斯一案,从头到尾就是一个与官方勾结的小集团厚颜无耻地劫掠一家成功企业的案例。”Mr. Osborne, a British tax lawyer who runs GML, said on Monday that he expected Russia to apply to courts in the Netherlands to have the awards set aside. He also indicated that GML would be open to a settlement. “We accept there is a benefit to being paid straight away.”经营GML的英国税务律师奥斯本周一表示,他预计俄罗斯会向位于荷兰的法庭申请撤销赔偿裁决。他还暗示,GML愿意接受和解方案。“要承认,能立即拿到钱对我们有益。”来 /201407/316552Pacific Rim countries will be required to criminalise hacking attacks on companies under a regional trade pact that shows Washington’s determination to clamp down on Chinese cyber theft and ban new forms of digital protectionism.按照一项区域贸易协定,太平洋周边国家将被要求以刑事罪论处针对企业的黑客攻击,这突显了华盛顿方面打击中国网络盗窃行为和禁止新形式的数字保护主义的决心。The US, Japan and 10 other economies last month concluded five years of negotiations on the Trans-Pacific Partnership, covering roughly 40 per cent of the global economy. Although the pact does not include China, US officials from President Barack Obama down are selling the TPP as a crucial component in Washington’s efforts to write the rules of the global economy before Beijing can.美国、日本以及另0个经济体上月完成了历时五年的《跨太平洋伙伴关系协定Trans-Pacific Partnership,简称TPP)的谈判,协定涵盖全球经济的大0%。虽然该协定并不包括中国,但美国各级官员——从巴拉克攠巴马(Barack Obama)总统起——都把TPP说成是华盛顿方面力求抢在中国之前确立全球经济规则的努力的关键部分。The deal will reduce trade barriers on everything from beef and dairy products to textiles, with new standards for environmental protection, investment disputes and the behaviour of state-owned enterprises.该协定将降低多种产品(从牛肉和奶制品,到纺织品)的贸易壁垒,并为环境保护、投资纠纷和国有企业的行为设立新标准。The TPP agreement details of which will be released as soon as today will also include new rules governing the free flow of data, privacy and cyber security, showing how the US intends to use a trade deal to set benchmarks that it hopes will become global standards.TPP协定的细节最快可能在今日公布,该协定还将包括规范数据自由流动、隐私和网络安全的新规则,显示美国有意借助一项贸易协定确立基准,希望这些基准未来成为全球标准。The growing number of cyber attacks on US companies blamed on Chinese hackers looking to steal commercial secrets has become a big point of friction between the world’s two biggest economies. Washington has threatened to level financial sanctions against Chinese companies linked to such attacks.美国企业受到越来越多的网络攻击,而这些攻击大部分被归咎于寻机窃取商业秘密的中国黑客,这件事已成为全球两大经济体之间的一大擦点。华盛顿方面已经威胁要对与此类攻击有关联的中国企业实施金融制裁。In an interview with the Financial Times, Mike Froman, the US trade tsar, said the TPP’s new digital rules were not only aimed at China, which is years away from joining the pact.美国贸易代表迈克弗罗Mike Froman)在接受英囀?金融时报》记者采访时表示,TPP新的数字规则不仅针对中国。中国如果要加入这项协定还将是很多年以后的事情。“The area of localisation [laws for data], forced technology transfer [and] forced [intellectual property] transfer is an issue that has been a central concern in our relationship with China,he said. “But it is not limited to China. We’ve always said that TPP is not directed against any country but it is directed at defining high standard rules for the road in the region.”“本地化(有关数据的法律)领域,强迫技术转让以及强迫(知识产权)转让,是我国与中国关系中受到重点关切的一个问题,”他表示。“但它并不仅限于中国。我方始终表明,TPP并不针对任何国家,但它意在为地区界定高标准的道路规则。”Assuming it is ratified by the US Congress and other legislatures, the TPP would require its member countries to pass laws that make stealing trade secrets a crime. Crucially, it requires those laws to also specify theft by and from “computer systems假设TPP得到美国国会和其它成员国立法机构的批准,它将要求成员国通过法律,将窃取商业机密界定为刑事罪。至关重要的是,它将要求此类法律明文针对来自和由“计算机系统”发起的窃取行为。The TPP also requires countries to allow the unhindered flow of data across borders for most industries bar financial services and bans a swath of practices used by China and other countries to protect local technology companies. These include requirements for businesses to house servers and data locally, for businesses to share proprietary source code in order to secure contracts or gain access to markets, and rules mandating the use of special local encryption algorithms that could allow governments a back door into electronic devices such as smartphones.TPP还要求成员国允许大多数行业(不包括金融务)的数据可以不受阻碍地跨境流动,并禁止中国和其他国家为保护本土科技公司所采用的种种手段,包括要求企业在境内设置务器和保存数据,企业为了争取合同或进入市场而不得不交出专有的源代码,以及规定必须使用本土开发的特别加密算法(这可能让政府机构从后门进入智能手机等电子设备)。Mr Froman said the TPP would “push back at digital protectionism that we see popping up all over the world弗罗曼表示,TPP将“对抗世界各地不断冒出的数字保护主义行为”。来 /201511/408068

There’s a chance your next smartphone could be assembled by a robot.你的下一部智能手机,很有可能是由机器人组装的。Apple supplier Foxconn is apparently close to replacing some of the assembly-line workers in its factories with robots, called “foxbots,that are in their final testing stages, according to IT Home. Terry Gou, the CEO of Taiwan-based supplier’s parent company, said in a recent shareholder meeting that about 10,000 foxbots are expected to be put to work to help keep up with the demand for Apple’s next smartphone, the iPhone 6, which is expected to hit the market this fall.据台湾媒体IT Home报道称,苹果供应商富士康显然已接近于用机器人取代其生产线上的部分人力。富士康将这些已经进入最后测试阶段的机器人称为“foxbots”。担任富士康台湾母公司首席执行官的郭台铭在最近召开的股东大会上表示,公司预计将引进万台foxbots,来帮助跟上苹果最新手机iPhone 6的供货需求。该机型有望于今年秋季上市。The robots reportedly cost as much as ,000 each and they can churn out roughly 30,000 devices each annually, which would mean a yield of about 300 million devices a year from the first batch. Foxconn currently employs about 1.2 million humans in several factories across China, where workers in the past have protested low wages and poor conditions, with some workers even committing suicide.这批机器人据悉每台的造价高达2.5万美元,一名机器人每年大约能组装近3万部设备。这意味着第一批机器人的年产能将达到约3亿部。富士康目前在中国各大工厂总共雇用了约120万名员工。在中国,富士康员工曾举行过游行示威,抗议低工资和糟糕的工作条件,甚至还出现了数起工人自杀事件。The news from Foxconn is a long time coming, as the company said in 2011 it would begin to use more robots on its assembly lines and even predicted at the time that it would have about a million robots at work by 2014.富士康使用机器人的消息已谈不上是什么新闻,公司011年就曾透露将开始在生产线上使用更多的机器人,甚至预言机器人的数量将在2014年达00万台。In October, Apple said in its annual report that the company planned to spend roughly .5 billion on new supply-chain technologies, including assembly robots.去年10月,苹果曾在年度报告中表示,公司计划投入05亿美元开发新供应链技术,其中包括用于组装生产线的机器人 /201407/310988

Saudi Arabias King Salman bin Abdulaziz reshuffled a number of top posts Wednesday, including naming his nephew Prince Mohammed bin Nayef as the new crown prince.沙特阿拉伯国王萨勒曼星期三对一些高层职位进行了调整,包括任命他的侄子纳伊夫亲王为新王储。The new heir apparent replaces the kings half brother, Muqrin, who had just been named crown prince in January when King Salman took power upon the death of the King Abdullah.看来这位新王储取代了萨勒曼国王的同父异母弟弟穆克林。今月沙特国王阿卜杜拉去世,萨勒曼登上王位后任命穆克林为王储。In another move, all announced by a decree in state media, the king appointed a new foreign minister, elevating the Saudi ambassador to the U.S. Adel al-Jubeir to replace longtime diplomat Saud al-Faisal.此外,萨勒曼国王通过国家媒体宣布任命新外交大臣的政令,由沙特驻美国大使阿祖贝尔接任长期担任外交大臣的费萨尔。The kings son, Prince Mohammad bin Salman, is the new deputy crown prince.萨勒曼的儿子默哈迈德·本·萨勒曼被任命为副王储。来 /201505/373169

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