楼主:排名助手 时间:2019年06月26日 01:38:10 点击:0 回复:0
I really like May, because things are calming down, the sharks are gone.我很喜欢5月,因为万物都很平静。鲨鱼全走了。And the males and females actually have some nice interactions.雌雄海豚在一起合作。The males arent harassing the females like they do, 6 to 8 months earlier.每年的6,7,8月份雄海豚不可以骚扰雌海豚。With the big sharks finally gone, Samu has survived the most dangerous first moths of his life.鲨鱼走了,莎木最大的威胁消失了。Seeing Samu growing up so strong and independent bodes well for his future.莎木长得很强壮,未来独立的生活会很不错。Hes aly showing all the signs of becoming one of the Bays top males.它有成为鲨鱼湾最优秀的雄性海豚的潜质。But one day, he too, will have to leave the loving companionship of the Beachies.但总有一天,它也会离开比奇家庭的怀抱。At 33 years old, Pucks long reign of the Beachies will soon come to an end.帕克33岁了,它在比奇家庭的领导地位会很快结束。This wonderful dolphin has taught Janet more than any other.这只优秀的海豚教会了珍妮特很多。A wise and gentle mother, Puck showed her children how to survive in the dangerous waters of Shark Bay.这位聪明有礼貌的海豚妈妈教会了孩子们在危险的鲨鱼湾求生。And showing us the richness of dolphin family lives, if we just choose to look beneath the surface.也给我们留下了海豚家庭生活的宝贵资料。201407/309552As we know from the movie, the Hulk is a guy who, when hegets angry, turns into the strongest, meanest creature onearth.看过电影《绿巨人》的都知道,每当班纳尔生气时,就会失去自我意识,变身成为地球上最强壮最具破坏力的生物-绿色巨人。The natural world features a few amazingly strongcreatures of its own.其实,在自然界中,也有一些这样具有超凡力量的生物。In fact, the pound-for-pound strongestcreature on earth is…drum roll please…这种实打实的地球最强生物就是…The rhinoceros beetle?犀牛甲虫?Is it possible that a little old beetle, an insect, can bear more weight than, say, an elephant?这么丁点大的小甲虫可以负重超过大象吗?Of course not, but when it comes to proportional strength, the rhinoceros beetle is second to none.当然不能,但是,如果是按体重和负重量的比例来算,犀牛甲虫可是当之无愧的冠军呢!Elephants, after all, can only carry around 25% of their own weight.毕竟,就算是大象也只能载动自身体重的四分之一左右,The rhino beetle can carry a whopping 850 times its own weight on its back.而我们小小的犀牛甲虫却能载动超过体重八百五十倍的东西呢!Why are rhino beetles so strong?那么犀牛甲虫为什么如此强大呢?First, these beetles are nearly an inch long and packed withpowerful muscles.首先,这种甲虫体短,只有一英寸长,但却浑身是强健的肌肉。Second, they generally have at least three legs touching the ground at all times.其次,通常它能够做到至少三只脚同时着地,This gives these beetles the extraordinary balance and leverage that enable them to lift heavyobjects.这就使得它具有超凡的平衡力和撑点来抬起重物。Since they live in tropical jungles along the equator, rhino beetles have to be strong to foragethrough the jungle floor.因为犀牛甲虫生活在赤道附近的热带丛林,因此,它不得不足够强壮才能在炽热的地表搜寻到食物。Named for the rhinoceros-like horn on its head, the rhino beetle uses itshorn and proportional strength to move aside branches and other debris in search of food.正因为犀牛甲虫的角酷似犀牛角,所以它才叫做犀牛甲虫。犀牛甲虫利用自己的角和力量来移开树枝和其它障碍物来搜寻食物。Rhino beetles are neither ferocious nor particularly dangerous.犀牛甲虫既不残忍也不危险。They eat rotting fruit and sap, anddespite their fierce horned appearance do not bite or sting when handled.它们食用的是腐烂的水果和树的汁液,即便它们的角及其锋利,但当你抓住它时它也不会叮咬你。These gentle insectsmay not be hulk-like in demeanor, but their strength might turn other creatures green with envy.因此,这些温柔的昆虫行为举止绝对不会像恐怖的绿色巨人,但是,恐怕它们强大的力量会轻而易举地让其它生物妒忌的两眼发红吧! 201409/327176As Robert Palmer sang in the mid 80s,You might as well faceit, youre addicted to love.80年代中期的罗伯特帕尔默曾经唱道:承认吧,你已坠入爱河。While that may or may not be true depending on who you are, its nosecret that addiction is a common phenomenon.虽然,这句歌词的意思因人而异,但我们都知道,沉迷某事物或某人是个普遍现象。Apart from serious addictions to drugs and alcohol, how many times have you heard someoneclaim that theyre absolutely addicted to chocolate? Or diet Coke.除了严重的毒瘾和酒瘾意外,你有多少次曾听到有人说他们对巧克力十分上瘾?Or broccoli? Well, maybe notbroccoli, but you get the point.或者说无糖可乐,或是花椰菜?也许不是花椰菜,但你知道我想说的是什么。But is it really possible to be a chocolate addict in the same waythat someone might be addicted to drugs?对巧克力上瘾真的会跟毒瘾一样吗?To answer that question we need to know what addiction is.要解答这个问题,我们需要知道什么是上瘾。Although the precise science ofaddiction is unclear, we do know that it involves the brain; addictive substances alter brainchemistry in such a way as to make the body crave more.虽然对上瘾还没有确切的定义,但我们都知道它跟大脑有关;上瘾的东西会以某种方式改变脑化学,从而使人体产生对该物的渴望。But what about chocolate?但怎么解释巧克力呢?Several studies indicate that chocolate addiction is for real.一些研究表明,对巧克力上瘾确实是存在的。Chocolatecontains a number of addictive substances, including caffeine and cannabinoids, chemicals similarto the ones that make marijuana a potent drug.巧克力包含很多容易上瘾的物质,如咖啡因、大麻类物质。Further studies found not only that chocolatefats trigger the release of pleasure-causing substances in the brain, but that chocolate contains achemical similar to amphetamine, a highly addictive drug.进一步研究发现,不仅巧克力脂肪能够促使大脑释放出使人体愉悦的物质,巧克力还含有一种和苯内胺很相似的化学物质。Does this mean that anyone who eats enough chocolate will become addicted?难道说任何吃过多巧克力的人都会上瘾吗?No. Some peoplecan eat all the chocolate they want and never get hooked.不是的。有些人可以想吃多少巧克力就吃多少而不上瘾。But chocolate does cause chemicalchanges in the brain that can result in a powerful craving.但巧克力确实会引起大脑的化学变化,从而产生一种强烈的渴望。Chocolate addiction is nowhere near aspotent or harmful as alcohol and drug addiction, of course.对巧克力上瘾可不是像毒瘾和酒瘾那样对人体有害。But if you find yourself unable to gothrough the day without at least one Hersheys Kiss, its not just in your mind.但如果你发现自己一天不吃上一块好时巧克力就不自在的话,不止是你脑中会这样想,Youre hooked.而是你确实是染上巧克力瘾了。 201403/279416Business商业报道Yahoo!雅虎Googling a new boss谷歌前高管出任雅虎新总裁Marissa Mayer takes on one of the toughest jobs in tech玛丽莎·梅耶尔找了科技领域最棘手的一个工作SHORTLY after news broke on July 16th of her appointment as the new chief executive of Yahoo!,7月16日,玛丽莎·梅耶尔被雅虎任命为新CEO。Marissa Mayer revealed that she is expecting her first child later this year.消息刚传出不久,她便透漏,自己的第一个孩子下半年要出生了。Long-suffering shareholders are hoping that Ms Mayer, who left a senior job at Google to take up her new role, will produce a new Yahoo! as well.长期煎熬的雅虎股东都盼望着梅耶尔—这位离开谷歌的女高管,能担任起她的新角色,让雅虎也焕然一新。But that will not be easy.但这并不容易。After losing their mojo, formerly high-flying tech firms rarely recover it—with a few notable exceptions,之前高速发展的科技公司,一旦失去他们的魔法,很少有恢复元气的。such as Apple after Steve Jobss second coming as boss in 1997.但也有些例外,比如苹果公司:1997年史蒂夫·乔布斯重返苹果,接任总裁。Often, ailing companies lurch from one leader and rescue plan to another while their fortunes fade.通常情况下,一旦光华褪去,身处困境的公司就会不停地撤换领导、更改营救计划。That has been the fate so far of Yahoo!,这就是雅虎目前的命运。which is now on to its fifth chief executive, including two interim ones, in three years.它将迎来三年内的第五任CEO,其中包括两名过渡期CEO。The size of the challenge facing Ms Mayer was highlighted by the companys second-quarter results, published on July 17th.雅虎公司7月17日发布了第二季度报告,这让公众认识到梅耶尔面临的挑战有多么艰巨。Overall revenue, at 1.2 billion, was stuck at last years level and net income fell slightly, to 227m.整体收入在去年水平上停滞不前,仍为12亿美元。净利润稍稍下滑,为2.27亿美元。The firms share of online-ad revenues in America has also plummeted, falling from 15.7% in to 9.5% in 2011, according to eMarketer, a research firm.研究机构eMarketer的调查显示,雅虎美国的网络广告收入所占份额也直线下降,从年的15.7%跌到2011年的9.5%。Can Ms Mayer stop the rot? Her fans in Silicon Valley claim that the 37-year-old has the talent to do so.梅耶尔能力挽狂澜吗?她在硅谷的粉丝声称,37岁的梅耶尔是有这个能力的。She brings know-how from Google,她带来了谷歌的技术诀窍。where she was the 20th employee and was involved in many areas, from its search engine to gmail and Google Maps.身为第20名谷歌员工,她曾参与多个领域的工作,从搜索引擎、谷歌邮箱,到谷歌地图,都有涉及。She is also a software engineer by training, which should lend her credibility among Yahoo!s geeks.她还是一名受过专业培训的软件工程师,这有助于她在雅虎极客中树立威信。Throw in that she is an über-networker whose schmoozing skills can charm ad clients, and she seems a good fit.作为一名超级网络人,又能说会道,吸引广告客户,看起来她非常合适。But not a perfect one.但她并不是完美的候选。Although Ms Mayer ran a sizeable team at Google, she has never had to turn round an ailing corporate juggernaut with 700m users.尽管梅耶尔在谷歌管理的是一个相当大的团队,可她从不需要扭转公司局面,更何况还是一家拥有7亿用户、杀伤力极强的大公司。Nor has she overseen a huge ad-sales operation and managed a complex international alliance like the one Yahoo! has with Alibaba, a Chinese e-commerce behemoth.她也从没监管过大规模的广告销售运营,没处理过国际联盟间的复杂关系,就像雅虎和中国电子商务巨头阿里巴巴。This is in the process of being unwound, but still needs careful handling.这是一个解除合作关系的过程,但仍需谨慎处理。Small wonder, then, that Yahoo!-watchers were stunned by news of Ms Mayers recruitment.这样看来,雅虎的关注者对任用梅耶尔的消息震惊不已,也不足为奇。Many had expected Ross Levinsohn, the firms interim boss and global media head, to get the top job.很多人曾预测,担任代理CEO的全球媒体业务主管罗斯·列文索恩会转正。Yahoo!s choice is perplexing, says Brian Wieser of Pivotal Research Group.美国市场研究机构Pivotal Research Group的布莱恩·维塞尔说,雅虎的决策令人费解。He thinks Ms Mayer will try hard to keep the talented Mr Levinsohn on board.他认为梅耶尔会努力挽留列文索恩这个的人才。To have a hope of pulling off a Jobs-like turnaround, she will need to tackle three vital tasks fast.要想像乔布斯那样扭转乾坤,她需要迅速处理三件重大任务。First, she must clarify what kind of company Yahoo! wants to be.第一,她必须明确方向:雅虎想成为什么样的公司。Some of its former bosses, including Mr Levinsohn, emphasised its plentiful content in areas such as sports and finance.几位前任CEO,包括列文索恩在内,都强调雅虎在体育和财经等方面内容丰富。Others trumpeted its whizz-bang technology. This flip-flopping has confused customers and employees.其他人则吹捧雅虎的科技卓越一流。如此朝秦暮楚,顾客和员工早就糊涂了。Second, Ms Mayer must show how Yahoo! can conquer promising new areas such as the mobile web.第二,针对大有前景的新兴领域,如移动网络,梅耶尔必须向雅虎展示它该如何征。This could involve, say, snapping up firms such as Foursquare, which offer services based on a persons location, an area that Ms Mayer knows well from her time at Google.这可能涉及到抢购公司,比如四方。它是以人的地理位置为基础来提供务的。梅耶尔在谷歌呆过,这个领域她是很了解的。The third task is to restore battered morale while simultaneously boosting productivity.第三,重振士气,同时还要提高生产率。At Google Ms Mayer had a reputation for prickliness,在谷歌,梅耶尔的脾气是出了名的暴躁,but also for nurturing talent and helping staff to cope with heavy workloads.但她培育人才、帮助员工应对高负荷工作,也获得了不错的声誉。Earlier this year she even gave several public talks about the risks of burnout, urging people to discover the rhythm that helps them work hard for long periods without losing their drive.今年年初,她甚至做了几次公开演讲,谈论过度疲劳的风险,敦促大家找到自己的节奏,好有助于大家保持充足的动力,全身心投入工作。Yahoo!s employees will need to find their own rhythms fast.雅虎的员工可要抓紧了,得赶快找到自己的节奏。 /201308/250604

Dear A Moment of Science,亲爱的《科学一科》栏目组:Why do we sleep?我们为什么需要睡觉?I know this question has been debated by scientists and philosophers forcenturies, but are there any hard and fast answers?我知道科学家们和哲学家们就这个问题争论了好几个世纪,但现在有没有确实的,现成的?Good question!问得好!First, its true that scientists have long pondered the mystery of sleep why we do itand why its necessary.首先,科学家们长期以来确实在思考睡眠这一谜题,我们为什么需要睡眠,为什么睡眠十分必要?We know that going without sleep for too long can seriously damage health, so theres good reason to believe that getting enough sleep is important for our well-being.我们知道长期失眠会严重的危害健康,因此,有必要相信保睡眠充足对健康很重要。But exactly how and why thats the case is still an open question.但失眠为什么会影响健康,又是如何影响的,这个问题仍没有。Some research, though, may shed a little light on the problem.一些研究也许可以稍稍解答这个问题。For instance, scientists at the University of Rochester Medical Center in New York did a study with mice, and found that during sleep their brains flush out toxins that accumulate during the day.比如,纽约罗切斯特大学医学中心的科学家们用老鼠做了一个研究,发现老鼠在睡觉时,他们的大脑会排除白天积累的毒素。More specifically, the study found that sleep sort of changes the brains cellular structure.更确切的说,该研究发现睡眠在某种程度上改变了大脑的细胞结构。When the mice were asleep or anesthetized, the researchers found that there was more space between their brain cells, allowing a sort of brain plumbing apparatus called the glymphatic system to open wide and allow fluid to flow quickly through the brain.当老鼠处于睡眠状态或被麻醉是,研究人员发现,他们大脑细胞之间的空间增大了,使被称为脑部类淋巴系统的类似排污管道的器官大大的打开,这样脑脊液就能在大脑中快速的流动。Other studies have shown that toxic molecules build up in the space between brain cells.其他的研究表明,有毒分子在脑细胞的间隙中生成。Researchers at the University of Rochester found that those molecules vanished faster from the brain when the mice were asleep.罗切斯特大学的研究人员发现,这些分子在老鼠睡觉时从大脑中消失得更快。So what does this mean?所以,这意味着什么呢?Well, it could give scientists new ways to study and potentially treatbrain disorders like Alzheimers by targeting the glymphatic system and helping it better flush awaybrain toxins.这意味着通过针对脑部类淋巴系统可以帮助大脑更好的排除脑部毒素,使科学家们有新的方法研究并很有可能治好像老年痴呆症这样的大脑疾病。 201405/294431

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