楼主:百家诊疗 时间:2018年09月25日 03:09:07 点击:0 回复:0
Made in Spain西班牙制造A pressing issue迫在眉睫The government frets about foreign hands on the nations olive-presses外国人插手本国橄榄油产业让政府很不安These are Spanish, not Italian这些是产自西班牙的橄榄,不是产自意大利的THE French government once scuttled a possible foreign bid for Danone, a big dairy firm, on the ground that it was a national industrial “jewel”. If yogurt is strategic for the French, olive oil has the same exalted status inSpain. Four savings banks wanted to sell their combined 31% stake in Deoleo, the countrys largest producer, and under Spains stockmarket rules anyone buying such a large stake has to bid for the whole company. Earlier this month, when it emerged that all the bidders were foreign, ministers said they would prefer that it remained in Spanish hands, and raised the possibility of the state taking a stake in the firm.达能集团是法国一家大型乳制品公司。法国政府曾以它是法国工业的“瑰宝”为理由,否决一项可能达成的国外买家对它的收购案。如果把酸奶产业看作是法国的战略产业,那么橄榄油产业在西班牙拥有同样高的地位。Deoleo是西班牙最大的橄榄油生产商,四家储蓄想抛售他们所持有共计31%的Deoleo股份,而根据西班牙股市交易规则,不论是谁购入如此大额的股份,他都必须向整个公司股东发出收购要约。本月初,当发现所有的竞购者都来自国外,部长们表示他们更希望Deoleo公司的所有权留在西班牙手中,随即提出了国家参股的可能性。On April 10th a British private-equity firm, CVC Capital, won the backing of Deoleos board after making the highest offer, valuing it at 439m. But given the controversy over selling to foreigners, two of the four would-be sellers now look like keeping their stakes. CVC will end up owning 30% of Deoleo but will later seek to buy the rest.4月10日英国一家私募股权公司CVC Capital以4.93亿欧元的最高价竞投,赢得了Deoleo董事会的持。但考虑到买家是外国人而引发的争议,现在四家储蓄中的两家看来要拒绝出售他们所持有的股份。CVC公司最终将拥有Deoleo 公司30%的股份,但之后将寻求购买其余股份的机会。Olive oil accounts for a mere 0.8% ofSpains exports. Yet it is an extra-sensitive matter. The country is the worlds largest producer of the oil, but one-third of its exports are sent in bulk toItalywhere it is bottled and sold, often for a significant markup, under Italian labels. Some of the oil sold with the Bertolli brand, one ofItalys andAmericas favourites, is in fact pressed by Deoleo from the fruits of Spanish olive groves.橄榄油出口额仅占西班牙出口额的0.8%。然而它却是一个特别敏感的问题。西班牙是世界上最大的橄榄油生产国,但是其出口的橄榄油有三分之一是批量发送到意大利的,在那里橄榄油以装瓶出售,通常带着明显的意大利标签,以意大利自有品牌进行销售。Bertolli是意大利人和美国人最青睐品牌之一,然而,有些冠以Bertolli的品牌出售的橄榄油,实际上是使用产自西班牙橄榄园的橄榄,由Deoleo公司压榨的。It is a similar story for wine.Spainhas overtakenFranceandItalyto become the worlds largest producer, but sells almost half of its exports in bulk to markets likeFrance, some of which is retailed under French labels. French- and Italian-labelled wines typically fetch higher prices than Spanish-labelled ones, though the gap is narrowing. And despite the global success of Spanish fashion retailers such as Inditex and Mango, the fancy handbags turned out by artisans in the small Andalusian town ofUbriqueare sold under French and Italian labels. Stuart Weitzman, an American shoe designer who makes his products inSpain, says the country produces the worlds best footwear, but its domestic labels have barely left a footprint on the world stage.对于葡萄酒,情况也类似。西班牙已经超过法国和意大利,成为世界上最大的葡萄酒生产国,但其出口的葡萄酒有几乎一半都批量送往国外零售市场,如法国零售市场,其中一些葡萄酒被冠以法国品牌出售。被冠以法国和意大利品牌标签的葡萄酒通常比西班牙品牌的葡萄酒售价更高,但这一差距正在缩小。尽管西班牙快时尚零售商在全球取得了成功,例如Inditex集团和芒果饰,但是由乌夫克里的安达卢西亚小镇中的工匠所制作的高档手袋,却被冠以法国和意大利的品牌销售。美国的鞋设计师斯图尔特.威兹曼在西班牙生产他的产品,他说:西班牙出产全世界最好的鞋,但其本土品牌却鲜有在世界舞台上留下足迹。Spainhas come a long way, compared with the relatively closed economy it had before joining the European Union in 1986. More recently, rising exports have helped pull the country out of a deep recession, with the economy returning to growth in the third quarter of 2013. Exports are now 34% of Spains GDP, up from 24% in . Its olive oil is winning new customers in places likeChinaandMexico. Prominent chefs like Ferran Adria have raised the profile of Spanish cuisine and attracted foodie tourists. But the country clearly has some way to go in raising the prestige of the “Made inSpain” label.1986年加入欧盟前,西班牙还是个相对封闭的经济体,到如今,它已取得很大进展。最近,出口的增长已帮助西班牙走出了深度的经济衰退。随着2013年第三季度经济回暖,日益增长的出口逐步拉动西班牙走出大萧条的泥沼。年,西班牙的出口额仅占国内生产总值的24%,如今已增长到34%。其橄榄油产品正在赢得中国和墨西哥等国顾客的青睐。像Ferran Adria这样的著名厨师提高了西班牙美食的知名度,也吸引了美食游客的到来。但显然,对于提高“西班牙制造”的声望,西班牙还有一段路要走。 /201404/293152Science and technology科学技术Medical devices医疗设备Inhaling information有关吸入器的吸入信息How to collect data on asthma while, at the same time, treating it在处置哮喘的同时如何收集哮喘数据IN 1985 and 1986 an epidemic of asthma hit Barcelona.1985年和1986年巴塞罗那哮喘病流行。The citys researchers first turned to the usual suspects,这个城市的研究人员首先调查了一般的怀疑对象,such as air pollution, pollen and mould.如空气污染、花粉和霉菌等。But a series of telephone interviews with the sufferers pointed to a much more precise cause.但从一连串对患者的电话随访中得出了一个更为确切原因。All the attacks had occurred by the harbour, and at times when ships were unloading soya beans.所有的哮喘发作都发生在港口,且都在货船卸大豆的时候。The cause was clear: soya-bean dust.原因很清楚:大豆灰尘。So was the solution: the installation of filters on the harbours silos.所以解决办法就是:在港口的筒仓上安装过滤器。Asthma is one of the worlds most common chronic diseases.哮喘是世界上最常见的慢性病之一。It affects about 300m people.大约有3亿人患有哮喘。Yet what triggers any given asthma attack is often unclear and,然而,人们往往并不清楚是什么诱发了任何特定哮喘的发作,as a consequence, most asthmatics are not properly treated. Stories of success, like that of Barcelona, are rare.其结果,大多数哮喘患者得不到妥善处置。象巴塞罗那这样成功的故事是很罕见的。Part of the reason for that lack of clarity is inadequate data on where and when attacks happen.缺乏确切了解的部分原因在于对哮喘在何时何地发作没有足够的数据。But David Van Sickle, an epidemiologist and medical anthropologist who once worked for Americas Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, has come up with a solution.但是曾在美国疾病控制和预防中工作过的流行病学家和医学人类学家大卫·凡·西科勒想出了一个解决方案。This is to use the asthma inhalers carried around routinely by patients to record the time and location of symptoms as they happen.这个解决方案就是利用患者例行性随身携带的哮喘吸入器来记录他们的哮喘症状出现时的时间和位置。To develop his idea, Dr Van Sickle left CDC and founded a company, Asthmapolis, which is based in Madison, Wisconsin.为了开发他的想法,凡·西克尔士离开美国疾病控制和预防中心并成立了一家公司,公司名为Asthmapolis,总部设在威斯康星州的麦迪逊市。The result is Spiroscout, an inhaler with a built-in Global Positioning System locator and a wireless link to the internet.其结果就是一款名为肺量测定法侦察员的吸入器问世,这款吸入器带有内置的全球定位系统定位和联到互联网的无线连接。Whenever someone uses the inhaler, it broadcasts the location and time to a central computer.每当有人使用吸入器时,吸入器就把位置和时间播报到中央计算机。Asthmapolis plots and analyses the data, and sends weekly reports to participating patients and their doctors summarising the observations and making recommendations.这家公司把播报来的数据绘制成图并加以分析,每周向参与播报的患者以及他们的医生发送报告,以便他们的医生总结观察并提出建议。That is useful for the individuals involved, since it may illuminate patterns of which they were unaware.这对有关个人很有用,因为它可以阐释未明的诱发哮喘模式。It could also help doctors identify those patients whose asthma is not under proper control.它还可以帮助医生确定那些哮喘无法适当控制的病人。Use of the inhaler more than a couple of times a month suggests there is something wrong, and that the patients medication may need to be changed.每月使用吸入器超过了一两次的情况说明有问题存在,而病人的药物可能需要更换了。Patients do not, however, always report such problems, and so do not get the right drugs.然而,如果患者一直不报告这种问题,那么就无法得到正确的药物。The big public gain, though, will come from pooling all the data from the inhalers, once they have been suitably anonymised.不过,最大公共收益将出自汇集所有吸入器播报的数据,这些数据从前被适当地隐藏了。That will open the way for a much more detailed analysis of what is going on, and may allow the triggers to be identified and ranked in order of importance.这将开辟一种对发生的事情进行更详细分析的方法,而且也可能让哮喘的诱因得以识别并按照重要性的顺序加以排列。Over the past three years Dr Van Sickle has run two pilot studies to test the new tool.过去三年来,凡·西克尔士已经完成了两次试点研究,以测试新的工具。Both of these showed useful improvements in patients management and understanding of their disease.两次试点研究都显示了对患者管理及疾病认识的有益改进。They have also resulted in him questioning some longstanding theories about asthma,这两次试点研究也让凡·西克尔士质疑一些长期存在的哮喘理论,including the ideas that symptoms occur primarily at home and that the affliction is more prevalent in urban areas than rural ones.包括症状主要发生在家里以及在城市地区比农村地区感染更盛行这样的观念。If those insights are confirmed, they will change the way asthma is managed.如果这些质疑结果得到实,它们将改变控制哮喘的方法。The next step, commercialisation, is planned for the autumn.下一步的商业化计划在秋季进行。With nearly 500,000 asthma-related hospital admissions every year in America alone, the market could be large.鉴于仅在美国每年就有近50万与哮喘有关的病人入院治疗,市场可能很大。Alternatively, Dr Van Sickles old friends at the CDC or some other medical-research agency might think the data sufficiently valuable to buy and distribute the things themselves.另外,在美国疾病控制和预防中心或其它医疗研究机构工作的凡·西克尔士的老朋友们可能会觉得这些数据有足够的购买价值,并把它们用到自身的研究上。Either way, the upshot would be better lives for patients in the short term and,无论哪种方式,其结果都将会在短期内让患者的生活更好,if all went well, a true understanding of the triggers of this debilitating and occasionally life-threatening condition.且一切顺利的话,人们就会真正了解这种令人衰弱、有时危及生命的病症的诱因。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201306/244318

If blood didnt circulate through our bodies, carrying oxygenand nutrients, we wouldnt be able to live.如果血液不能在我们身体内循环,为人体输送氧气和营养,我们便无法存活。Blood is so important to life that the body constantlymakes new blood.血液对生命十分重要,所以人体会不断的制造新鲜血液。To do this, the body must produce the liquid part of blood, called plasma, and the cells that floatin it.人体在造血时必须要产生血液的液体部分,即血浆,以及浮在血浆上的细胞。Plasma is made mostly of water and salts that we absorb through our digestive tracts everyday.血浆主要由我们通过消化道每天吸收的水和盐组成。Its job is to deliver nutrients and water throughout the body.它的作用就是输送水和营养物质到全身各个部位。Ninety-nine percent of the blood cells floating in plasma are red blood cells,浮在血浆上99%的血细胞都是红细胞,which carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and give blood its red color.它们会把肺部的氧气输送到全身各处,这样血液才会呈现出红色。The average life of a red bloodcell is four months.一个红细胞的平均寿命是4个月。What Happens after that?接下来会发生什么呢?The spleen continuously destroys millions of old red blood cells, recycling the iron to make new red cells.脾脏不断地将数百万老化的红细胞解体,循环利用其中的铁元素来制造新的红细胞。White blood cells, which are part of the immune system, and platelets,白细胞是人体免疫系统的一部分而血小板则在人体伤口处起到凝血作用,which help with bloodclotting at a site of injury, also float in plasma.这两种血细胞也都漂浮在血浆上。They have much shorter life spans than red cellsand also are replaced continuously.但是它们的存活周期要比红细胞短,同时也会被不断地更新。If youve ever seen a bone cut crosswise, with soft tissue called marrow inside, then youve seenwhere blood cells are made.如果你看到过一块被横切的骨头,你就会看到里面的软组织,即骨髓,它是专门制造血细胞的。Bone marrow contains special blood cells,骨髓含有特殊的血细胞,which constantly divide toproduce new cells to replace the ones that have been destroyed.这种细胞会不断分离产生新的细胞来取代那 些已被破坏的细胞。Why all this bloody business inthe bone marrow?为什么所有的造血工作都在骨髓中进行呢?The bodys process of forming new blood cells helps you recover if you loseblood to an injury,是如果你因受伤而流血的话,人体生成新血细胞的过程便能帮助你复原,and it also helps blood perform its many functions despite cell damage and loss.同时,尽管存在细胞受 损或缺失,这个过程也能帮助血液发挥很多其它的功能。 201403/280881

Business商业报道Apple in China苹果在中国Better days ahead明天会更好The tech giant can rebound from its recent misfortunes in China科技巨头将从最近在中国遇到的霉运中走出THINGS have not gone well for Apple in China of late.苹果近来在中国发展并不顺利。Earlier this year official news media orchestrated a series of attacks on the firm, following allegations that it had offered Chinese customers unsatisfactory guarantees for its products.今年早些时候,官媒策划了一系列对苹果进行责难的报道,称苹果对中国消费者所购产品的保修务令人不满。Apple ended up issuing a humiliating apology.此事以苹果耻辱性地道歉而告一段落。The Middle Kingdom is the worlds biggest market for both luxury goods and for smartphones.中国是世界上奢侈品和智能机的最大市场。That should have propelled Apples iPhones to the top of the heap.这本该将iPhone的销售推向了顶峰。But the firms market share languishes at around 8% of all handset sales, whereas Samsung commands just over a fifth of them.但是苹果所占手机市场份额只有8%左右,而三星超过了1/5。Apples fortunes are improving.苹果的运势在改善。The main reason the companys iPhones have fared poorly in China so far is that they are not offered on the inferior 3G network run by China Mobile, the countrys largest mobile operator.迄今为止苹果在中国进展缓慢,主要原因是iPhone并不持中国移动提供的较次的3G网络,而中国移动是中国最大的移动电话运营商。But the arrival of a new, whizzier network could change that. On December 4th the Chinese government authorised the countrys three main wireless-telecoms operators to go ahead with the next generation of network technology, known as 4G.但是新的更先进的网络将会改变这一状况。12月4日,中国政府授权中国三大主要无线通信运营商继续开发下一代的网络技术,即4G网络。The same day it emerged that later this month China Mobile—a state-owned giant that is also the worlds largest mobile-phone operator, with more than 700m customers—will unveil a 4G iPhone for the Chinese market.同一天,中国移动宣布,将在本月下旬发布面向中国市场的4G iPhone。R, an investment bank, suggests that sales of such a device could be worth 9 billion to 10 billion to Apple.投资加拿大皇家暗示该设备的销售可能为苹果公司带来90亿到100亿美元的收入。Anand Ramachandran of Barclays, another bank, is more cautious.巴克莱的安纳德?拉马钱德兰更加谨慎。He wants to see whether Apple is forced to yield to demands by China Mobile that it split the cost of its handset subsidies with customers.他想看看苹果公司是否会被迫向中国移动让步,与顾客一起分担手机补贴的费用。Investors are also wondering whether Apple will give in to pressure to return more of its giant cash mountain to shareholders through such things as share buy-backs.投资者还想知道苹果公司是否会屈于压力,通过股份回购返回更多现金给股东。Carl Icahn, a veteran shareholder activist, had been pressing the tech giant to hand back 150 billion immediately.资深股东维权人士卡尔伊坎一直逼迫这个科技巨头马上返还1.5亿美元。But this week Mr Icahn reduced his demand to 50 billion, which is still an eye-wateringly large amount of money.但是本周伊坎将要价减少到5000万美元,但这还是非常大的一笔钱。Ironically, greater success in China could lead to more friction if it puts even more cash in Apples aly overflowing coffers.讽刺的是,如果苹果公司本已过剩的现金流因此而增多,那么在中国市场的成功反而会令它面临更大的压力。 /201312/267956

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