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襄阳哪所医院治疗扁桃体炎最好襄阳襄城区人民中心医院耳朵疾病看怎么样好不好打呼噜专家襄阳市医院 Youve just opened a bottle of wine for dinner. On the label, you see these words: Contains Sulfites. What are sulfites? And what are they doing in your wine?设想一下,你在晚餐时刚刚打开了一瓶酒,你会在酒瓶的标签上看到:含亚硝酸盐。亚硝酸盐是什么?这些成分在你的酒中发挥什么样的作用呢?Sulfites are chemical compounds found naturally in grapes, garlic and other plants. Thousands of years ago, people realized something nifty about sulfites: they kill or slow the growth of bacteria and most yeasts. This comes in handy for winemakers, who add specific yeasts to ferment wine, and dont want wild yeasts or bacteria to spoil it. Sulfites prevent spoilage in wine, acting as a preservative.亚硝酸盐是在葡萄,大蒜和其他植物中常见的一种化合物。几千年前,人们就发现了亚硝酸盐的一些妙用:它们能杀死细菌,或者降低细菌滋生和发酵的速度。这个发现对于酿酒师来说是非常重要的,他们通常会在酒中加一些特定的酵母使酒发酵,但是同时,他们又不想野生酵母和细菌破坏了这个过程。而亚硝酸盐就能阻止酒的腐坏,在其中发挥了防腐剂的作用。The amount of sulfites naturally in grapes is very small, and theres a bit more produced during fermentation. But to take full advantage of sulfites preservative abilities, winemakers add a little more to the process. The Egyptians sterilized wine containers with sulfites, and sulfites have been added to wine for hundreds of years.葡萄中含有亚硝酸盐的量非常少,在发酵过程中数量会有稍许的增加。但是,为了有效利用亚硝酸盐的防腐作用,酿酒师们通常会在酿酒过程中多添加一点点亚硝酸盐。埃及人也曾使用亚硝酸盐对酒类容器进行杀菌,而且,亚硝酸盐被添加进入酒类也已经有了几百年历史了。So the relationship between wine and sulfites goes way back. But in 1985, the Food and Drug Administration required wine with added sulfites to say so on the label. Why?因此,酒和亚硝酸盐的关系其实可以回溯到很久很久以前。但在1985年,食品与药品要求,若酒类有添加亚硝酸盐,需要在标签上注明,为什么?Researchers had recently discovered that less than one percent of the population is sensitive to sulfites. Most have mild reactions, like an itchy rash. But some folks have life-threatening reactions, including difficulty breathing and low blood pressure.因为有研究人员之前发现,有不到1%的人会对亚硝酸盐产生过敏反应,虽然多数人的反应比较轻微,比如说会起很痒的皮疹,但有部分人的过敏反应会威胁到生命安全,这些反应包括呼吸困难或低血压等。These rare but serious reactions are most often seen in asthmatics. Not all asthmatics are sensitive to sulfites, but the labels there for those who need to steer clear. As the old saying goes, in wine–and now on the label–there is truth!我们经常会在哮喘症患者身上看到这些少有但严重的反应。其实,也并不是所有的哮喘症患者都会对亚硝酸盐过敏,标签上的说明只是为了警示需要注意的人避开这些成分。就像老话常说的那样,酒后,现在是标注在标签上-吐真言! /201305/242155Don: Say youre looking at an object on a table in front of you. How long do you think your eyeballs stay in one position? 看你一直在看你面前那张桌上的东西。你眼球能持续盯在一个地方多长时间?Yael: You mean, how long before they move? Im going to guess... a minute. 你的意思是,眼球能保持多长时间不动?我想……一分钟吧。D: More like less than a second. 更像是不到一秒钟。Y: Yow! 哎唷!D: Though we feel as if our eyes stay completely still when we focus on something, researchers have found they only stay still at most for a couple seconds--often just a few milliseconds. Whats fascinating about this is that every time our eyes move, we are momentarily visually impaired. We arent seeing anything but a blur. So if were always moving our eyeballs, and are always impaired, why dont we experience the world as a confusing rush? 虽然我们感觉我们在一直盯着某物看,但研究者发现,我们甚至至多只保持了几秒钟——往往是几毫秒。有意思的是,实际上当每次我们的眼睛转动的时候,我们会有短时的视觉失效。我们看到的就是一片模糊。所以如果我们总是移动眼珠,视力总被削弱,那为什么我们没感觉世界是一片混乱的呢?Y: I bet you have an answer. 我赌你有。D: Researchers at the University of Delaware have a good guess. They have done studies that show the brain is always extending the boundaries of what it sees-- adding in made-up information along the edges. This process is called ;boundary extension,; and it seems to be going on all the time. Say youre looking at a brick wall. You really only see a small section of it, but your visual processing system essentially says, ;I can assume that beyond my visual field on either side are more red bricks, so for now Ill just add them in until I get better information.; That process ofconstantly extrapolating on what you see may be what allows you to experience a calm and consistent visual world, even though the actual data coming in is much more fragmented. 特拉华大学的研究人员有个很好的猜想。他们所做的研究表明,大脑总是人为扩充我们的视野范围——添加一些凭空捏造的东西。此过程称为“边界扩展”,而且一直进行着。就拿你看着砌墙来说。你只是看到了一小部分,但你的视觉处理系统会告诉你,“我视线之外的一边会有更多的红砖头,那么我就会一直给自己输入这种信息直到我真的看到那一边到底有什么为止。”在对你可能看到的事物进行持续的推断过程中,你感觉到世界是平静、持续不变的,即使实际接收到的信息是片断式的。 201308/254470襄阳附近那个治鼻炎

襄阳市铁路医院看扁桃体炎哪家医院最好襄阳南漳县人民中心医院耳膜穿孔治疗的价格 Triceratops protects itself with a bony shield called a frill. They can fend off an attacker with a pair of one-meter-long swords.三角龙使用一种装饰性角状结构的盾状骨骼保护自己。它们还可以用一对一米长的犄角对抗攻击者。You’ve got to crush it. The only way to deal with this huge, curved, cantilevered, composite armor is a crushing blow with multiple teeth.你需要击败他。而对付这种巨大弯曲,悬挂式的复合盔甲,唯一的方法就是使用许多牙齿将它咬碎。But defeating a Triceratops takes more than just teeth. It also requires power. Triceratops’ most dangerous weapons are mounted on a skull that can swivel 360 degrees. 但是想要咬碎三角龙的盔甲,仅仅依靠牙齿是不够的。力量也十分重要。三角龙最危险的武器就是可以360度旋转的头骨。Triceratops would want to keep that horns and the frill pointed right at T-Rex. 三角龙想要用犄角和装饰性角状结构对抗雷克斯霸王龙。For a T-Rex, the key to defeating a Triceratops is his huge jaws, driven by two sets of powerful muscles. The first runs from the top of the skull down to the bottom of the jaw. These muscles give this carnivore’s bite its spear. The second set are muscles which make up almost 50% of the muscles in the head, and wrap around the lower jaw, tying it to the roof of the mouth. They give T-Rex’s bite its 3 tons of force, twice the biting power of a great white shark. And not only that. Just like a python, T-Rex can dislocate its jaw. 对于雷克斯霸王龙来说,击败三角龙的关键就是它巨大的颚,这是由两条有力的肌肉控制的。第一条从头骨上延伸到颚的底部。这些肌肉使雷克斯霸王龙的咬击像矛一样有力。第二条肌肉的大约50%都在头部,并缠绕在下颚,连接上颚骨。这使雷克斯霸王龙的撕咬力可达3吨,这是大白鲨的两倍。不仅如此,像巨蟒一样,雷克斯霸王龙还能够使腮关节脱臼。Cranial kinesis is basically the ability to swallow things larger than your own head. That’s because the skull expands as it opens up—snakes swallowing whole chicken eggs. A snake head that’s, you know, much smaller than the egg, and it will swallow that whole egg. There’s not a lawyer in this world that’s too fat that this T-Rex couldn’t swallow him whole. 吞下比头部大的物体基本上靠的就是颅运动的能力。这是因为当嘴巴张开时,头骨就会扩张,就像蛇能吞下整个鸡蛋一样。大家知道,蛇的脑袋比鸡蛋小很多,但是它还是能吞下整个鸡蛋。虽然律师通常很胖,但是胖到雷克斯霸王龙不能整个吞下的律师还没有出生呢。Tyrannosaurus Rex is a carnivorous monster that uses sheer force to overpower well-defended prey.雷克斯霸王龙是一种食肉型巨兽,它使用它撕咬的力量来捕杀防御力强的猎物。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201402/276011襄阳中医治疗耳鼻喉科排名

宜城妇幼保健院治疗中耳炎多少钱 Banks dodgy assets; Taking out the trash;The lingering toxicity of banks balance-sheets;的不良资产;清理垃圾;资产负债表的毒性挥散不去;Waste disposal is still a big part of post-crisis banking. A large amount of toxic securities and loans remains on banks balance-sheets. After its bail-out Citigroup, for example, split itself into a “good bank” and a “bad bank” for operational purposes. The nasty bit still represents a fifth of the firms assets and accounts for a third of its capital requirements. Two other rescued firms, Royal Bank of Scotland and Commerzbank, took a similar approach. Add in HS, too, which was not bailed out but which is running down a ringfenced portfolio of consumer and housing loans in America, and the total “bad-bank” assets in these four firms alone amount to nearly 1 trillion dollar.出售坏账资产仍是危机后业的一大重点。大部分危险债券和贷款仍滞留在的资产负债表上。例如,花旗集团在接受救助后,将自身资产分割为“优质”和“坏帐”以采取相应的方式去运作。五分之一的公司资产仍是高风险的,占资本要求的三分之一。其他两个受救助的,苏格兰皇家和德国商业,也采取了类似的做法。汇丰虽没受救助,但也仿效了此法,其在美国能用于消费和房贷投资组合的专款已经消耗殆尽。光是这四个公司的“坏帐”资产相加额都高达将近1万亿美元。The number of bad banks is actually going up. Bank of America announced this month that it would set up a new unit to manage the firms soured mortgages. Many other firms have fiddlier arrangements. K, a bailed-out Belgian firm, still has some 25 billion euro (36 billion dollar) of notional exposure to collateralised-debt obligations, although it says these are largely written off or covered by a specific state guarantee. Barclays has an off-balance-sheet vehicle called Protium into which it dumped some 12.3 billion dollar of risky assets.坏帐的数额着实在上升。美国于此月宣布,它将会设立一个新部门以管理公司的不良抵押贷款。许多其他公司则会出台更复杂的举措。比利时联合(一个受救助的比利时公司)在担保债务凭方面仍存有约250亿欧元(360亿美元)的名义风险,尽管它声称大部分风险都已被特定的国家担保注销或者弥补。巴克莱有个资产负债表外的工具叫做Protium,利用此工具可摆脱约123亿美元的风险资产。Bad banks are partly about slick presentation. Shareholders and creditors still own a single firm but feel more confident if they can see a consistently profitable division within it. Segregating assets can also concentrate managers minds on the task of getting rid of the rubbish. Taking Citigroup, RBS, Commerzbank and HS together, bad-bank assets have fallen from 1.6 trillion dollar in early to almost 1 trillion dollar. Quarterly pre-tax losses on these holdings have dropped sharply (see chart).设立存放坏账的金融机构,多是有劳无功之举。对于股东和借款者来说,公司还是原本的那个公司,但如果他们能看到公司内始终如一都有利可图,他们会更信心十足。分割资产也能将经纪人的心思集中在摆脱垃圾的任务上。花旗集团、英国皇家、德国商业和汇丰联合行动,坏账资产从年初的1.6万亿美元减少到如今的约1万亿。上述几家的季度税前坏账损失均得到大幅削减(如图所示)。The job is not done yet. Two years ago the hits came mainly from securities that had to be marked to market. Now those same instruments are producing modest profits for some firms, such as Commerzbank. The bulk of losses today are from commercial-property and consumer loans. Most firms expect continued heavy write-downs this year but an improvement thereafter: RBS, for example, reckons its bad bank has now recognised some 50-75% of the impairments the assets are expected to generate. But it is possible that losses could start rising again.任仍重而道仍远。两年前,主要的冲击来自必须调整为市场价的券。但如今,正是这些工具为这些公司带来了微薄的利润,德国商业便是个好例子。如今的大多数亏损来自商业房产和消费贷款。许多公司预测今年仍将有大幅度的资产减值,但以后就会有所改善:比如,苏格兰皇家指出其坏账如今已确认该行资产将会贬值50-75%。但可能这个亏损仍会再度增加。The bigger concern is the time it takes to clean things up. Based on its experience last year, Citis bad bank shrinks by only about 10% a year of its own accord as assets mature. RBS has suggested a similar rate of natural decline. So far most firms have achieved far faster rates of reduction by restructuring and selling bad assets, but some worry that the easy gains have now been made. HS has indicated that the sluggish American housing market will mean its portfolio may shrink more slowly that it once hoped, for instance.更大的担忧是清算所需的时长。按照去年的经验,随着其资产到期,花旗集团的坏账在一年内自然缩减了约10%,苏格兰皇家也提出了一个差不多的自然缩减率。到目前为止,大多数公司通过重整和变卖不良资产而达到的坏账缩减率要高得多,但有些公司担心这些成果来得太容易。比如,汇丰指出,美国疲软的房市意味着该公司的投资组合比曾经预期的缩减得更慢。Looming over all of this are the new capital rules. The unspoken goal of almost all firms is quickly to offload the remaining dodgy assets on their balance-sheets, thus releasing capital, to offset the higher overall capital standards being imposed on them. But the rate of natural shrinkage of their bad banks is low and the remaining dud assets are hard to sell at reasonable prices Theyre called toxic for a reason.笼罩在这一切之上的是新的资本规则。虽并未明示,但几乎所有公司的目标都是迅速清除资产负债表上的残留的不良资产,从而释放资金,以抵消加诸于他们的更高的总资本标准所带来的影响。但这些公司的坏账自然缩减率很低,且残留的无用资产很难以合理价格出售。这些资产被戏称是有毒的,并非空穴来风。 /201307/247906襄阳第四人民医院治疗耳鸣大概多少钱费用襄阳哪个医院可以治疗耳膜穿孔

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