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福建医科大学附属第二医院位置鲤城区妇女医院的QQ是多少Acne: the scourge of adolescence. Most people endure it at some point, and can’t wait to be rid of the combination of whiteheads, blackheads, pimples, and pustules that comprise the skin condition that affects over 80% of teenagers and nearly 20% of adults.粉刺:青春期的灾难。许多人都在忍受它带来的麻烦,迫切地想要摆脱白头、黑头、丘疹、脓疱的困扰。这些问题滋扰着超过80%的年轻人和近20%的成人。What Is Acne?粉刺是什么?Acne begins with the pores from which hair grows. These pores contain sebaceous glands that produce a type of oil that lubricates hair and skin. When the glands produce the right amount of oil, there’s usually no trouble.粉刺在毛发生长的毛孔上出现,这些毛孔包含了皮脂腺,而皮脂腺能产生可以滋润毛发和皮肤的油。当这些腺体产生适量油脂的时候,通常不会出现问题。But, when a pore gets clogged with too much oil and dead skin cells, problems arise. The onset of puberty in most kids involves the production of hormones. These hormones cause the sebaceous glands to make excess oil. Too much oil clogs pores and attracts bacteria, which feed on the oil and begin to multiply. A clogged pore can only stand so much internal pressure before its walls break, allowing the oil and bacteria to seep under the surrounding skin. This gives rise to something every teen ds: a pimple.但是,当一个毛孔被过多的油脂和死去的皮肤细胞堵塞,问题出现了。许多孩子的青春期伴随着荷尔蒙的产生。这些激素导致皮脂腺分泌多余的油脂。过多的油脂会堵塞毛孔并滋生细菌,细菌靠这些油脂生存和繁殖。一个堵塞的毛孔的承载量是有限的,当压力过大时毛壁会破裂,油脂和细菌会渗漏到附近的皮肤上。每个年轻人的噩梦----粉刺产生了。Acne Causes粉刺的根源Contrary to popular belief, eating foods such as pizza and chocolate does not cause or exacerbate acne. Whether or not a person will have acne as a teenager or adult is largely a matter of genetics: if your parents had it, there’s a good chance you will too.不同于大众的认知,吃诸如披萨和巧克力之类的食物并不会导致或者恶化粉刺。不管是青少年还是成年人,人们产生粉刺的原因在于基因:如果你的父母有过粉刺,你很可能也会有。Although there is no cure for acne, simple remedies to prevent a build-up of oil in pores, such as washing your face with soap and warm water and using oil-free cosmetics, can help.尽管没有根治粉刺的方法,但有办法可以防止毛孔的油脂堆积:比如用温水和肥皂洗脸,使用不含油脂的化妆品。 /201304/236903泉州怎样祛斑有效 Science and technology科学技术Computer passwords电脑密码Speak, friend, and enter说,朋友和进入Computer passwords need to be memorable and secure.电脑密码须具备两个特性:易记及难猜。Most peoples are the first but not the second.但是大部分人的密码只注重了前者却忽略了后者。Researchers are trying to make it easier for them to be both研究人员正努力让两者兼而有之变得更以实现。PASSWORDS are ubiquitous in computer security.密码在电脑安全领域的应用相当普遍。All too often, they are also ineffective.但他们往往没起什么作用。A good password has to be both easy to remember and hard to guess, but in practice people seem to plump for the former over the latter.一个好密码必须具备易记及难猜两个特征,而实际上人们好像只注意到了前者而忽略了后者。Names of wives, husbands and children are popular.以妻子,丈夫或孩子的名字作为密码的人大有人在。Some take simplicity to extremes: one former deputy editor of The Economist used z for many years.有些人的密码简单到了极点:The Economist的一位前副主编多年来一直用Z作密码。And when hackers stole 32m passwords from a social-gaming website called RockYou, it emerged that 1.1% of the sites users—365,000 people—had opted either for 123456 or for 12345.当黑客在社交游戏网站盗取了3200万用户的密码后,人们才发现原来这个网站大约1.1%的用户-也就是365,000人-选择了12345或123456作为密码。That predictability lets security researchers create dictionaries which list common passwords, a boon to those seeking to break in.安全性研究人员于是根据密码的这种可预见性编制了一些罗列处各种常见密码的字典,这对那些有志于破解他人密码的人来说可说是找到了福音。But although researchers know that passwords are insecure, working out just how insecure has been difficult.但即使研究人员已经知道了密码不安全,要确切地给出个不安全系数却是很困难的。Many studies have only small samples to work on—a few thousand passwords at most.许多研究项目的对象只有一小块样本-最多只有几千个密码。Hacked websites such as RockYou have provided longer lists, but there are ethical problems with using hacked information, and its availability is unpredictable.像Rockyou这样被黑的网站能够提供更多的密码,但使用黑客盗取的密码不仅会引发道德问题上的争议,其可行性也是未知的。However, a paper to be presented at a security conference held under the auspices of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, a New York-based professional body, in May, sheds some light.然而,在五月份由总部位于纽约的一个专业组织-电气电子协会持下召开了一场安全性研讨会议,会上公布的一份文件让我们看到了解决这个难题的一丝曙光。With the co-operation of Yahoo!, a large internet company, Joseph Bonneau of Cambridge University obtained the biggest sample to date—70m passwords that, though anonymised, came with useful demographic data about their owners.在一家大型网络公司-雅虎的协助下,剑桥大学的Joseph Bonneau得到了一份迄今为止最大的研究样本,虽然是匿名的,但是包含了其用户极为有用的人口学数据。Mr Bonneau found some intriguing variations.在这份样本中Mr Bonneau发现了一些有趣的差异。Older users had better passwords than young ones.相较于年轻用户,老用户设置的用户更好。People whose preferred language was Korean or German chose the most secure passwords; those who spoke Indonesian the least.母语为韩语或德语的用户所设置的密码安全系数最高,而说印尼语的最低。Passwords designed to hide sensitive information such as credit-card numbers were only slightly more secure than those protecting less important things, like access to games.被设置用来隐藏像信用卡卡号这样的敏感信息的密码,相比较于另外一些保护游戏登录入口这样不那么重要的信息所设置的密码,其安全性高不了多少。Nag screens that told users they had chosen a weak password made virtually no difference.那些提醒用户设置的密码安全性较低的唠叨屏幕其实没有什么作用。And users whose accounts had been hacked in the past did not make dramatically more secure choices than those who had never been hacked.相对于那些从没被黑过的,有过账户被黑经验的用户的安全防范意识也并没得到显著提高。But it is the broader analysis of the sample that is of most interest to security researchers.但是,对研究样本进行更为综合性的分析才是安全性研究人员的兴趣所在。For, despite their differences, the 70m users were still predictable enough that a generic password dictionary was effective against both the entire sample and any demographically organised slice of it.因为尽管存在各种差异,但是通过分析样本中那7000万用户的资料还是可以预见到,一部通用的密码暴力破解字典就能够有效应付这一整个样本,或者任何根据某项人口学特征而从中抽取的一小块资料。Mr Bonneau is blunt: An attacker who can manage ten guesses per account…will compromise around 1% of accounts.Mr Bonneau直言不讳地说:只要每个账号给破解者10次猜测密码的机会...会有大约1%的密码被破解。And that, from the hackers point of view, is a worthwhile outcome.这在黑客看来绝对值得一试。One obvious answer would be for sites to limit the number of guesses that can be made before access is blocked, as cash machines do.对网站而言,很显然,他们可以在系统上进行类似于ATM机的设置:一旦密码输入错误次数达到规定者,即封锁登录入口。Yet whereas the biggest sites, such as Google and Microsoft, do take such measures,many do not.然而,只有谷歌、微软这样的大型网站采取了类似的措施,很多其他网站对此不以为意。A sample of 150 big websites examined in 2010 by Mr Bonneau and his colleague Sren Preibusch found that 126 made no attempt to limit guessing.在2010年,Mr Bonneau和他的同事Sren Preibusch曾对一份囊括了150家大型网站的样本做过调查,结果显示其中126家并没有对密码输入错误次数作出限制。How this state of affairs arose is obscure.这种状况的状况的出现实在是令人费解。For some sites, laxity may be rational, since their passwords are not protecting anything particularly valuable, such as credit-card details.对一些站点来说,在安全防范上的相对松弛是可以理解的,因为它们站设置的密码并非为了保护类似信用卡信息这样特别重要的内容。But password laxity imposes costs even on sites with good security, since people often use the same password for several different places.但即使对拥有良好安全防范措施的网站来说,密码系统上的疏于防范也会大大增加花费,因为人们喜欢在多个地方使用同一个密码。One suggestion is that lax password security is a cultural remnant of the internets innocent youth—an academic research network has few reasons to worry about hackers.有一种说法认为他们在密码上防范疏松的做法乃是源于网上那群不谙世事的年青一代的文化特征-一个专门用于学术研究的网络几乎不需担心黑客入侵。Another possibility is that because many sites begin as cash-strapped start-ups, for which implementing extra password security would take up valuable programming time, they skimp on it at the beginning and then never bother to change.还有一种可能是许多网站在建站初期都面临资金短缺的问题,而为系统配上更安全的保护措施会消耗大量宝贵的编程时间,因此他们一开始就在这一步上偷工减料,然后再也懒得去加以改善了。But whatever the reason, it behoves those unwilling to wait for websites to get their acts together to consider the alternatives to traditional passwords.无论原因何在,与其等待所有网站都建立起一个完善的密码保护系统的那一天到来,不如由我们自己想出一个传统密码的替代方案。One such is multi-word passwords called passphrases.其中一种选择是使用密码组,Using several words instead of one means an attacker has to guess more letters, which creates more security—but only if the phrase chosen is not one likely to turn up, through familiar usage, in a dictionary of phrases.它由多个词组合起来形成,使用多个词而不是一个词用作密码的优势在于:这使得破解者需要猜出更多的字母,从而提高了密码的安全性-但前提是选择的词组不能是词典里经常出现的惯用语,Which, of course, it often is.可惜这个前提常常未被满足。Mr Bonneau and his colleague Ekaterina Shutova have analysed a real-world passphrase system employed by Amazon, an online retailer that allowed its American users to employ passphrases between October and February 2012.Mr Bonneau和他的同事Ekaterina Shutova曾经研究过一个真实的密码组系统,该系统由网上零售商Amazon使用,Amazon曾与年10月至2012年2月间允许他们的用户使用密码组作为密码。They found that, although passphrases do offer better security than passwords, they are not as good as had been hoped.他们发现,密码组虽然较一般密码而言安全性更高,但实际效果并不如预期中好。A phrase of four or five randomly chosen words is fairly secure. But remembering several such phrases is no easier than remembering several randomly chosen passwords.用一串由4,5个随机选择的词组合成密码是相当安全的,但问题是记住这样一些组合并不比那些随机选择的密码容易。Once again, the need for memorability is a boon to attackers.又一次,密码需具备易记性成为了破解者的福音。By scraping the internet for lists of things like film titles, sporting phrases and slang, Mr Bonneau and Dr Shutova were able to construct a 20,656-word dictionary that unlocked 1.13% of the accounts in Amazons database.通过在网上一点点搜集像电影名,体育相关用语和俚语这样的一个个词组,Mr Bonneau和Dr Shutova编制了一部囊括了20,656个词的字典,它已经成功开启了Amazon数据库里1.13%的账号。The researchers also suspected that even those who do not use famous phrases would still prefer patterns found in natural language over true randomness.研究人员还怀疑,即使是那些不使用著名短语的,他们也会更倾向于按照自然语言中得模式而不会安全基于随机性。So they compared their collection of passphrases with two-word phrases extracted at random from the British National Corpus, and from the Google NGram Corpus.所以他们将收集的密码组同从英国国家语料库中随机选取的两词组合短词,还有google的Google NGram Corpus进行了比较。Sure enough, they found considerable overlap between structures common in ordinary English and the phrases chosen by Amazons users.果然,他们发现在惯常英语中得常见结构与Amazon的用户所选的短语间出现了一定程度的重叠。Some 13% of the adjective-noun constructions which the researchers tried were on the money, as were 5% of adverb-verb mixes.在研究人员分析的样本里面,在与金钱有关的组合中,有13%的形容词-名词,而副词-动词则达到了5%。One way round that is to combine the ideas of a password and a passphrase into a so-called mnemonic password.一个折中的解决办法是将普通密码和密码组的概念揉合成一种所谓的助记性密码,This is a string of apparent gibberish which is not actually too hard to remember.它是一种看起来莫名其妙的字符串,但实际上要记住并不太难。It can be formed, for example, by using the first letter of each word in a phrase, varying upper and lower case, and substituting some symbols for others—8 for B, for instance.助记性密码可以这样形成:挑出一个词组里每个单词的第一个字母,可以将其中一些进行大小写变化,另外一些则用某些符号来代替,例如8代替B。Even mnemonic passwords, however, are not invulnerable.然而,助记密码也并非是牢不可破的。A study published in 2006 cracked 4% of the mnemonics in a sample using a dictionary based on song lyrics, film titles and the like.在2006年就有一项公布的研究成果显示一个样本里4%的助记密码遭到破解,手段是利用一部基于歌词,电影名及相似内容的字典。The upshot is that there is probably no right answer.看来这个难题是找不到完美的了。All security is irritating,and there is a constant tension between peoples desire to be safe and their desire for things to be simple.任何安全措施都是烦人的。在人们对安全的需求及万事从简的愿望间存在着不可调和的矛盾。While that tension persists, the hacker will always get through.只要这种矛盾存在,黑客们就总能找到. /201403/279627泉州德化县腋臭微创手术

泉州福州市双眼皮医院福建泉州市一院门诊怎么 Chinese patents中国专利Ever more inventive越来越具创造性Mainland companies are building up their intellectual property内地企业正在建立自己的知识产权CHINAS leaders see patents as rungs on the ladder to becoming an innovation powerhouse. So in five-year plans and through subsidies and official exhortations, they have encouraged locals to file patents. And locals have responded with gusto. Two years ago Chinas patent office became the worlds busiest. Sceptics have scoffed that most of those filed are “utility model” patents—short-term ones granted for relatively trivial ideas, as opposed to proper “invention” patents—and that few Chinese inventors have won patents in countries where standards are higher.中国的领导人们认为,专利便是通往创新大国那扶梯上的横档。因此,不论是在五年计划里,还是经由种种补贴和官方规诫,他们一直鼓励国人申请专利,而国人也对此颇为捧场,两年前,中国专利局一跃成为世界上最繁忙的专利机构。怀疑论者对这些专利嗤之以鼻,他们认为,大多数人申请的都是“实用新型”专利,与正式的“发明”专利不同,这类短期专利价值不高。而且,对那些专利门槛颇高的国家而言,很少有中国发明人能入其法眼。Many patents, it is also argued, are exercises in a-filling by academics, with no hope of commercialisation. In short, these patents are a sham. Not quite, argues the UNs World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO). A new study scrutinises Chinese patents and concludes that a small but rapidly growing proportion are up to world standards.也有另一种说法称,许多专利是学者们纯粹为了定量完成任务而练手的结果,并没有将其商业化的期许。说白了,这些都是伪专利。不过在联合国世界知识产权组织(WIPO)看来,也非尽然如此。一项审视中国专利的新研究得出结论,称其占比虽小,但迅速增长的比例已达到世界标准。The WIPO included only patents filed by Chinese residents—that is, those with a Chinese address—who filed their patents first on the mainland. So, inventions by the Shanghai labs of GE or Philips are not included, since Western multinationals typically file first in America or Europe. Foxconn, a manufacturing goliath controlled by Hon Hai of Taiwan, is included in the study because, unlike other Taiwanese firms, it resides in China and files its patents first on the mainland.世界知识产权组织仅将中国居民申请的专利列入统计—这包含两个概念:申请人居住在中国,且是在内地首次注册专利。而由于西方跨国公司通常会先在美国或欧洲申请专利,通用和飞利浦的上海实验室做出的发明便不包括在统计之列。之所以台湾鸿海集团旗下的制造业巨擘富士康包括在此项研究之内是因为和其他台商不同,它的驻地在中国,且是在内地首次注册专利。The findings challenge conventional wisdom in several ways. Not only do they show that the number of Chinese patents filed abroad is rising sharply (see chart). They also show that, since 2003, most of these have been invention patents, not utility-model ones.该研究结果在许多方面挑战了传统认知。他们不仅表明在国外申请的中国专利数量急剧上升。还表明自2003年以来,这些专利大部分都是费了番脑子的发明,而非中看不中用的“实用新型”绣花枕头。Finally, the firms topping the rankings of foreign patent applications are also revealing. Some, like Huawei and ZTE, are unsurprising: 29% of all foreign filings from 2005 to were in information and communications technology. Lenovo comes in at 16th. Others, like Sinopec in oil and gas, and BYD in batteries, suggest the energy industry is rising.而值得注意的是,国外专利申请排名靠前的公司也慢慢冒头。华为和中兴之类的企业跻身其中不足为奇:2005至年,源自信息和通信技术行业的专利申请占国外专利市场的29%。联想位列第16位。而出现在名单上的其他公司,像石油和天然气领域的中石化,以及电池行业的比亚迪,都意味着能源产业的崛起。The surprise is that three of the top five spots are held by divisions of Foxconn. By 2012 it had filed more than 12,000 patents abroad, in areas from electrical machinery to computer technology to audio- technology. A firm some scorn as a low-tech sweatshop turns out to be a model of invention.出人意料的是,名单上排名前五的公司有三位是由富士康的部门占据。至2012年为止,富士康已在国外申请超过12000项专利,覆盖面从电机到计算机技术,再到音视频技术。被一些人所轻视的低技术含量的血汗工厂到头来居然是发明界的典范。 /201407/309038泉州祛黑眼圈哪家做得好

泉州欧菲整形做整形美容要证明吗Don: Time now for another episode of A Moment of Sciences ;Did You Know...; So, Yael, did you know that there have been about twenty-three mass extinctions since life began on earth?唐:现在进入科学时刻另一段情节:“你知道...”那么,雅艾尔,你知道吗,地球上自有生命以来发生过23起物种大灭绝事件?Yael: I know thereve been a few extinctions, Don, but not that many!雅艾尔:我知道几次物种大灭绝,但不知道次数如此多!Don: Yep. Many were of prehistoric bacteria and other single-celled microorganisms. But in the past 540 million years or so there have been about five mass extinctions, mainly of marine plants and animals but also of land organisms.唐:是啊。许多都是史前的细菌或其它单细胞微生物。但是在5.4亿年前已发生过5次大灭绝,主要包括海生植物和动物,当然也有陆生生物。Yael: Well, I know that the dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago, possibly due to a large meteor that crashed into earth and blotted out the sun. But what caused all those other extinctions?雅艾尔:好吧,我知道恐龙大约在六千五百万年前消失,可能是由于一颗大流星撞击地球,遮住阳光引起的。但是什么导致其他物种灭绝的呢?Don: Thats been a mystery for a long time. But now some scientists think that most mass extinctions have been driven by the rise and fall of sea level. That may sound strange, but consider that millions of years ago a shallow sea covered the entire middle section of North America. That sea grew and shrank back several times. Each time it drained it caused entire species of sea plants and creatures to die off. The last time it drained was around 65 million years ago—when the dinosaurs disappeared.唐:长期以来那一直是个谜。但如今一些科学家们认为大多数的灭绝是由于海平面的上升和下降引起的。这也许听起来很奇怪,但考虑到百万年前有一片浅海覆盖在整个北美洲中部就不足为奇了。那片海历经几次扩张和消失,每一次干涸就会导致这个海洋的生物灭绝。最后一次干涸发生在6500万年前恐龙消失的时候。Yael: OK, I understand how a sea vanishing would kill off marine life. But did the seas disappearance also have something to do with the dinosaurs going extinct?雅艾尔:好吧,我明白了海洋的消失会引起海洋生物消失。但海洋的消失与恐龙的灭绝也有联系吗?Don: Maybe. When a sea disappears it has a big effect on climate. All that water provides heat and moisture. And when a sea drains, the climate becomes drier and colder. So the change in climate may have combined with the meteor impact to kill off the dinosaurs. 唐:也许。海洋消失会对气候产生深远的影响。海水能提供热量和湿度。当海水干枯时,气候就会变得更加干燥和寒冷。因此气候变化再加上流星撞击地球足以将恐龙推向毁灭。原文译文属!201305/240934 泉州激光脱体毛哪家医院好一次泉州地区祛除太田痣哪家医院好



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