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厦门薇格激光除皱手术多少钱厦门思明薇格整形医院玻尿酸多少钱At an eye-watering cost of #163;3.6billion and sp across almost 1,000 acres of an old farmland, these pictures show Disneyland Shanghai ahead of its grand opening next year.成本36亿英镑,面积达1000英亩的农田,这些照片显示了正在建设中的迪斯尼上海乐园的景象,该乐园将于明年开张。The highly anticipated theme park will include the world#39;s largest Disney castle called the #39;Enchanted Storybook#39;.这个深受期待的主题乐园将包括世界上最大的迪斯尼城堡——被称为“被施了魔法的故事书”。It will also feature a production of #39;The Lion King#39; in Chinese and a pirate-themed zone based on the #39;Pirates of the Caribbean#39; movies.还将有中文版的《狮子王》以及以《加勒比海盗》电影为基础的海盗主题区。An artificial mountain will loom over thepark, becoming the highest hill in Shanghai#39;s Pudong district, and a 420-room Disneyland Hotel is planned in an #39;elegant Art Nouveau style#39;, with another based on the Toy Story films.园区内将建起一个假山,将成为上海浦东区的最高山,而且会以“优雅的新艺术形式“建起一座420个房间的迪斯尼酒店,而另外一个酒店将以《玩具总动员》电影为模版。On a commercial level, an adjacent #39;Disney town#39; will have 495,000 square feet of shops, restaurants and a 1,200-seat theatre.在商业层面,附近的“迪斯尼城”将拥有商店,餐馆和一个1200座的电影院,面积达495000平方英尺。As well as the Disney attractions, the park will also have a #39;distinctly Chinese#39; character, namely through a park called the #39;Garden of the Twelve Friends#39;.除了迪斯尼本身的景点外,该主题公园里还将有独特的中国特征——即其中有一个公园叫做“12个朋友的乐园”。Shanghai Disney will also have 12 mosaics that will exhibit the Chinese Zodiac#39;s 12 signs, but with the use of Disney characters. 里面还会有12座镶嵌画,展示中国的12生肖,但是用的是迪斯尼的卡通人物风格。It is hoped the park will open to the public in the spring of 2016 and welcome more than seven million visitors ayear, eventually rising to 16 million.这个公园将于2016年春天与大众见面,每年将迎来700万游客,最终达到1600万。It is built on a farmland in the once rural area of Chuansha, near the city#39;s Pudong International Airport.这个乐园位于浦东川沙,在浦东国际机场附近。 /201502/359118福建厦门市薇格医院电话预约 Lazy Manager懒惰的经理A middle management executive has to take on some sports,by his doctor#39;s ,有一位中阶经营主管因为听了他的医师指示必须要做一些运动,so he decides to play tennis .所以他决定要打网球。After a couple of weeks his secretary asks him how he#39;s doing在几个星期之后,他韵秘书就问他情况如何,;It#39;s going fine; ,the manager says.;When I am on the court and I see the ball speeding towards me ,这位经理说:“进行得不错,当我在网球场上看到球快速朝着我来的时候,and my brain immediately says,;Back hand!To the net!Smash !Go back;我的脑袋就立刻说:‘反手拍!上网!杀球!后退! ”;Really?What happens then?; the secretary asks .秘书问说:“真的呀,然后咙?”;Then my bady says ,;Who 、 Me?Don#39;t talk nonsense!;“然后我的身体说:‘谁?我吗?别胡说八道了!”’ /201503/361443ARIES白羊Rams are fiery, impulsive and active, so to please the Aries in your life, try taking them on a date that is adventurous and fast-paced -- or short and sweet. Sports go over well, both playing and attending them. Spicy food or games of any sort will keep the Ram#39;s fires stoked. In the end, just keep in mind that people born under the Sign of Aries like physical challenges and are looking for a dating experience that will reflect that.羊儿热情冲动、积极活跃。因此要想取悦他们的话,你和他/她的约会一定要充满刺激,直截了当。一块去运动是不错的选择。另外,带他/她品尝辛辣的食物或是参与任何形式的游戏也很对羊儿的胃口哦。最后,一定要记住的是白羊座人喜欢能带来身体挑战乐趣的约会。TAURUS金牛Ready to spend some money? If you have a Taurus date, you#39;d better have a big pocket book or a rich imagination. Taureans like luxury, so do it up right -- expensive dinner, the theater, dessert and a foot massage might just earn you a permanent place on your Taurean#39;s calendar. If you don#39;t have the money, get creative- - make the experience feel rich, earthy and delicious.准备好花钱了吗?如果你想和牛儿约会,一定要有鼓鼓的钱包或是丰富的想像力喔。牛儿喜欢奢华的生活,因此,无论是价格不菲的晚餐、一部电影大片,还是餐后甜点和足底都会让她/他对你刮目相看。如果你没有经济实力的话,那就来点创意吧,一定要让对方觉得有意思才行。GEMINI双子The first step to keeping up with a Gemini date is to put on your running shoes. Ready for change, fast and furious? Gemini#39;s love variety and are the most curious Signs of the Zodiac. They want to be constantly stimulated mentally, yet they get bored quickly. So, take your Gemini out on an unusual date, or maybe a bunch of mini-dates, all in one night! Gemini#39;s enjoy literary events, intellectual events and unique experiences.和双子座约会的第一步是穿起你的跑鞋,赶紧大步追上这个善变的对象。因为双子座人是在整个黄道带里最富好奇心的星座。他们希望不断地得到精神刺激,但是很快又会厌倦。那么,和他/她的约会一定要与众不同,也许一个小型的烛光晚宴是个不错的选择。切记,双子座喜欢独特且有深度的约会。CANCER巨蟹Wait -- don#39;t take that Cancer date anywhere. Cancers are emotional, sensitive and somewhat domestic. This is your chance to get romantic and somewhat traditional, and have those efforts be truly appreciated. Don#39;t forget the rich fantasy life that the Crab in your life possesses -- put a little imagination into your efforts, whether that means more candles, incense and velvet table cloths, or perhaps a theme evening -- French food, movie and music.耐心等待吧,不要带蟹子去任何地方。巨蟹座人大都敏感多情,还有一点居家。如果你的约会兼具浪漫和传统的话,一定会让他/她很开心。不要忘了蟹子也爱做白日梦哦,那么在你的约会里加一点创意,比如多些蜡烛,熏香和天鹅绒的桌布都能给对方惊喜;邀请他/她去看电影和听音乐会也是不错的主意。LEO狮子To keep your Leo date happy, there had better be some drama in your evening. Your Leo date will love dressing up to the nines, and needs to have an engaging and social event to attend. Cultural events will be popular with the Lion in your life, as will gambling or anything exciting. The key to a successful date with a Leo is to make them feel like royalty.想让狮子开心的话,最好带他/她去看晚场的话剧。狮子座人喜欢把自己打扮地光鲜亮丽,这样可以在赴约时显得美丽动人。涉及文化或是任何令他/她感到兴奋的事都可以成为你与狮子座人约会的内容。与他/她成功约会的关键在于一定要让对方有居高临下的感觉。VIRGO处女The key to romancing a Virgo is simple elegance -- take your date out for a tasteful, stylish evening. But don#39;t be too spendy -- your Virgo will be embarrassed by splashy shows of money, and will be more impressed by value rather than amount. Also keep in mind that Virgo rules the house of health, so a date with physical activity (especially outdoors) will be a hit. Virgos also love animals, so a date that puts your Virgo in contact with them (like a trip to the zoo!) will earn you a smile.与处女约会的关键是要体现优雅-独特风格的晚宴最有可能俘获对方的芳心。但是不要太奢侈,处女座不喜欢随意挥霍钱财的人,他/她更容易被价值而不是数量所打动。还要记住的是,处女座人身处“健康宫”,因此与他/她的约会最好能涉及身体锻练(尤其是户外运动)。处女座人还很喜欢动物,带他们去动物园肯定也是不错的选择。LIBRA天秤Libra rules the House of Partnership, which means they tend to be socially inclined and more interested in other people than themselves. Your Libra will need you to have as much fun on your date as they are! Something social would be successful with a Libra date. Beauty and sensuality are important to Libras, so this is definitely the person for whom you want to bring flowers to the door.天秤座身处“友情宫”,这意味着他们很愿意结交朋友,并且往往对别人比自己的事情更有兴趣。你得想尽办法让秤子高兴。多一些社交活动肯定能让他/她满意。天秤座人天生爱扮靓,因此要是看到你手捧鲜花站在他/她家门口等待约会的话,肯定乐开了花。SCORPIO天蝎Mystery is the name of Scorpio#39;s game, so suspenseful games, movies or theater will be your ticket to a wonderful evening. In fact, holding one of those dinner mystery nights might be the perfect evening -- your Scorpio could act like someone else, figure out the mystery and spend some quality time with you -- all at once! Scorpios are also quite passionate, so don#39;t be stingy with affection when you are having a good time.蝎子喜欢神秘的事物。因此,晚上约他们去看一场充满悬疑的电影一定是件很美妙的事。实际上,与蝎子共享一个神秘的晚宴也是好的选择。天蝎座人充满热情,与他/她在一起时千万不要吝啬自己的感情哦。SITTARIUS射手How to make your Sagittarius happy? Spontaneous trips to somewhere unusual -- the beach, the desert, you name it. They also love physical activity in the outdoors, so asking them to go hiking or camping will make you get noticed and appreciated.怎样让射手座开心呢?带他/她去海滩、沙漠这样与众不同的地方旅行吧。他们也很喜欢户外运动,和你一起去郊游和野营一定让他们兴奋不已。CAPRICORN羯Capricorns can be conventional, but who said conventional couldn#39;t be fun? Your classic date will go over well with the Capricorn in your life, so relax -- flowers, dinner and a movie would make a perfect and comfortable evening. Whatever you do, the goat in your life will appreciate an experience that feels affluent but doesn#39;t cost a lot of money. Capricorns also enjoy a little one-on-one competition, so playing tennis or golf together might be just the ticket to romance after the game.羯座比较传统,但谁说传统的人就不能享受快乐呢?送鲜花、赴晚宴和看电影,这些浪漫的约会方式都很适用。无论你做什么,羯座人会为你精心的安排感到开心,但不要花太多的钱。羯座还喜欢一对一的方式,打网球或是高尔夫都是不错的选择喔。AQUARIUS水瓶Taking an Aquarius out could be the easiest or hardest dating experience of your life. Aquarians like anything different, new, technological or progressive. If you are feeling up for it, take your Aquarius on an adventure date -- windsurfing, hang-gliding or spelunking. Get creative, and don#39;t shy away from something intellectual -- your Aquarius will love you for it.与瓶子约会可能是你生命中最难也可能是最容易的事。瓶子喜欢新鲜、技术含量高的稀奇事情。如果你想讨好他/她,冒险刺激的约会是少不了的-可以尝试帆板运动、攀岩或山洞探险。只要是有创意,最好再带上点高科技的玩意肯定会让瓶子爱死你的。PISCES双鱼Pisceans are interested in everything that isn#39;t quite real. Any date that involves the arts, from painting together to attending the theater, will make your Pisces smile. Romance will be appreciated by this Sign, so try a beach picnic with wine and cheese or high-tea in a garden. Whatever you do, put a little magic into your date -- creating the right mood will romance your Pisces more than any money you spend.鱼儿对任何不太真实的东西充满了兴趣。任何涉及艺术,如画画和欣赏戏剧这样的活动都能得鱼儿嫣然一笑。这个星座的人喜欢浪漫,因此带上美酒和奶酪去海滩野餐一定会让他/她倍受感动。无论你做什么,在你的约会里加一点小小的创意也会让鱼儿开心不已。要知道在鱼儿看来,心灵的契合比物质上的宽裕更重要。 /201507/385800厦门薇格医疗门诊部去痘印多少钱

厦门思明微格医院去痘印多少钱If you are looking for a loan, serving your bank manager breakfast might just do the trick.如果你想要贷款,请经理吃个早餐说不定能帮你忙。A compound found in eggs makes people much more generous, new research suggests.最新研究表明,鸡蛋里含有的某种复合物会使人们变得更加慷慨大方。Scientists say that tryptophan, an amino acid found in some foods, can change our behaviour.科学家称,一些食物中所含的一种叫做色氨酸的氨基酸能够改变人们的行为。In experiments they found that consuming a small portion of tryptophan - the equivalent of that found in three eggs -doubled the sum volunteers gave to charity.研究者们通过实验发现,摄入少量色氨酸(大概是三个鸡蛋中所含该物质的含量)能够使被试捐款人的捐款数目增加一倍。Eggs and other foods such as fish and milk are rich in tryptophan, an amino acid that is converted in the body into the feel-good chemical serotonin.鸡蛋、鱼、牛奶等都富含色氨酸,色氨酸能在人体内转化为让人感到愉快的化学物质5-羟色胺。Psychologists from Leiden University in the Netherlands, writing in the Frontiers in Psychology journal, said:‘For the first time, we investigated whether the administration of a compound contained in food such as fish, eggs, soy, and milk can promote charitable donating.荷兰莱顿大学的心理学家在发表于《心理学前沿》期刊里的文章中写道:“这是我们第一次研究如鱼、鸡蛋、豆和牛奶等食物中含有的化合物是否会对慷慨捐赠行为产生促进作用。”‘Our study is the first demonstration that charitable donating can be enhanced by serotonin-related food supplements.’“我们的研究首次明了,通过增加包含色氨酸的食物摄入量能够促进人们的慈善捐赠行为。”The authors carried out an experiment on 32 men and women, in which half were given a powder containing 0.8 grams of TRP,and the others were given a harmless placebo powder.该实验包括男性、女性被试共32名,其中一半被试食用的是含有0.8克的色氨酸粉末,另外一半则食用一种无害的安慰剂粉末。Each participant was given #163;7.50 (.25)for taking part in the research and asked whether they were willing to donate part of their financial reward to charity.每个参与实验的被试都被给予7.5英镑,并被询问是否愿意把这些钱捐给慈善机构。Four boxes for Unicef, Amnesty International, Greenpeace, and World Wildlife Fund were left on a table.桌子上摆放着四个慈善机构的盒子,这四个慈善机构分别是联合国儿童基金会,大赦国际,绿色和平组织和世界野生动物基金会。When the psychologists counted the takings,they found that those given the TRP powder donated an average of 75p (.15),while those who received the placebo donated half as much.心理学家计算捐款数额后发现,摄入色氨酸粉末的被试平均捐出了75便士,而食用安慰剂的被试则只捐出了一半的数额Just how a food supplement could have such an effect is not clear, but the scientists suggest the involvement of oxytocin,the so-called ‘cuddle’ hormone produced by women during breastfeeding and lovemaking.为什么一种食品添加剂可以产生这样效果目前还不清楚,但科学家们认为这可能与后叶催产素有关,后叶催产素是女性在哺乳和性交期间会产生的一种所谓的“拥抱”荷尔蒙。They wrote: ‘It may be likely that the willingness to donate money to a charity is modulated by the effect that serotonin exerts on oxytocin levels.他们写道:“捐款的意愿可能受5-羟色胺对后叶催产素水平影响的调控。”‘Our results support the materialist approach that “you are what you eat”.“我们的研究结果持了唯物主义者的说法即‘吃什么东西就会产生什么行为’。”‘The idea [is]that the food one eats has a bearing on one’s state of mind. The food we eat may thus act as a cognitive enhancer that modulates the way we deal with the“social” world.#39;“人们所吃的食物会影响到大脑的状态。就这样食物扮演了认知促进者的角色,调控着人们应对‘社交’世界的方式。”Commenting on the research, Dr AdamPerkins, neurobiologist at King’s College London, said the study could be useful in prisons to encourage harmony among inmates.伦敦国王学院的神经生物学家亚当·帕金斯认为这项研究结果可以运用于监狱,对促进犯人间的和谐会非常有效。He said: ‘These results are interesting because they raise the possibility that dietary supplements containing TRP could be used to assist with boosting charitable attitudes and behaviour in the population.’他说:“这个研究的结果非常有趣,只要增加含有色氨酸的食物摄入量,就能很好地促进全民行善的意愿和行为。” /201504/369053厦门绣眉团购 7.Pasta7.面食Anybody who loves a good bowl of pasta e fagioli or linguine and clams may want to tip his hat to the ancient Chinese for coming up with pasta -- not the Italians, as you may have suspected.对任何喜欢来一碗意大利面豆汤或者蛤蜊扁意面的人来说,也许都需要对发明面条的古代中国人致敬——而不是意大利人,正如你所怀疑的一样。The jury is still out on this one, but it looks like the Chinese beat either the Italians or the Arabs (it#39;s unclear which) by around 2,000 years. In 2006, archaeologists excavating a 4,000 year-old settlement at Lajia in the Qinghai Province near the Tibetian border uncovered an overturned bowl of stringy noodles buried beneath ten feet of earth.专家组仍在商讨到底是谁率先发明面条这件事,但看起来似乎是中国人凭借着近2000年的优势力压意大利人和阿拉伯人(还不清楚是哪一个),成为最终的赢家。2006年,考古学家在发掘喇家遗址时发现了一只倒扣的碗,深埋于十英尺厚的土中,碗内有细长而干枯的面条。该遗址位于青海省境内,靠近西藏,距今已有4000年的历史 。The newly discovered pasta may be the world#39;s oldest. It#39;s made from two types of millet grain, both of which have been cultivated in China for about 7,000 years. What#39;s more, the Chinese still use these grains to make pasta to this day.这一新发现的面条可能是世界上最古老的,由两种在中国均已有7000年栽培史的谷物制成。并且,时至今日,中国人仍在用这些谷物来制作面条。6.Wheelbarrow6.独轮手推车The Chinese are also responsible for easing the burden of humans around the world and across time with the wheelbarrow. A general named Jugo Liang, who lived during the Han Dynasty, is widely credited with coming up with the concept of a one-wheeled cart used to carry heavy objects in the second century. Jugo#39;s conception missed the mark just a bit; he didn#39;t add the barrow (handles) that came later as his invention was refined. Still, Jugo beat the Europeans by about 1,000 years with his wheelbarrow.千百年来,中国人发明的独轮手推车为减轻人类负担做出了巨大的贡献。人们普遍认为,公元2世纪时,蜀相诸葛亮提出了发明独轮手推车用来运载重物的构想。诸葛亮构思的独轮手推车仅有一点点瑕疵,因为他没有为其加上把手,不过这一问题被后人改进完善。尽管如此,诸葛亮的发明还是领先了欧洲人1000多年。Originally, the vehicle was intended for military purposes. Recognizing the physical advantages the wheelbarrow gave its armies over any enemies -- they were used as mobile barricades as well as for transportation -- the Chinese kept their invention secret for centuries.最初,独轮车被用于军事目的。正因认识到了独轮车为我方军队战胜敌军带来的先天优势——独轮车即既可被用来充当移动的路障,也能被当作运输工具——古代中国人将这项发明保密了长达几个世纪之久。An old folktale also gives the credit for inventing the wheelbarrow to a farmer from the first century B.C. named Ko Yu. Although his existence is questionable, there is a common th between Jugo and Ko: Like the general, the farmer is said to have kept the wheelbarrow secret by describing it in code.而民间的另一种传说则认为早在公元前1世纪,一个叫柯宇(KoYu)的农民就发明了独轮手推车。尽管历史上是否真的存在这个人还是个疑问,但诸葛亮和柯宇倒是有个共同点:和丞相一样,据说这位农民也对独轮车的制作流程守口如瓶。5.Seismograph5.地动仪Although the Chinese couldn#39;t tell anyone exactly what an earthquake measured on the Richter scale (since the Richter scale wasn#39;t created until 1935), they did manage to invent the world#39;s first earthquake detector -- a seismograph. Not only did imperial astronomer Chang Heng create a seismograph during the Han Dynasty in the early second century, he created a magnificently beautiful one.尽管古代中国人并不能准确地告知世人一场地震是里氏几级(因为直到1935年里氏震级才被发明出来),但他们却设法发明了世界上第一个地震测量仪——地动仪。早在公元2世纪前叶,汉代天文学家张衡就创造出了地动仪,他发明的地动仪还巧夺天工、壮观宏伟。Heng#39;s creation was a heavy bronze vessel with nine dragons facing downward embedded into its outside. The dragons were spaced equidistant from one another on the vessel, and below each dragon, a detached frog looked upward as each frog held its mouth open.张衡发明的地动仪以青铜铸成,四周镶嵌以八条龙,龙头朝下。这八条龙等距离间隔,每条龙的正下方,都有一只昂头张嘴的铜蟾蜍。Inside the vessel, a pendulum hung motionless until a tremor moved it. At this point, the pendulum#39;s swing set the seismograph#39;s internal levers in motion. This would trigger the release of a ball held in the mouth of the dragon facing the direction of the earthquake#39;s epicenter. The ball would then fall into the mouth of the frog directly below it. This first seismograph seems a bit basic, but it would be another 1,500 years before Western nations developed their own versions.地动仪的内部正中,有一“悬摆锤”静止不动。当某个地方发生地震,“悬摆锤”受到震动时,就会随之运动。此时,“悬摆锤”来回摆动引发地动仪内部的杠杆活动,从而触动机关,使得地震源方向的龙头张开嘴,吐出铜球,落到铜蟾蜍嘴中。这一最初的地动仪虽然有点简陋,但比起西方发明的地震仪仍然早了1500多年。4.Alcohol4.酒精You can thank the Chinese for ethanol and isopropyl alcohol -- not to mention beer, wine and liquor. When you think of it, few of man#39;s ingenuities have delivered as much joy and sorrow as alcohol.你得感谢中国人创造出了乙醇和异丙醇,这里说的并不是啤酒、葡萄酒跟烈酒噢!当你想到酒时,也就明白只有极少数人类智慧的结晶能像酒那样让人欢喜让人忧。For many years, it was assumed that alcohol fermentation grew out of other, similar processes. By the early third century B.C., the Chinese had figured out how to refine food products like vinegar and soy sauce using the techniques of fermentation and distillation. Alcoholic spirits would soon follow.一直以来,人们都认为酒精发酵技术脱胎于其他相似的工艺。公元前3世纪前期,中国人就掌握了酿造醋和酱油的技术,而这都是通过发酵和蒸馏来实现的。因而这些技术也很快就被运用到酿酒中。Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed the date for Chinese fermentation and the creation of alcohol much further back. Nine-thousand-year-old pottery shards uncovered in Henan province show traces of alcohol. This discovery proves that the Chinese were the first to make alcohol, since the previous title holders, the ancient Arabs, didn#39;t come up with alcoholic drinks until 1,000 years later.最近的考古发现又使中国人利用发酵工艺制酒的时间向前推移。考古学家在河南省发现了9000年前的陶器碎片,并在其中觅到了酒的踪迹。这一发现实了中国人才是酿酒的鼻祖,因为曾经的酿酒先驱——古阿拉伯人直到1000年后才制造出含酒精的饮品。审校:落月 listen /201507/384652厦门微格埋线减肥注射微整形注射丰下巴要多少费用

厦门胎记治疗Behind all those canned compliments for older adults — spry! wily! wise! — is an appreciation for something that scientists have had a hard time characterizing: mental faculties that improve with age.年长者通常会受到这样的褒扬:思维敏捷!老谋深算!睿智!在这些称赞的背后,是对某种东西的欣赏,科学家们一直很难描述的东西:随着年龄增长而增强的心智能力。Knowledge is a large part of the equation, of course. People who are middle-aged and older tend to know more than young adults, by virtue of having been around longer, and score higher on vocabulary tests, crossword puzzles and other measures of so-called crystallized intelligence.当然,在这个等式中,知识占了很大一部分。与年轻人相比,中老年人知道的东西往往更多,因为他们活过的年头更长,而且在词汇测试、填字游戏和其他“晶态智力”测试中,中老年人的得分也比较高。Still, young adults who consult their elders (mostly when desperate) don’t do so just to gather facts, solve crosswords or borrow a credit card. Nor, generally, are they looking for help with short-term memory or puzzle solving. Those abilities, called fluid intelligence, peak in the 20s.不过,年轻人(主要是在绝望的时候)请教年长者,不只是为了搜集事实、做填字游戏,或者借用信用卡。通常也不是为了解决短期记忆或解谜方面的问题。这些能力称为“液态智力”,在20多岁时达到峰值。No, the older brain offers something more, according to a new paper in the journal Psychological Science. Elements of social judgment and short-term memory, important pieces of the cognitive puzzle, may peak later in life than previously thought.不,《心理科学》(Psychological Science)杂志上的新论文表示,年长者的大脑可以提供更多的好处。社会判断和短期记忆的一些元素是认知能力的重要组成部分,它们达到峰值的时间可能比人们之前认为的更晚一些。The postdoctoral fellows Joshua Hartshorne of M.I.T. and Laura Germine of Harvard and Massachusetts General Hospital analyzed a huge trove of scores on cognitive tests taken by people of all ages. The researchers found that the broad split in age-related cognition — fluid in the young, crystallized in the old — masked several important nuances.麻省理工(MIT)士后约书亚·哈茨霍恩(Joshua Hartshorne)以及哈佛(Harvard)和马萨诸塞州总医院(Massachusetts General Hospital)士后劳拉·杰米恩(Laura Germine)分析了大量由所有年龄段参加的认知测试数据,发现在涉及年龄的认知上,笼统的两分法——年轻人液态智力高,年长者晶态智力高——掩盖了一些重要的细微差别。“This dichotomy between early peaks and later peaks is way too coarse,” Dr. Hartshorne said. “There are a lot more patterns going on, and we need to take those into account to fully understand the effects of age on cognition.”“早期达到高峰和较晚时候达到高峰,这种两分法太粗略了,”哈茨霍恩士说。“此外还存在很多的模式,我们需要考虑这些因素,来充分了解年龄对认知的影响。”The new paper is hardly the first challenge to the scientific literature on age-related decline, and it won’t be the last. A year ago, German scientists argued that cognitive “deficits” in aging were caused largely by the accumulation of knowledge — that is, the brain slows down because it has to search a larger mental library of facts. That idea has stirred some debate among scientists.诸多科学文献谈到了和年龄有关的认知能力下降,这篇新论文既不是对相关结论的第一个挑战,也不会是最后一个。一年前,德国科学家声称,年龄增长的认知“缺陷”在很大程度上是由知识的积累造成的——也就是说,大脑速度减慢,是因为它需要在一个更大的脑部信息库里搜索东西。这个说法已经在科学界引起了一些争论。Experts said the new analysis raised a different question: Are there distinct, independent elements of memory and cognition that peak at varying times of life?一些专家称,这份新的分析结果提出了一个不同的问题:在和认知能力中,有没有一些与众不同的独立的元素,是在生命中的不同时刻达到峰值的?“I think they have more work to do to demonstrate that that’s the case,” said Denise Park, a professor of behavior and brain science at the University of Texas at Dallas. “But this is a provocative paper, and it’s going to have an impact on the field.”“我认为要明这一点,他们还需要做更多工作,”德克萨斯州大学达拉斯分校(University of Texas at Dallas)行为与脑科学教授丹尼斯·帕克(Denise Park)说。“但这篇论文已经引发了讨论,它将对这一领域产生影响。”The strength of the new analysis is partly in its data. The study evaluated historic scores from the popular Wechsler intelligence test, and compared them with more recent results from tens of thousands of people who took short cognitive tests on the authors’ websites, testmybrain.org and gameswithwords.org. The one drawback of this approach is that, because it didn’t follow the same people over a lifetime, it might have missed the effect of different cultural experiences, said K. Warner Schaie, a researcher at Penn State University.这个最新分析结果的强大之处,一定程度上在于它所采用的数据。这份研究评估了著名的韦氏智力测验(Wechsler intelligence test)的历史得分数据,将它们与数万人更近期的测试结果进行了比较。这些参与者在作者的网站上进行了简短的认知测试,网址分别是testmybrain.org和gameswithwords.org。宾夕法尼亚州立大学(Penn State)的研究人员K·瓦尔纳·沙依(K. Warner Schaie)说,这种方法的缺陷在于,由于它不是追踪同一批人在人生各个阶段的情况,因此可能忽视了不同文化经历产生的影响。But most previous studies have not been nearly as large, or had such a range of ages. Participants on the websites were 10 to 89 years old, and they took a large battery of tests, measuring skills like memory for abstract symbols and strings of digits, problem solving, and facility ing emotions from strangers’ eyes.然而,以往的多数研究都没有达到如此大的规模,也没有覆盖这么广的年龄段。网站上的参与者年龄在10岁到89岁之间,他们参与了大量的测试,评估了对抽象符号和数字串的、解决问题的能力,以及根据眼神解读陌生人情绪的能力。At least as important, the researchers looked at the effect of age on each type of test. Previous research had often grouped related tests together, on the assumption that they captured a single underlying attribute in the same way a coach might rate, say, athleticism based on a person’s speed, strength and vertical leaping ability.同样重要的是,研究人员观察了年龄对每一项测试的影响。以往的研究经常把相关的测试分为一组,想当然地认为它们捕捉到了一项基本属性,就像教练可以根据一个人的速度、力量和弹跳能力评估他的运动能力一样。The result of the new approach? “We found different abilities really maturing or ripening at different ages,” Dr. Germine said. “It’s a much richer picture of the life span than just calling it aging.”这种新方法的结果如何?“我们发现不同的能力的确会在不同的年龄臻于成熟,”杰米恩说。“它反映了人生中丰富得多的变化,而不只是衰老。”Processing speed — the quickness with which someone can manipulate digits, words or images, as if on a mental sketch board — generally peaks in the late teens, Dr. Germine and Dr. Hartshorne confirmed, and memory for some things, like names, does so in the early 20s. But the capacity of that sketch board, called working memory, peaks at least a decade later and is slow to decline. In particular, the ability to recall faces and do some mental manipulation of numbers peaked about age 30, the study found, “a fact difficult to assimilate into the fluid/crystalized intelligence dichotomy.”杰米恩士和哈茨霍恩士实,信息处理速度——如同头脑中有一块素描板,一个人在上面处理数字、单词或图像的速度——基本上在十八九岁的时候达到峰值;对一些事情的,比如对一些名字的记忆,会在20岁出头的时候达到顶峰。但这个素描板的容量,即工作记忆,至少还要10年之后才能达到峰值,而且下降的速度很慢。特别值得一提的是,研究发现,记忆一些人的长相以及心算的能力,会在30岁左右达到峰值,“这个事实很难用液态/晶态的智力二分法来解释。”The researchers also analyzed results from the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test. The test involves looking at snapshots of strangers’ eyes on a computer screen and determining their moods from a of options like “tentative,” “uncertain” and “skeptical.”研究人员还分析了“眼神读心能力测试”的结果。在这项测试中,测试者需要看着计算机屏幕上陌生人眼睛的照片,从一些选项中选出他们的心情,比如“犹豫”、“不确定”和“怀疑”。“It’s not an easy test, and you’re not sure afterward how well you did,” Dr. Germine said. “I thought I’d done poorly but in fact did pretty well.” Yet people in their 40s or 50s consistently did the best, the study found, and the skill declined very slowly later in life.“这个测试并不容易,你做完之后心里没底,”杰米恩说。“我以为我做的很糟糕,但实际上成绩相当不错。”然而研究发现,四五十岁的人成绩最好,而且随着年龄的进一步增长,这种能力下降得十分缓慢。The picture that emerges from these findings is of an older brain that moves more slowly than its younger self, but is just as accurate in many areas and more adept at ing others’ moods — on top of being more knowledgeable. That’s a handy combination, given that so many important decisions people make intimately affects others.这些发现所反映的情况是,年长者的大脑的运转速度比年轻时慢,但在许多领域同样敏锐,而且更擅长察觉他人的情绪——不光是知识更渊了。考虑到人们做出的许多重要决定都会密切地影响他人,这是一个不错的状态。No one needs a cognitive scientist to explain that it’s better to approach a boss about a raise when he or she is in a good mood. But the older mind may be better able to head off interpersonal misjudgments and to navigate tricky situations.没人需要一名认知科学家来告诉自己,为什么在老板心情好的时候,更适合找他谈涨薪。但年长一些的人可能更加擅长避免人际关系上的误判,以及应付棘手的局面。“As in, ‘that person’s not happy with all your quick thinking and young person’s processing speed — he’s about to punch you,’” said Zach Hambrick, a psychology professor at Michigan State University.“比如,‘那个人看不惯你思维太快,那种年轻人的信息处理速度——他就要给你一拳了,’”密歇根大学的心理学教授扎克·汉布里克(Zach Hambrick)说。The details of this more textured picture of the aging brain are still far from clear, and social measures like the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test have not been used much in this kind of research, Dr. Hambrick and other experts said. And it is not apparent from the new analysis whether changes in cognition with age result from a single cause — like a decline in the speed of neural transmission — or to multiple ones.汉布里克和其他专家说,大脑衰老过程中更复杂情况的细节还很不清楚,眼神读心能力等社会化衡量标准也没有被大量用于此类研究。此外,最新的分析结果也没有告诉我们,认知能力随年龄增长而发生的改变是单一因素——比如神经传输速度的下降——还是多种原因造成的。But for now, the new research at least gives some meaning to the empty adjective “wily.”但就目前而言,这项新研究至少给“老谋深算”这个空洞的形容词赋予了一些意义。 /201503/365705 Magnus Carlsen’s triumph over Viswanathan Anand on Sunday allowed the 23-year-old Norwegian to retain his crown as world chess champion.周日,23岁的挪威人马格努斯#8226;卡尔森(Magnus Carlsen)大胜维斯瓦纳坦#8226;阿南德(Viswanathan Anand),成功卫冕国际象棋世界冠军。Yet it was the remarkable way in which Mr Carlsen defeated his Indian opponent that has reinforced the view in fiercely competitive, top-level chess that he is simply the best the game has ever seen.然而,最令人印象深刻的,是卡尔森打败其印度对手的方式。在竞争激烈的国际象棋顶级赛事中,他的取胜方式再次明,他是国际象棋比赛有史以来的最佳选手。He won without a huge team of seconds, or assistants, to feed him new ideas and without a room stuffed with supercomputers to prepare game plans in advance.在比赛过程中,没有庞大的助手团队为他提供新的思路,事先也没有一屋子超级电脑为他筹备竞赛计划。His victory was, as Frederic Friedel, co-founder of the Chessbase chess software company, put it, “like a tennis player turning up to Wimbledon with an ancient wooden racket – and winning”.正如Chessbase国际象棋软件公司的共同创始人弗雷德里克#8226;弗里德尔(Frederic Friedel)所说,卡尔森的胜利,“就像一名网球选手带着老式木质球拍出现在温布尔顿并取得了胜利”。Computers and the number-crunching analysis they provide have become a regular feature of the highest levels of chess for more than a decade. Top players rely on them to generate the theoretical novelty that can provide a telling advantage in the opening.十多年来,提供计算机和大批量数据分析,已成为国际象棋顶级赛事的常规务。最高水平的选手依赖这些务提供创意,从而在开局中取得有效的优势地位。In 2010, as he prepared to fight for the world chess crown against Anand, the Bulgarian grandmaster Veselin Topalov revealed that he was using IBM’s Blue Gene/P supercomputer, decked with 8,192-processors, to help prepare some tailor-made openings.2010年,在筹备与阿南德的国际象棋世界冠军争夺战时,保加利亚特级大师维塞林#8226;托帕洛夫(Veselin Topalov)曾透露,他正在使用IBM生产的拥有8192个处理器的蓝色基因/P(Blue Gene/P)超级计算机,帮助他准备某些量身定制的开局。Anand, meanwhile, admitted that the desktop of one of his main seconds looked “like a pilot’s cockpit”.与此同时,阿南德也承认,他一名主要助手的桌面看起来“就像飞行员的驾驶舱”。Such an approach is logical in a game so complex that players arrive at one of 9m possible positions after just three moves each – and one in which there are more possible unique chess games than neutrons in the physical universe.对国际象棋这样复杂的比赛而言,这种应对方式有其道理。据统计,在仅仅走过三步之后,每位选手就面临900万种可能的棋局。国际象棋中的可能棋局数,超过了宇宙中的中子数。As Mr Carlsen said with some understatement following one of last week’s games, “chess, in general, is more difficult than other things”.正如卡尔森上周在一场比赛后略为谦虚的说法:“总体上说,国际象棋比其他事情都难一些。”But the man who regularly plays in ripped jeans and has a reputation for slouching in his chair during matches does not rely on computer analysis nearly as much as his opponents and pays relatively little attention to opening theory.不过,这位惯于在打比赛时身着乞丐装牛仔裤、并以懒洋洋靠在椅上而闻名的选手,并不像他的对手那样依赖计算机分析。他对开局理论的关注几乎为零。“With the modern computer age, there are some new ideas,” he said a couple of years ago. “But the principles are basically the same#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;I try not to over-focus on preparation.”几年前,他曾表示:“在当代这个计算机时代,确实存在某些新的想法。不过其中的原理从根本上说是一样的……我努力不去把过多注意力放在筹备方面。”The result of this old-school approach has turned modern chess on its head. Whereas computer analysis has raised the relative importance of the opening for most players, Mr Carlsen has relegated it. He looks instead to win a game later on via the steady and patient accumulation of sometimes almost imperceptible advantages.这一旧的学院派方法取得的战果令当代国际象棋十分尴尬。尽管对多数选手来说,计算机分析提高了开局的相对重要性,卡尔森却不那么看重开局。相反,他关注的是如何稳定而耐心地积累优势——有时候这种优势甚至难以察觉,在后面的比赛过程中取得胜利。“The space that chess occupies is so gigantic that in spite of all the computer work done today, you can get out of it,” says Mr Friedel, who occasionally chaperoned Mr Carlsen at tournaments when he was a teenager. “Magnus goes off into sidelines#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;then he just outplays people. It is extraordinary and amazing.”少年时代曾偶尔在锦标赛中陪伴卡尔森的弗里德尔表示:“国际象棋的弈空间太过巨大,尽管今天计算机能完成许多判断,你仍可跳出它的思路。马格努斯跳了出来……并在之后的比赛中大获全胜。这是非比寻常而让人惊叹的。”That he is able to do so is evidence of his raw talent. A grandmaster at 13, he became the world’s strongest player at just 19 and has remained there. In May, he reached an “Elo” rating of 2,882 – the highest a human being has ever achieved.他能做到这一点,明了他天生的天分。这位13岁当上特级大师的选手在仅仅19岁时就成为全球最强的国际象棋选手,并一直保持在这种高水平状态。今年5月,他的“Elo”等级分达到2882分,这是人类选手曾获得的最高分。Asked in 2012 how he played so well, he replied modestly, “I don’t know#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;the game somehow comes naturally”.2012年,在被问到为何他棋艺如此高超时,他回答得十分谦虚:“我不知道……我就是自然而然地想到了应手。” /201411/345160厦门微格整形美容医院去眼袋怎么样厦门微格整形美容医院皮肤暗黄怎么样

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