楼主:问医诊疗 时间:2019年07月22日 05:03:30 点击:0 回复:0
A new investment fund is bringing Silicon Valley’s problem-solving hacker ethos to US immigration law, looking to tackle the problem of potential entrepreneurs held back by a visa regime that has long frustrated the technology industry.一家新成立的投资基金以硅谷解决问题的黑客精神来应对美国移民法,帮助解决因签受阻的未来企业家的困难。科技产业长期受到签制度的阻碍。The fund, named Unshackled, and backed by co-founders of Yahoo and Palantir, has raised .5m to give early stage funding to foreigners working in the US who want to quit their job and launch a start-up but cannot because they need an employer to sponsor their visa.这个名为“Unshackled”(除去枷锁)的基金受到雅虎(Yahoo)和Palantir的创始人们的持,目前已筹集到350万美元,用于为那些在美国工作的外国创业者提供前期资金——这些人想要辞职创办公司,但由于需要雇主担保签而无法脱身。Unlike traditional venture funds, which invest capital in exchange for equity, Unshackled will take equity but also hire founders as employees, allowing them to keep their work visas while building their companies.传统的风险投资基金以投资换股权,Unshackled却与之不同,它既接受股权,又将企业创始人聘请为员工,让他们在创办公司时得以保留工作签。Manan Mehta, Unshackled’s co-founder and the son of immigrants who moved to the US from India in the 1970s, said: “Every entrepreneur that we’re targeting is at a greater advantage because of the hustle that they’ve had to prove to get to this country and pursue the American dream.”Unshackled的联合创始人马南#8226;梅塔(Manan Mehta)也是移民后代,他的父辈在20世纪70年代从印度移居美国。梅塔说:“我们所看中的每一位创业者都有极大的优势,因为他们具有积极奋斗的精神才会来到这个国家并追求美国梦。”Current US immigration law has frustrated the Valley, where tech companies say they face a shortage of engineers and starting salaries for young developers can top 0,000. The US offers far fewer visas for skilled foreign workers, known as H-1Bs, than the number of applications it receives, and few executives are optimistic that the federal government will raise that cap soon.美国现行移民法已阻碍了硅谷的发展,这里的高科技公司表示他们面临着工程师短缺的问题,年轻开发人员起薪可超10万美元。美国针对外国专业人才发放的H-1B签远低于申请数量,对于联邦政府是否会很快增加签发放数量,高管们大多不抱乐观想法。For foreigners who win the H-1B lottery, launching a company of their own is tricky as they must remain formally employed to keep the visa. Unshackled proposes to solve that problem by transferring work visas from the entrepreneurs’ current employers to Unshackled and then helping them incorporate and build their start-ups.即使H-1B中,拿到签的外国人也很难开创公司,因为他们必须维持正式工作以保留签。Unshackled为解决该问题提出了建议,创业者可将工作签从当前雇主公司转移到Unshackled,然后Unshackled会帮助他们组建公司。Under current law, foreign founders have taken various routes to stay in the US. One San Francisco-based European entrepreneur trying to transfer an existing H-1B visa to his own company has had to show that his board could fire him and that he owns only a minority of the company. He now meets those criteria after his company has raised millions of dollars in several funding rounds.受制于现行法律,外国创始人为留在美国采取了各种途径。旧金山的一个欧洲企业家正试图将现有的H-1B签转移到他自己的公司,条件是他必须明他的董事会可以解雇他,而且他只拥有公司的少数股权。在其公司从几轮融资中得到数百万美元资金后,他终于符合了上述条件。He says friends of his, also from overseas, have gone through Valley incubators and hired local engineers but have had to return to their home countries to await their own visas.据这位欧洲企业家表示,他有几位同样来自海外的朋友在硅谷得到了成长,他们创业并聘用了当地工程师,却不得不回到自己国家等待签。 /201411/342591Boris Johnson has a talent for carefully calculated imprudence. The London mayor says, apparently artlessly, things others are advised not to say. The result is that while appearing as a buffoon, he is in fact one of the most thoughtful politicians of our time. These abilities were in evidence last week when he delivered the Margaret Thatcher memorial lecture.鲍里斯#8226;约翰逊(Boris Johnson)有一种天赋:他表现出的莽撞其实是经过精心设计的。这位伦敦市长会以一种显得很天真的方式,说出其他人都知道不该说的事。结果就是,尽管他看起来像个小丑,但他实际上却是我们这个时代最具洞察力的政治人物之一。他的这种能力在他近日发表纪念玛格丽特#8226;撒切尔(Margaret Thatcher)的讲话时得到了清晰的体现。Mr Johnson appeared to regard the observation that Britain had invaded 171 countries as a matter for pride not apology. But since he was clearly not suggesting we should once more adopt this foreign policy, his evident purpose was to wind up critics he knows will not vote for him anyway.约翰逊称,英国入侵过171个国家。看上去,他似乎把这件事视为一种骄傲,而不是需要道歉的事。然而,由于他明显不是在暗示我们应该再次奉行这种外交政策,因此他的目的显然是想给某些批评者添点儿堵——他知道,这些批评者无论如何也不会把选票投给他。Other headline-grabbing observations were, similarly, truths that these critics think should go unmentioned rather than ones with which they could reasonably disagree. More people do have an IQ below 85 than above 130. (As Mr Johnson doubtless knows, this is a result of the way the statistics are constructed, not a function of the level and dispersion of achievement.)同样,约翰逊说过的另一些引起轰动的话,其实也是那种批评者们认为不该提及的事实,而不是那种他们能够合理反对的话。智商低于85的人确实比智商高于130的人多。(约翰逊当然明白,这一结果是这种统计的构造方式导致的,而不是成就水平或离差的函数。)When Mr Johnson said: “After 2008 the left was ushered centre stage, and missed their cue: political history reached a turning point and failed to turn,” he scored a hit against his political opponents. When capitalism finally came to the point of collapse under the weight of its internal contradictions – an event Europe’s left had long anticipated – the policy response of its representatives was, and continues to be, to avert that collapse with lots of public money. Voters responded to this intellectual vacuum by throwing out whichever party – left or right – was in power at the time, and by turning to fringe parties.约翰逊说:“2008年后,左翼被推上中心舞台,变得忘乎所以:政治历史发展到了一个转折点,但转折却并没有发生。”这番话帮他从政治对手那里赢了一分。当资本主义在内部矛盾的重压下终于临近崩溃时(这是欧洲左翼人士长期以来期盼发生的事件),左翼代表们给出的政策应对是(而且现在依然是)用海量公共资金来避免这一崩溃的发生。对于这一缺乏理智的现象,选民们作出的回应是抛弃了那时掌权的任何党派——不管它是左翼还是右翼——转而求助边缘政党。But it was on inequality that Mr Johnson was most controversial[AND RIGHT?]. “Some measure of inequality is essential for the spirit of envy,” he said. “Keeping up with the Joneses is, like greed, a valuable spur to economic activity.” Yet most critics of capitalism deplore these things rather than deny that they are true.不过,约翰逊最具争议的话还是有关不平等的言论。他说:“一定程度的不平等对于保持嫉妒心是十分必要的。和贪婪一样,攀比是对经济活动的一种宝贵刺激。”大多数资本主义的批评者谴责这类说法,但并不否认它们说的是事实。Where Mr Johnson is wrong is in suggesting social mobility is what makes inequality tolerable. If medieval peasants did not resent the wealth of the king, it was not because they could imagine themselves as king but because they could not. Political agitation came from those who might be king. Social unrest increased when education and economic change enabled people to aspire to a lifestyle that most could not, in fact, achieve.约翰逊的错误之处在于,他暗示社会流动性令不平等成为一种可容忍的事情。如果说中世纪的农民不憎恨国王的财富,那并不是因为他们能够想像自己有称王的那一天,而是因为他们不能这么想。政治上的骚动源自那些可能成为国王的人。当教育和经济变革令人们能够对多数人其实无法实现的生活方式产生渴望时,社会动荡就会加剧。Envy is, therefore, indeed both inseparable from economic progress and destructive of social cohesion. Some inequality is inevitable, and there seem to be three principal factors that make it more tolerable.因此,嫉妒实际上与经济进步和社会凝聚力的瓦解均有不可分割的关系。某些不平等是不可避免的,其之所以更可容忍,似乎是因为下面三个主要因素。Inequality is easier to accept if everyone is becoming better off. Recent dissatisfaction in Britain and the US is significantly attributable to the fact that, while some have grown much richer, median incomes have not increased. The criticism that the rapid economic growth of China and India has been accompanied by rising inequality is mainly made from outside these countries.首先,如果每个人的境遇都在改善,不平等就更容易被人接受。最近英国和美国国内的不满情绪主要归因于一个事实:尽管有些人的财富大幅增长,国民收入中值却没有上升。相比之下,中国和印度经济快速增长的同时不平等也在加剧,而对这种现象的批评却主要来自这两个国家以外。Inequality is easier to accept if the beneficiaries have benefited people other than themselves. Bill Gates’s extraordinary wealth causes little resentment because he is associated with technological innovations that have transformed business and personal life. Financiers rarely attract similar approval because – sometimes rightly, sometimes wrongly – they are suspected of appropriating wealth created by others rather than engaging in genuine wealth creation.其次,如果不平等的受益者给他人带来好处,而不是只给自己带来好处,这种不平等也更易被接受。比尔#8226;盖茨(Bill Gates)的巨额财富几乎没有引起什么不满情绪,因为人们把他与技术革命联系在一起,而技术革命彻底改变了商业面貌和个人生活。金融家很少得到类似的认可,因为人们怀疑他们窃取了他人创造的财富,而不是参与了真正的财富创造——这种怀疑有时候是正确的,有时候却并非如此。And inequality is more tolerable if its beneficiaries behave well. Mr Gates has chosen to devote his Microsoft fortune and his time to philanthropy rather than fly in entertainers and exotic foods for lavish parties. Investor Warren Buffett famously lives in the Omaha bungalow he purchased 50 years ago.最后,如果不平等的受益者举止得当,人们对不平等的容忍度也会更高。盖茨选择把他的微软(Microsoft)财富和他的时间都奉献给慈善事业,而不是用飞机运送艺人和异国美食,来举办奢侈的聚会。投资家沃伦#8226;巴菲特(Warren Buffett)出名的事情则是他一直居住在自己50年前购买的奥马哈平房里。Mr Johnson knows these things. When he muses on whether the widening income gap is the result of “boardroom greed or, as I am assured, the natural and God-given talent of boardroom inhabitants”, he makes clear which side he is on. When he refers to teddy bear braces and young people driving Porsches, it is not with approbation. And when he hopes, somewhat optimistically, that “this time, the Gordon Gekkos of the world are conspicuous not for their greed as for what they give and do for the rest of the population”, he correctly identifies the moral issue at the heart of London’s role as a financial centre.对于这些情况,约翰逊心知肚明。当他沉思自问收入差距的扩大是源自“高管们的贪婪,还是像我相信的那样,源自高管们天生、天赋的才干”时,他已表明了自己是站在哪一边的。当他提到泰迪熊背带和开着保时捷(Porsche)的年轻人时,他并不是表示对这些现象的认可。当他带着些许乐观情绪希望“这一次,全世界的戈登#8226;盖柯(Gordon Gekko)们不是因他们的贪婪、而是因他们给予他人的东西和为他人做的事而引入注目”时,他正确地认识到了伦敦金融中心角色的核心是道德问题。 /201312/269916North America is likely to be a net exporter of liquid fuels in the next decade, as production grows while demand in the US and Canada stagnates, according to ExxonMobil, the world’s largest listed oil company.全球最大的上市石油公司埃克森美孚(ExxonMobil)表示,随着北美产量增长,而美国和加拿大需求停滞,北美可能在未来十年成为液态燃料的净出口地。It is the first time the company has made the forecast, following an upward revision of its expectations for North America’s oil production as a result of the boom in shale oil from formations such as the Bakken of North Dakota and the Eagle Ford of south Texas.这是埃克森美孚首次做出上述预测。此前由于北达科他州的巴肯页岩(Bakken Shale)和得克萨斯州南部的鹰福特(Eagle Ford)等区块的页岩油产量大幅增长,该公司上调了对北美石油产量的预测。Exxon predicted in its latest annual energy outlook, published yesterday, that exports of oil and related liquids from the US, Canada and Mexico would exceed imports after around 2020, thanks to rising output of shale oil, heavy crude from Canada’s oil sands, and natural gas liquids such as ethane.埃克森美孚在昨日发布的最新年度能源前景展望中预测,得益于页岩油、从加拿大油砂提炼的重质原油以及乙烷等天然气液的产量增长,美国、加拿大和墨西哥的石油和相关液态燃料出口将在2020年左右之后超过进口。It reflects the company’s argument that tight US restrictions on foreign sales of crude oil, in place since the 1970s, will have to be eased.这反映出该公司的一个观点,即美国将不得不放松自上世纪70年代出台的针对原油出口的严格限制。Bill Colton, vice-president of strategic planning, said economic logic pointed to US crude exports being liberalised in the next few years, and if the government blocked those sales it would hold back growth of North American production.埃克森美孚负责企业战略规划的副总裁比尔#8226;科尔顿(Bill Colton)表示,从经济逻辑来看,美国将在今后几年放开原油出口限制,因为如果美国政府阻止这些出口销售,就会抑制北美产量的增长。Exxon also predicted restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions that would have the same impact as a price on emitted carbon dioxide of about a tonne in the US and the EU and about a tonne in China by 2040.埃克森美孚还预计将有限制温室气体排放的措施出台,其效果将相当于对二氧化碳排放收费——到2040年在美国和欧盟相当于每吨收费约80美元,中国每吨约40美元。It expects global carbon dioxide emissions to peak around 2030 and decline 5 per cent over the following 10 years, as coal is replaced for power generation by gas, nuclear and renewable energy.该公司预计,随着煤炭发电被天然气、核能和可再生能源发电代替,全球二氧化碳排放将在2030年左右达到峰值,并在随后的十年里下降5%。The principal theme is that demand for energy, including oil, has peaked in developed countries, but will continue to rise strongly in emerging economies as the “global middle class” grows from about 2bn to about 5bn people.该公司的主要观点是,包括石油在内的能源需求在发达国家已达到峰值,但随着“全球中产阶级”数量从大约20亿人增长至大约50亿人,能源需求在新兴经济体仍会继续强劲增长。Energy efficiency improvements are expected to curb demand as the world economy grows: Exxon expects there will be twice as many cars in the world in 2040, but they will use only the same amount of petrol and diesel because they will be twice as fuel-efficient.能效改善有望遏制能源需求随着世界经济增长而增长:埃克森美孚预计到2040年全球汽车数量将会增长一倍,但由于能效提高一倍,它们的汽油和柴油使用量不变。Demand is expected to rise, however, for other types of transport, particularly road freight, and Exxon expects the world to be using 115m barrels of oil per day in 2040, up from 89m b/d last year.然而,预计其他运输方式(特别是公路货运)的需求将会增长,埃克森美孚预测全球在2040年的原油使用量为1.15亿桶/日,而去年是8900万桶/日。Environmental groups criticised the forecasts for reflecting policy objectives. Exxon said their main use is as a framework for its investment decisions.环保集团批评这些预测反映政策目标。埃克森美孚表示,它们的主要用途是作为其投资决策框架。 /201412/348058

China’s politicians have legitimate historical reasons for expecting the industrialised West to take the lead on dealing with climate change. China is responsible for only 11% of past emissions while the West has flourished from centuries of burning fossil fuels.从历史角度看,中国官员们有理由期望已经高度工业化的西方带头解决气候变化问题。中国只占全球历史总排放量的11%,而西方已通过几个世纪的化石燃料使用实现了繁荣。However, China is now the main decider on the future global temperature and climate of the world, whether it likes it or not.然而,无论中国乐不乐意,它都已成为未来全球气温和气候的主要决定因素。UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon this week invites World Leaders to New York to break the deadlock on negotiating what to do about the international challenge of climate change. This is why my colleagues and I have published our latest annual update on the global carbon budget, to help focus minds. You can view the carbon budget like the housekeeping budget. How much carbon did all countries of the world last year spend, or emit to the atmosphere, and how much have we left to avoid dangerous climate change?联合国秘书长潘基文(Ban Ki-Moon)本周邀请世界各国领导人访问纽约,以期打破全球在应对气候变化问题上的谈判僵局。为此,我和我的同事们发布了最新的年度全球“碳排放预算”报告,希望能帮助大家厘清思路。你可以把“碳排放预算”想象成家庭开预算——全世界所有国家去年花掉了多少预算(或者说向大气中排放了多少二氧化碳)?若要避免危险的气候变化,还有多少预算可以花?We show that measured as CO2 pollution instead of GDP, China is the leading global industrialist. China is not a developing country. In 2013, China put 10 billion tonnes of CO2 pollution into the atmosphere, almost one third of global emissions.我们的报告显示,若不以国内生产总值(GDP)、而以二氧化碳污染量来衡量,中国已是全球主要的工业国家之一,而不再是“发展中国家”。2013年,中国向大气中排放了100亿吨二氧化碳,占全球总排放量的近三分之一。China has been the largest emitter of CO2 pollution since 2006 when it overtook the US. Emissions in China now exceed the combined emissions of the US and Europe. If trends continue along the current trajectory, by 2019 China’s emissions will overtake the US, Europe and India combined.中国的二氧化碳排放量在2006年超过美国,自那以来,中国一直是全球最大的碳排放国。中国的碳排放量如今已超过美国和欧洲的总和。按现在的趋势发展下去,到2019年,中国的碳排放量将超过美国、欧洲和印度的总和。With China’s per capita emissions now larger than those of Europeans and 45% above the world average, it is difficult to argue against a leadership role for China in solving the international stalemate in climate negotiations, even when considering its lower GDP and the fact that 16% of Chinese emissions are from goods manufactured for elsewhere.中国的人均碳排放量如今已超过欧洲,是世界平均水平的1.45倍。即便是考虑到中国人均GDP水平仍然较低、以及中国有16%的碳排放源于为其他地区生产商品,也很难再继续坚持一个主张,即中国无须在打破气候谈判僵局中扮演主要角色。Construction of infrastructure is the major driver of China’s rapid economic and emissions growth. Our global carbon budget shows that emissions from existing infrastructure will lead China and the US to exceed their fair access to the remaining CO2 emissions a on a world per-capita basis. This a is necessary to keep climate change below two degrees warming above pre-industrial temperatures, a limit that is widely supported by scientists and policymakers around the world, including in China.基础设施建设是中国经济增长的主要驱动力,也是碳排放量迅速增长的主要原因。我们的统计显示,在中国和美国,来自现有基础设施的碳排放,会导致这两国的排放量超过它们在全球剩余人均碳排放配额中应占的比例。各国科学家和政策制定者——包括中国在内——普遍认同一点:全球气温上升,应以高出前工业时代的气温2摄氏度为限,而要将气温保持在这一限度内,就必须实施这样的配额。The CO2 emissions a, which gives the world a 66 per cent chance of remaining below 2 degrees is only about one third of that total emitted so far. At current emissions this means that there is just one generation (30 years) before the safeguards to a two-degree limit may be breached.如遵循这一配额,全球气温有66%的几率不超过上述2摄氏度的上限。而这一配额的总量,仅相当于迄今全球二氧化碳总排放量的三分之一。按照现在的排放速度,或许仅仅再有一代人的时间(30年),2摄氏度的上限就会被打破。The global costs of climate change will be borne locally – more flooding and coastal storm surges, more droughts, strains on food production and health. The benefits of cutting carbon emissions are also regional and local, particularly in the case of China.全球气候变化的代价,通常会由一些局部地区承担——那里会出现更多的洪涝灾害、台风和旱灾,对食物生产和人类健康构成挑战。同样,削减碳排放的好处也更多体现在局部地区,特别是就中国而言。Over 1 million deaths can be attributed each year to severe air pollution in China, said the Lancet Medical Journal. Children and old people are most at risk. Achieving ambitious targets for cutting carbon emissions means less air pollution.《柳叶刀》(Lancet)称,中国每年有逾100万人因严重的空气污染死亡。儿童和老年人面对的风险最大。如果中国能实现艰巨的减排目标,意味着空气污染将大幅缓解。Burning cheaper low-grade coal is more polluting. Coal burning in 2010 produced 3 million tonnes of microscopic particulates and 20 million tonnes of sulphur dioxide emissions that penetrate deep into lungs and the blood stream. These fine particles are classified a Group 1 carcinogen by the cancer agency by the World Health Organization.燃烧较便宜的低品位煤炭会造成更大的污染。2010年,中国燃煤排放了300万吨粉尘和2000万吨二氧化硫。这些精细粉尘会渗入人的肺部和血液中,被世界卫生组织(WHO)归为1类致癌物(Group 1 carcinogen)。Premier Li Keqiang in March declared “war against pollution and fight it with the same determination we battled poverty”. Action to fight air pollution, if well designed, also fights climate change and vice versa.今年3月,中国总理李克强曾宣称:“我们要像对贫困宣战一样,坚决向污染宣战。”其实,设计良好的抗污措施,也能有效地缓解气候变化,反之亦然。China could also lead the rest of the world in showing the world how to slash emissions. China has made energy efficiency progress at a scale unequalled anywhere else, but not fast enough. CO2 emissions in China doubled in the past ten years because of surging economic growth fuelled by coal. China currently aims to cut the equivalent of 3 billion tonnes of CO2 in efficiency improvements for the five years to 2015, the same as 60% of US emissions at 2010 levels, but this does not match the scale of Chinese emissions and the urgency of the climate problem.中国还可以起到表率作用,向世界展示如何减排。中国在提高能源使用效率方面取得的进步,超过了其他所有地区,但它进步的速度仍不够快。中国经济增长高度依赖燃煤,过去十年二氧化碳排放量翻了一番。目前,中国的目标是,在截至2015年的5年内,通过提高能源使用效率,将二氧化碳等价排放量减少30亿吨,这相当于美国2010年排放量的60%。不过,这一目标,与中国碳排放的规模、以及气候问题的紧迫性并不相称。China also deploys new technology and penetrates domestic and international markets at speeds unequalled in the West. It leads the world in renewable energy, investing more than one-fifth of the global total for 2012. In 2011, installed renewable capacity was aly twice the US. China#39;s wind turbines and hydropower stations are the world#39;s most productive. A binding international agreement on climate change instantly creates for China a global market for its low carbon technologies.在国内外市场中推广和运用新技术方面,中国的力度也是西方无法比拟的。中国在可再生能源领域的投资领先全球,2012年占全球总投资的五分之一以上。2011年,中国可再生能源装机容量已是美国的两倍。中国风力发电机组和水力发电站的发电量为全世界最高。一旦世界各国在气候变化上达成具有约束力的协议,就立刻会为中国的低碳技术创造一个全球市场。There are many long term economic advantages to implementing a low carbon future in China, with co-benefits to energy security, water security, food security, and therefore human security. In turn, ignoring the rise in global and local carbon emissions threatens access to sufficient food and water, human health and wellbeing and the long-term prosperity of China.一个更为低碳的中国,长期而言能带来许多经济益处,同时能提高能源安全、水资源安全、食品安全,从而有益于人类自身的安全。反过来说,如果忽视全球和中国国内碳排放的增长,将威胁到人类对充足的食品和水的获取、人类的健康和幸福、以及中国的长期繁荣。The global leadership of China is crucial for an international agreement in New York on climate change and the deployment of its low carbon technologies and market knowhow is essential around the world. Strong collective political action on climate change could bring China’s development journey to a new path of cleaner air and energy efficiency. The race is on for China to decouple economic growth from fossil fuel burning. The benefits are immediate for current citizens and for generations not yet born.要想在纽约峰会上就气候变化问题达成国际协议、在全球推广中国的低碳技术和市场经验,中国必须担当起带头人的角色。各国领导人们在抗击气候变化上更加坚定、协调一致,就能将中国的发展引导至一条更清洁、更高效的道路。对中国来说,现在就该加速让经济增长摆脱对化石燃料的依赖。这会给中国带来立竿见影的好处,不论对现在的中国人,还是未来几代人而言。Professor Corinne Le Quéré is an international authority in assessing carbon sources and sinks with the Global Carbon Project. She is Professor of Climate Science and Policy at the University of East Anglia, Director of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research and a regular visitor to the Tyndall Centre at Fudan University in Shanghai.作者科琳娜#8226;勒凯雷(Corinne Le Quéré)是全球碳计划(Global Carbon Project)组织评估碳来源和去向方面的国际权威。她是东英吉利大学(University of East Anglia)气候科学与政策研究教授、廷德尔气候变化研究中心(Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research)主任、复旦大学(Fudan University)廷德尔中心(Tyndall Centre)定期访问人员。Professor Dabo Guan is an expert in climate change economicsand policy. He is a Lead Author of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Assessment on Mitigation and a winner of the Philip Leverhulme Prize for outstanding scholars at an international level. He is joining the University of East Anglia as Professor of Climate Change and Development.作者关达是一位气候变化经济学与政策研究方面的专家。他是联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)《第三工作组评估报告:减缓气候变化》(Assessment on Mitigation)的主要作者之一。 /201409/331769

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