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2018年09月26日 02:58:16 | 作者:健康新闻 | 来源:新华社
Much information about the patriarchal commune is documented in Chinese literature, like the Records of the Grand Historian and the Bamboo Annals.《史记》、《竹书纪年》等中国古文献中记载了许多有关父系氏族社会的情况。At the early stage of it, some excellent chieftains appeared. Among them, the most distinguished ones are Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors.在早期父系氏族社会中,出现了一些杰出的部落联盟领袖,其中最著名 是“三皇五帝”。Though countries had not come into being at that time, these rulers were regarded as semi-mythical sage-kings and moral exemplars.虽然当时国家还没有出现,他们并非帝王,但在中国文化传统中,他们被视为圣贤明君。Tradition considers one of them, Huang Di, as the ancestor of the Chinese people.其中的黄帝被视为中华民族的祖先。 /201510/404396

Prevail of Taoism and Buddhism道教与佛教的盛行During the Northern and Southern dynasties, since most emperors believed in it, Buddhism grew rapidly despite the demolition incidents.南北朝期间,尽管存在拆除毁坏,佛教仍然发展迅速。Buddhism found a receptive audience in China, while the influence of Confucianism waned.当儒家思想的影响逐渐减弱时,佛教在中国被群众广为接受。During Northern Wei period, the rulers were the most generous patrons in both the north and south.北魏期间,帝王们是南北朝时期最慷慨的资助者。They took Buddhism as a nationwide religion in order to enforce his dominion.他们将佛教看作国教以加强自己的统治。In the north, large amounts of Buddhist caves and temples were built.在北方,佛教石窟与僧人寺庙被大量建立。Mogao Grottoes in today’s Dunhuang, Yungang Grottoes in Datong and Longmen Grottoes in Luoyang were three flourishing centers of Buddhist culture in its glory.今天敦煌的莫高窟,大同的云冈石窟和洛阳的龙门石窟是佛教灿烂的历史中三大繁盛的中心地区。Buddhist monastic establishment grew rapidly at that time.佛教修道院在那个时候也被迅速建立。By 477 there were reportedly 6478 Buddhist temples and 77258 monks and nuns in the north.据传,到477年,北方出现了6478座寺庙和77528为僧人尼姑。The south was said to have 2846 temples and 82700 clerics some decades later.据称南方在几十年后有2846座寺庙和82700位传教士。Emperor Wu of Liang had even contributed himself to experience as a Buddhist disciple in a temple for three times.凉武王甚至曾三次亲自到寺庙中体验佛教学徒的生活。In Jiankang (present Nanjing city in Jiangsu Province), Buddhist temples added up to 500 with 10000 monks.在建康(今江苏南京),寺庙数量增至500座,其中共有10000名僧人。Women turned to Buddhism as ily as men.女人和男人一样乐意投身于佛教。Originally one philosophy school of dozens schools in the Spring and Autumn Period, Taoism grew up into a religion in the late Eastern Han Dynasty (25—220 AD).道教起初是春秋时期拥有一些学院的哲学学派,东汉(公元25——220年)末年它成为了一种宗教。At first, it only gain the popularity among civilians and during the Jin Dynasty (265—420) it became a prevalence in the upper society一开始,它只在平民中受到欢迎,晋朝(265——420)时它在上层社会得到广泛流行,and in the succession of Northern Qi and Northern Liang, Taoism gained good graces of the ruler and once play a critical role in court.在之后的北齐和北凉道教得到了当权者的恩惠并一度在朝堂之上扮演重要角色。Taoist activities and ceremonies were held for worship purpose.道教活动和仪式被用来祭拜天神。 /201510/398425

Song Dynasty宋朝Northern Song Dynasty北宋In 959, following the death of Emperor Shizong who had been a wise monarch, a seven year old child succeeded to the throne as Emperor Gong.959年,英明的宋世宗驾崩后,7岁的高宗继承了帝位。In the next year, Zhao Kuangyin seized power and forced Emperor Gong to abdicate in his favor.一年后,赵匡胤夺取政权,逼迫高宗退位。Zhao took the name Taizu and established his capital city in Dongjing (present city of Kaifeng).赵匡胤自立为“太祖”并定都东京(今开封)。His first task was to ensure that there would be no further military coups and he did this by establishing a professional army loyal to the dynasty with its military com-manders under the strict control of the central government.他登基后的第一个任务就是确保不会再有任何兵变,他为此建立了一专业的朝廷军队,这些军队的将领受到了中央政府的严格控制。For the remainder of his reign, Taizu concentrated his efforts upon whining over the southern states.之后,太祖一直专注于收复南部的国家。Such was his success that by the time of his death in 976 apart from Zhejiang, Shanxi, Nanzhao and the area ruled by the Khitan, the country had come under Song#39;s control.截至976年他去世时,宋朝已经收回了除浙江、山西、南诏和契丹人控制的地区以外的区域。The activities of the warlords had been brought to an end.群雄并据的时代结束了。Taizu was succeeded by his brother, Taizong who brought Zhejiang and Shanxi back into the fold.太祖驾崩后,他的弟弟宋太宗继承了帝位,收复了浙江和山西。He was unsuccessful in his two attempts to drive out the Khitan and was forced to deal with them on equal terms.他两次驱逐契丹人的尝试都已失败告终并被迫与契丹签订了平等条约。From then on the Song Dynasty sought to defend its borders against invasion and unlike the Tang never ruled a universal empire.从那时起,宋朝一直试图抵抗来自边境的侵略,这使得它没能像唐朝成为一个世界雄国。Important steps were taken to strengthen the administration under the autocratic control of the emperor.皇帝采取了重要的措施来加强中央集权和独裁统治。These developments were supported by important changes in the recruitment to the bureaucracy and the running of the examination system.这些变化来源于官僚聘用制度和科举制的改变。The control over the military and the replacement of aristocratic power with something akin to a meritocracy brought about a stability that allowed the country to enjoy a period of prosperity due to the expansion of industry,commerce and agriculture.军队的管理以及替代了贵族统治的精英政治带来了国家的稳定,使国家可以因为工业、商业和农业的扩展而繁荣发展。These factors in turn led to the development of new cities as centers of administration, trade, commerce and industry.这些因素反过来又促进了以政治、贸易、商业和工业为中心的新兴城市的发展。The period of reforms lasted until the death of Emperor Shenzong in 1086.改革的时代一直持续到宋神宗驾崩时也就是1086年。 /201511/406459

After consolidating the sovereignty, Qi and the nobles began to enslave and exploit the people, and indulge in extravagant lives.当夏王朝的统治基本稳定之后,以启为首的贵族统治者肆意奴役和剥削广大庶民群众,过着骄奢淫逸的生活。When Qi died, Tai Kang succeeded to the throne. Like his father, Tai Kang sought ease and comfort, and did not care for state affairs, therefore the internal conflicts intensified and the rebellions occurred continuously.启死后,由其子太康继位,太康像其父 一样也沉湎于声色酒食之中,政事不修,促使内部矛盾日趋尖锐,外部四夷背叛。Initially, it was the rebellion of the king^ five brothers, then the insurgence of commoners.先有“五子”(太康的兄弟五人)争立,接着又有武观叛乱,百姓就借此展开了强烈的反抗斗争。Hou Yi, known as a good archer from the Youqiong clan of the Eastern Yi, witnessed the multiple conflicts. When Tai Kang went hunting for several months, he took the opportunity to command his troops and capture the capital Anyi ( the present-day Anyi County in Shanxi).东夷族有穷氏首领后羿看到夏王朝内部矛盾重重,藉太康外出狩猎数月不归之时,率兵夺取了都城安邑(今山西夏县西北)。TaiKang was unexpected to the accident, and couldn,t return home, so he had to exile and finally died in the foreign land.太康猝不及防,无法回归,只得流亡,最终死在异地他乡。After the victory, Hou Yi dared not to take the throne immediately. He made Zhong Kang, the younger brother of Tai Kang the King.后羿逐走太康取得胜利后,不敢马上取而代之,于是扶持太康的兄弟仲康继位。Zhong Kang was weak and became the puppet of Hou Yi.仲康懦弱,当了傀儡。When Zhong Kang died, his Son, Hou Xiang was on the run.仲康死后,其子相继位。Hou Yi thought it was the right time, then he drove Hou Xiang away and became the King.羿认为时机已到,遂把相赶走,自己登上王位。This is the so-called the lost of country by Tai Kang and the replacement of Xia by Hou Yi in history books.这就是史书上称作“太康失国”和 “后羿代夏”的故事。Shao Kang9s Restoration of Xia: Hou Yi was a fatuous ruler, too. The minister Hanzhuo took over power and killed him as well as his family members. Then, Hanzhuo ordered his son Jiao to kill Hou Xiang, who was taking refuge with the Zhenguan and Zhenxun clans.少康中兴:后羿也是昏君,大臣寒浞夺取王位,杀死后羿及其家人,并且下令他的儿子浇追杀相。被逐后的相投靠了斟灌氏、斟寻氏部族。Jiao defeated Zhenguan and Zhenxun clans and killed Hou Xiang.浇率兵打败了斟灌氏部族,杀死了相。Xiang#39;s wife, aly pregnant, avoided Jiao#39;searching and arrest, climbed through a hole in the wall and escaped to her parents, home of the Youreng tribe, where she later bore her son Shao Kang.此时,相的妻子已身怀有。她避开浇的搜捕,从墙洞中偷偷爬出去,投奔到娘家仍氏,并在那里生下儿子少康。Growing up in a hard condition, Shao Kang studied diligently and aspired to revenge.Eventually, with the help of his grandfather and the loyal tribes, he expelled the treacherous court official and his son, restoring the country.少康在艰苦的环境中长大,奋发努力学习,立志复仇雪耻。最终在外祖父的帮助以及忠心夏朝的部落持下,少 康驱逐杀死大逆不道的奸臣以及他的儿子,中兴夏朝。With the renaissance, Shao Kang was at pains to handle government affairs, sending army to beat off insurgent troops of minorities, expanding the territory, improving the political system and laying foundation for the prosperity of the Xia Dynasty.少康完成复国大业后,勤于政务,派遣军队打退少数民族叛军的侵扰,扩大疆土,进一步完善政治制度,奠定了 夏朝盛兴的基础。It was about 40 years from Taikang to Shao Kang.由太康到少康,经历了大约40年。The tortuous and complicated struggle illustrated that there were not only class struggles but also fights inside the ruling group as well when a state was founded.这一曲折而复杂的斗争事实说明,当国家开始建立的时候,就已存在着激烈的阶级斗争和统治集团内部的斗争。The Xia Dynasty could restore its dominion and gain further development, only because it had relatively solid social foundation.夏王朝因为拥有比较深厚的社会基础,才能恢复它的统治,并取得进一步的发展。 /201510/407414

Science tells us that life is better if you#39;re beautiful.科学告诉我们这是一个看脸的社会。You#39;re healthier, more persuasive, and people will just generally think you#39;re smart and trustworthy.如果你身体健康、能言善辩,人们就会觉得你很聪明、值得信赖。But turns out, you don#39;t have to hit the genetic lottery to become more attractive to the opposite sex.不过有研究发现,即使没有这些先天基因优势,你同样有机会受到异性的格外青睐。Thanks to a slew of studies on sex and attraction, we found 12 grooming tips, attitude adjustments, and other fixes for both men and women that are proven to make you more appealing.我们对性别与吸引力之间的关系进行了大量研究,发现下面这12个方法(包括自我修饰、心态调整等)能让你变得对异性更有吸引力。男女都适用哦。1. Keep those teeth pearly white.保持牙齿珍珠般亮白A study confirmed that a white and evenly spaced set of teeth make people seem more attractive.一项研究实,拥有一口洁白整齐的好牙,往往更具吸引力。The study, from researchers at the British universities of Leeds and Central Lancashire, found that teeth are ;the human equivalent of a peacock’s tail,; according to The Daily Mail.据《每日邮报》报道,英国利兹大学和中央兰开夏大学的研究人员发现,人的牙齿就如同孔雀的尾巴一样是吸引异性的法宝。They are a sign of health and good genetics that help select a mate.牙齿传递出健康和拥有优良基因的信号,对找伴侣至关重要。2. Eat your fruits and vegetables for glowing skin.多吃水果蔬菜,让你容光焕发Eating more fruits and vegetables is a natural way to make your skin look more attractive, a study from PLoS ONE showed.《公共科学图书馆·综合》发表的一项研究表明,多吃水果蔬菜,自然会让你的皮肤看起来更有吸引力。Fruits and vegetables are loaded with antioxidants and plant-based pigments, which give skin a healthy hue.水果和蔬菜本身含有多种抗氧化剂和植物色素,能让食用者拥有健康肤色。Plus, the results are instant. Participants in the study had rosier cheeks and healthier looking skin with just an increase of one portion of fruit and vegetables a day.另外,这种方法短时即可见效。研究参与者每天只多吃了一份果蔬,脸颊很快就红润起来,皮肤看上去也更好了。 /201601/422661

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