时间:2019年06月26日 02:31:44

Agriculture in the Eastern Han was more advanced than that of the Western Han, for iron farm tools and ox plough were popular, which was not only used in the central plain, but in the remote areas, like Gansu and Guangdong, as well.东汉时期的农业生产较西汉更有发展,这和铁农具、耕牛更加广泛的使用有密切关系。不仅中原地区在使用牛耕,远至甘肃、广东等边远地区也已使用牛耕。In most cases were two oxen drawing a plough, while occasionally one ox was used.大多数是二牛抬杠,也有少数用一牛的。In the earlier years of the Eastern Han, the government had attached importance to constructing water conservancy, in the reign of Emperor Ming, the noted specialist Wang Jing and Wang Wu organized the huge project to repair and harness the Yellow River and the Bianqu canal, in which hundreds of thousands of people were recruited.东汉初年,官府已注意水利的兴修。明帝时,命民间水利专家王景和将作谒者王吴主持修治黄河和汴渠,并为这项工程而征调数十万人。As a result, major breaks in the dykes or changes in the river course did not occur through the following 800 years.黄河经过这次整治后, 大约有800多年的时间,未再发生决堤改道之事。Many magistrates also paid attention to the local water conservancy.有些郡守县令也重视本地区的水利兴修。A lot of canals and ditches were rebuilt or dug, which contributed to the agricultural irrigation and water transport.沟渠的修复或开凿,对于农田灌溉和交通运输都起了很大的作用。Water power had been applied to the production activities in the early Eastern Han.东汉初年,各地已在利用水力进行生产。Besides the hydraulic water lifting devices, winnowers and water-powered mills were introduced, which raised efficiency by a wide margin.除先进的汲水工具外,风车、水磨坊亦投人使用,极大地提高了生产效率。Landlord manors came into being gradually in this period.东汉时期地主庄园逐渐形成。A landlord possessing a large-scale field was a manor landlord, while the manor county estate.拥有大范围田地的地主可称为庄园地主,庄园就是田庄。Manors included arable fields, mountain forests as well as rivers and pools, which were all in the possession of landlord.庄园中不仅有耕地,其中的山林川泽也为地主所霸占。Most of peasants on the manors were renders ,who engaged in agriculture or sideline activities under the instruction of landlords or his agents.在地主庄园内,绝大多数农民是地主的佃户。佃农们在地主或其手下的指挥下,从事农业或副业生产。The tenant farmers did not pay taxes to the state but only pay rental money to the landowner.佃户不必向国家交税,但要向地主交租。The farmsteads comprised not only the huge buildings for the living of the noble family but also farm buildings, mills and factories, which were surrounded by a wall that made the farmstead a small fortress.庄园中不仅有供贵族家庭居住的高大建筑,还有农舍,磨坊和作坊。庄园主筑起围墙将整个庄园围起来,使得庄园有如城堡一般。A few large estate owners also possessed a private army to defend their possessions.少数的庄园主还拥有武装,用以保护自己的私产。Generally speaking, a manor was a self-supporting economic unit in landlord economy.Salt-making, iron-smelting, bronze-casting, Lacquer wares and cloth-weaving were principle handicraft trades, most of which were privately running and superior in technology to that of the Western Han.东汉时期的重要手工业有煮盐、冶铁、铸铜、漆器、纺织等,以私营为主,生产技术都较西汉进步。The iron-smelting industry was kept freely.冶铁业自由经营。The state-owned one was engaged in the making of weapons, chariot and horse gears as well as other implements of production and living.国家或官府经营的冶铁业以制造国家或官府需要的兵器、车马具及其他生产、生活用具为主。To meet the demands of market, the private industry focused on the production of commodities, including farm tools, manual instruments and living appliances.民营的冶铁业以生产商品为主,以供市场上的需要。产品以农具、手工工具及生活用具为最多。Pottery objects found their way into the daily life of the common people as they were in the families of privileged aristocrats.陶器不再是达官贵族家中的稀罕之物,也开始进人寻常百姓之家。A great progress was made in the technique of smelting, like the invention of steel making at a low temperature.东汉的冶炼技术有很大的进步,发明了低温炼钢法。With the sp of this technology, steel was more popularized.这一技术的发明和推广, 使钢的使用更加普遍。Thus, iron and steel replaced bronze in making principal weapons like swords.于是,铁兵器如刀、剑等最后完全代替了铜兵器。With an enlarged planting of mulberry and hemp, sericulture, silk and flax fabrics weaving industries grew rapidly, and the weaving technology was also improved.东汉的桑、麻种植的范围比西汉扩大,养蚕和丝织业、麻织业都有很大的发展,纺织技术也有进步。Modern Shandong and Sichuan Provinces were the major producing area of silk.主要丝织品产地在今山东、四川等省。Business was booming, for the growth of agriculture and handicraft industry brought about more products in the Eastern Han Dynasty.东汉时期,由于农业和手工业的发展,商品较多,因之商业也在发展。In 40, Liu Xiu decreed to recast 5-zhu -coin with the abolition of the old currency, which got rid of the disordered currency and promoted the economic development.建武十六年(公元40年),刘秀下令重铸五铢钱,废除了一切旧币,消除了货币混乱的局 面,促进了商业的发展。Luoyang became the commercial center of the whole country. Other cities, such as Yangzhou (present Yangzhou City in Jiangsu Province), Jingzhou (present Shashi City in Hubei Province) ,and Yizhou (present Chengdu City in Sichuan Province) all witnessed prosperities in their handicraft industry and commerce. The urban population increased argely.洛阳成了全国商业中心,南方的扬州(今江苏扬州一带)、荆州(今湖北沙市一带)、益州(今四川成都一带)的手工业商业也都很兴旺,城市人口大量增加。During the reign of Emperor Zhang and Emperor He, silk from China was becoming familiar to people as far away as the Roman Empire. In return, China received variety of exotic goods.章帝、和帝统治时期,中国的丝绸已为罗马人所熟知,而大量的异域商品也不断涌人。The increasing transaction sped up the development of traffic.陆路与海外贸易的发展,促进了交通事业的发展。The thousand-mile-long plank road leading to economically important region of Ba Shu (modern Sichuan) was repaired many times, and many official roads were built, along which there were post stations to secure the safety of businessmen and travelers, provide accommodation and facilitate traffic.自关中通向巴蜀的千里栈道多次得到整治,又修筑多条官道。这些找道、大道的沿途,多筑有亭障、邮驿,以保卫商旅,安顿食宿,便利交通。 /201512/413043

A Silicon Valley venture capitalist, locked in a battle with the State of California over access to a prime stretch of beach that was popular with surfers, swimmers and fishermen before he bought it and closed it, has proposed a price to restore public access: million.硅谷一位风险投资人曾买下一片优质海滩,并将其关闭。在那之前,那片海滩颇受冲浪和游泳爱好者以及渔民的欢迎。这名投资人围绕这片海滩的使用权与加利福尼亚州陷入了持久的纠纷。如今,这位投资人为重新向公众开放海滩开出了价格:3000万美元。About eight years ago, Mr. Khosla, a founder of Sun Microsystems, snapped up a prime 53-acre parcel of Martins Beach for .5 million. The parcel, about four miles south of Half Moon Bay on the San Francisco Peninsula, includes the beach and the road. And for a century, California’s State Lands Commission said, the land had been a haven for the beachgoing public.大约八年前,太阳微系统(Sun Microsystems)公司创始人之一维诺德·科斯拉(Vinod Khosla)花3750万美元,买下了马丁斯海滩一块占地53英亩的优质地。该地块位于旧金山半岛半月湾以南约四英里处,包含海滩和一条路。加州土地委员会(State Lands Commission)称,一个世纪以来,那里一直是海滩爱好者的天堂。At first, Mr. Khosla let people use the beach, but in 2010 locked the gate on Martins Beach Road and posted guards.起初,科斯拉是允许公众使用那片海滩的,但2010年,他锁上了马丁斯海滩路上的大门,并部署了保安。Now, for the first time, lawyers for Mr. Khosla have proposed in negotiations with the state to restore public access for almost the amount that Mr. Khosla paid for the land.在就重新面向公众开放一事与加州政府开展谈判期间,这是科斯拉的代理律师首次提出,用一笔与科斯拉当初买地的价钱几乎相当的金额解决此事。But the commission’s executive officer, Jennifer Lucchesi, said in a telephone interview, “We do not agree with that value, and we believe the value is significantly less than that.” Ms. Lucchesi added, “We have not seen any backup documentation to support the million value.”但州土地委员会行政主管珍妮弗·卢凯西(Jennifer Lucchesi)在接受电话采访时表示,“我们不赞成这个价钱,我们认为那块地远不值这个价位。”她接着表示,“我们没看到任何补充性的文件,可以明那块地值3000万美元。”The commission planned to offer its own assessment, she said.她说,委员会计划给出一项自己的估价。The two sides are actually trying to agree on the value of a right of public use of Martins Beach Road, which leads from the highway to the beach, and access along the shoreline itself, Ms. Lucchesi said.卢凯西称,双方实际上是试图就马丁斯海滩路的公共使用权,以及让公众使用海滩的价格达成一致。马丁斯海滩路连接着一条公路和那片海滩。The talks were initiated under legislation that took effect in January 2015, she said. If the two sides cannot agree, the commission could resort to eminent domain, which allows the state to expropriate private property for public use.她说,谈判是根据2015年1月生效的一项法律进行的。若双方不能达成一致,该委员会可能会诉诸于国家征用权。后者允许政府征收私人地产用于公共用途。Mr. Khosla’s lawyer, Dori L. Yob, could not be reached for comment by telephone or email. But in her letter to the commission, dated Feb. 3, she said that Mr. Khosla’s limited liability companies, the legal entity that owns the property, closed the beach because demand was low, asserting that more than 10 cars showed up to use it only about 15 days a year.记者无法通过电话或电子邮件联系到科斯拉的律师多里·L·约布(Dori L. Yob)。但她在2月3日写给该委员会的一封信中表示,科斯拉名下的有限责任公司(即持有这处房产的法人),之所以关闭海滩是因为公众对其需求很低,称一年中去海滩的汽车超过10辆的时间只有大约15天。Ms. Yob said that while the current real estate market value of the land was million, the Martins Beach owners previously offered less expensive solutions to meet the “limited demand” for access as a way to avoid lengthy litigation and further expenses.约布称,这块地在当前的房地产市场上的价格是3000万美元,但马丁斯海滩的业主过去为满足公众对海滩的“有限需求”而提供的解决方案,成本没有现在这么高,这样做是为了避免漫长的诉讼和进一步的花销。“The cost to acquire the property is significant and should be weighed against the benefits,” she wrote. “There is no vital link to navigable waters at issue. There is not a significant demand for access to the property.”“买下这块地的成本较高,应对其效益加以衡量,”她写道。“我们讨论的道路,不是连接通航水域的重要通道。对进入那片地区的需求并不大。” /201603/428686

JABUGO, Spain — On a vast farm dotted with oak and cork trees, about 350 pigs are enjoying the final weeks of a short but blissful life. They roam freely, sleep outdoors or shelter in spacious pigsties. Above all, autumn is when they get to feast all day on acorns recently fallen from the trees.西班牙哈武戈——在一座散布着橡树与栓皮栎的广袤农场上,有大约350只猪正享受着它们短暂却幸福的生命的最后几周。它们自由地漫步,在野外或宽敞猪舍的庇荫下安睡。最重要的是,秋季是它们终日饱食新近离枝的橡果的日子。“Pigs are known for eating everything, but when it comes to their favorite acorns, they are real connoisseurs and very selective — and the sweeter the acorn, the better,” said Juan Carlos Domínguez Lorenzo, 49, who was born on the farm and has been looking after its pigs since he was a teenager.“大家都知道猪不挑嘴,不过要说到它们最爱的橡果,这些猪可是十足的行家,非常挑剔——橡果是越甜越好,”胡安·卡洛斯·多明尼奎兹·洛伦佐(Juan Carlos Dominiguez Lorenzo)说。他今年49岁,在这座农场出生,从年少的时候就开始照养这里的猪只。The way these pigs of Spain’s Ibérico breed are fed and raised here is a far cry from how most meats are produced almost anywhere, making the cured ham a delicacy prized for its unique texture and taste, which is enhanced by the sweet and nutty flavor of the acorns the pigs eat.此处喂养这些西班牙伊比利亚猪的方式,和世界各地大部分肉类产品的生产过程有着天壤之别。这使得这种猪肉腌成的火腿以其独特的口感与味道而异常鲜美,又因为这些猪食用的橡果的那股甜美的坚果风味而更上一层楼。So when the World Health Organization, in a recent report, linked processed meats to colorectal cancer, the news came as an affront to many Spaniards, who have been eating cured hams produced this way for generations.世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)近来一份报告指出加工肉品与肠癌有关。消息一出,冒犯了不少西班牙人。世世代代,他们都吃着以这种方式腌制出来的火腿。Today, Spain’s Ibérico hams are increasingly sought after worldwide, particularly among Chinese consumers concerned about the safety of their own homegrown food.世人对西班牙伊比利亚火腿的追求在今日益发热烈,特别是那些对自家出产的食物有安全顾虑的中国顾客。“Spanish ham is a very unique product, but it’s also seen as healthy, which is a real asset when you’re selling to the Chinese,” said Oliver Win of Olivier Pacific Limited, a fine foods distribution company based in Hong Kong that imports the Cinco Jotas brand of Spanish ham.“西班牙火腿是非常特别的产品,人们也认为它有益健康,而和中国人作买卖的时候这是很有利的筹码,”永兴太平洋贸易公司的奥立弗·荣(Oliver Win)表示。这是一家位于香港的高级食材分销商,进口5J牌(Cinco Jotas)的西班牙火腿。Spain’s producers, in fact, took no small measure of umbrage at the World Health Organization’s attempt to lump their luxury ham together with cheaper products like processed sausages and hamburger meat.事实上,对于世界卫生组织竟然将他们的极品火腿与加工香肠、汉堡肉这类廉价商品混为一谈,西班牙火腿生产商的火气可不小。A single leg of the finest ham from Cinco Jotas — weighing almost 18 pounds — costs about 0 in Spain. (In the ed States, the price is about double.) Even the way the ham is sliced is considered something of an art form.单单一条5J牌最高档的腌火腿——重达18磅(约合8千克)——在西班牙的售价大约为670美元(约合4300元人民币)。(这个价格在美国还要翻上一番)。就连该怎么给这种火腿切片都被认为是一门艺术。“This ham is as natural as food can get — no added heavy metals, preservatives or colorings — and it comes from an animal that has built up muscle by eating the best food and exercising a lot in beautiful surroundings,” said José Gómez, the owner of Joselito, another top brand of ham. “There are thousands of products that present a higher cancer risk.”“这种火腿是再天然不过的食物了——没有添加重金属、防腐剂或染色剂——而且它来自一种摄取顶级养分、在优美的环境中大量运动而锻炼出肌肉的动物,”另一个高级火腿品牌小何塞(Joselito)的老板何塞·戈麦斯(José Gómez)说。“还有数不清的食品的致癌风险更高呢。”With a passion for pork products, and rising incomes, the Chinese have entered the market for Ibérico hams with gusto, even while paying slightly more for Spanish ham than prices set for the American market. The next step, according to Spanish producers, is to get China to lift a cumbersome restriction that forces them to remove the bone from the leg.因着对猪肉类产品的热爱与收入的增加,中国人津津有味地进入了伊比利亚火腿的市场,即使他们得为了这些西班牙火腿付出比美国市场还要再稍高的价钱。根据西班牙生产商所言,他们的下一步是让中国取消强制他们给火腿剔除骨头的麻烦规定。In fact, the Chinese appetite for Spanish pork stretches all the way down its production chain, including innards that Spanish companies struggle to export to many Western countries.事实上,中国人对西班牙猪肉的胃口一路扩大到了生产链的所有环节,包括西班牙公司难以推销给众多西方国家的内脏类产品。Fresh pork exports to China from Spain — including heads, ears and other parts — rose 35 percent last year, making it the second-largest market in volume after neighboring France, according to figures from the Spanish Meat Export Office.西班牙肉类出口办公室(Spanish Meat Export Office)的数据显示,去年西班牙向中国出口的新鲜猪肉产品——包括猪头、猪耳朵和猪的其他部位——增长了35%,就出口量而言,中国已成为西班牙猪肉产品的第二大市场,仅次于临近的法国。Last year, Fosun, one of China’s largest financial and industrial conglomerates, bought a stake in the parent company of Cinco Jotas, one of Spain’s top brands of Ibérico ham, which is based in Jabugo.去年,中国最大的金融和工业集团公司之一复兴国际入股了5J的母公司,5J是西班牙顶级伊比利亚火腿品牌之一,其总部位于哈武戈。“We generally think that our culture is closer to that of America, but when it comes to ham, Chinese gastronomy is really in tune with ours,” Bernardino Rodríguez, the general director of Cinco Jotas, said during a tour of cellars where legs of ham are hooked from the ceiling and left to age.“我们通常认为,自己的文化和美国更接近,但说到火腿,中国美食文化的确和我们的更一致。”5J总裁贝尔纳迪诺·罗德里格斯(Bernardino Rodríguez)一边带领大家参观火腿储藏窖一边说,火腿被挂在地窖顶部,一直腌制到足够的年份。“I can’t think of anybody more capable of distinguishing between different qualities of ham than the Chinese,” he said.“我觉得,在分辨不同品质的火腿的差别方面,谁也比不过中国人,”他说。But the health and quality of the animals have also become a big driver of Chinese demand. Early this year, the Chinese police arrested more than 110 people who were accused of trafficking pork from diseased pigs.但动物的健康和品质问题也是促使中国人需求增加的一个重要因素。今年早些时候,中国警方还以走私病猪肉的罪名逮捕了110多人。“Many Chinese come and buy food in Hong Kong and have turned it into a parallel import market largely because of their safety worries about food in China,” Mr. Win, the importer, said.“很多中国人来香港买食物,将这里变成一个平行进口市场,这在很大程度上是因为他们对内地的食品安全存在担忧,”香港进口商奥立弗·荣说。Paradoxically, however, the same things that have lured the Chinese about the natural way the pigs here are raised, slaughtered and cured are some of the chief sources of tension between Spain’s producers and the ed States.然而,有些矛盾的是,这些火腿吸引中国人的地方,即这些猪在西班牙当地被饲养、屠宰然后进行腌制的方式,恰恰是西班牙火腿制造商和美国之间关系紧张的主要原因。Ibérico ham was banned in the ed States until about a decade ago over concerns about swine fever and traditional curing methods, and even today just a handful of Spanish slaughterhouses have been authorized to export to the ed States.直到大约十年前,伊比利亚火腿在美国还一直被禁,因为他们担心存在猪瘟隐患,也对那种传统腌制方法存有疑虑。而且即使到今天,也只有为数不多的西班牙屠宰场被允许向美国出口猪肉产品。 /201512/414131

文章编辑: 管优惠