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乌鲁木齐达坂城区玻尿酸隆鼻多少钱中医互动

2019年09月21日 12:40:14 | 作者:管新闻 | 来源:新华社
Why Does Altitude Cause Headache?为什么高海拔会引起头痛?Mountain climbers face many dangers as they brave the cold winds and icy slopes and jagged cliffs of the peaks they climb. But one of the most serious dangers they face is all in their heads–literally.当勇敢面对冷风,冰坡和参差不齐的悬崖时,登山运动员面临着很多危险。但是其中一个他们面临最严峻的危险就是他们的头。Why does altitude cause headache? Since the air is thinner, there is less oxygen in the blood, so blood flow to the brain increases. The extra blood can cause blood vessels to swell and tissues to press on the sensitive membrane that surrounds the brain, resulting in a headache.为什111么高海拔会引起头痛?随着大气越来越薄,血液中的氧气越来越少,因此流到大脑中的血液就会增多。多余的血会使血管膨胀,挤压敏感的在大脑周围细胞膜,导致头痛。But not everyone develops a headache at moderately high altitudes, partly because the low oxygen content of the air causes the climber to breath more often, forcing carbon dioxide out of the blood.但并不是每个人都会在适度的高海拔感到头痛,部分是由于大气中低氧引起攀登者常常喘不过气,驱使二氧化碳离开血液。The body reacts to the lowered carbon dioxide content of the blood by decreasing blood flow to the brain. An individual’s susceptibility to altitude-induced headache, as well as the severity of the headache, depends on whether the overall blood flow to the brain increases or decreases.血液中的二氧化碳少了,身体中流入大脑中的血液就会减少。一个个体对于海拔降低引起头痛的敏感性和头痛的严重性,取决于全面流入大脑中的血液是增多了还是减少了。At high altitudes, usually over 10,000 feet, an unrelated condition known as high-altitude cerebral edema, or HACE, can develop. HACE occurs when parts of the brain become waterlogged.在高海拔,常常超过3000米,一种不相关的高海拔脑水肿情况出现。当大脑的部分浸满水的时候脑水肿就会出现。Unlike altitude-induced headache, which occurs in over ninety percent of the people who ascend to 11,000 feet, HACE is a rare disorder. Characterized by mental confusion, hallucinations, and a drunken stagger, HACE is almost always fatal if descent is not immediate.当海拔超过3300米,90%的人会出现海拔降低的头痛,与此不同的是,脑水肿是一种罕见的混乱。其特征是精神混乱,幻觉和酒醉后的蹒跚。如果下降的不够及时,那么脑水肿几乎是致命的。 /201206/186436When Marmosets Think About Love小猴子表达如何爱狨猴(Marmoset),又称指猴,是生活在在南美洲亚马逊河流域的森林中的一种世界上最小的猴子。这种猴长大后身高仅10—12厘米,重80—100克。新生猴只有蚕豆般大小,重13克。这种猴子喜欢捉虱子吃,且性格温和,因此饲养它们便成了当地印第安人的嗜好。Marmosets are small primates. Think of a monkey with huge fuzzy ears. Primatologists have often wondered whether nonhuman males evaluated their potential mates, or whether their sex drive was more like an on/off switch.绒猴是很小的灵长类。试想一下,猴子长者一对大大的毛绒绒的耳朵。动物学家时常有这样的疑惑:雄性动物选择“另一半”或者控制性欲是否更像是一个开关键。We may think of animals as just responding to sexual invitations without thinking, but a study conducted in both the U.S. and Germany shows this isnt necessarily so. Male marmosets having their brains scanned were given sniffs of genital-gland secretions from ovulating females.我们也许会认为动物对于性邀请基本是不假思索的,但最近美国和德国有研究称事实并非如此。雄性绒猴用它们的大脑扫描,闻正在排卵的磁性动物生殖腺的分泌物。Thats a scent that should trigger a mating response in the brain, and it did! But guess what else happened? Many other brain areas lit up as well, such as memory formation, information integration–in other words, areas associated with decision-making.有一种气味会引起大脑里的交配反应,这样它们才会进行交配。但你猜还会发生什么情况?很多其它的大脑叶都会被“激活”,像信息形成,信息整合,也就是说,所有和决策相关的区域。Researchers are still studying the effect, but apparently a lot more happens in a marmoset brain than a simple “have sex now” program. The specific areas of brain activity suggest that the males are evaluating potential mates before agreeing to a sexual union.研究人员还在观察其影响,但很显然,绒猴的脑部有很多活动而不是一个简单的“性行为”指定。特定区域的大脑活动暗示雄性绒猴在性结合之前会评估潜在的交配对象。This makes special sense for marmosets, because they are monogamous and both partners raise the offspring. Under those circumstances you wouldnt want to enter into a relationship without any thought.这对于绒猴有特殊的意义,因为它们是单配制,并且共同抚养后代。在这种情况下,就不会不假思索地介入这段关系了。 /201209/199246

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