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可克达拉开韩式双眼皮多少钱乌鲁木齐注射瘦脸多少钱King Wu : When Chang, the son of Ji Li, was in the reign, the state had been powerful and prosperous, for he was benevolent and courteous, and many scholars went to Zhou.武王伐封:季历的儿子昌在位时,国富民强。昌,仁慈爱民,礼贤下士,天下士人都来投奔。Fearing for the prosperity of the Zhou, King Zhou of the Shang Dynasty imprisoned Chang in Youli for seven years.周的发展,使商纣感到威胁,于是将西伯昌囚禁于羑里7年。The Zhou people ransomed him with jewels and beauties. Hereafter, under the assistance of Lu Shang, Chang pretended to be obedient and make merry every day, but actually accumulated virtue ,pleasing common people, developing production, having more vassals submit to him and subduing hostile ones. Eventually, Chang controlled much of the world, and in the name of the Mandate of Heaven he proclaimed himself king, namely King Wen of Zhou. King Wen moved the capital to Fengyi (now on the west bank of Fengshui of Southwest of Chang^n county in Shaanxi).周人以珍宝和美女将西伯赎出,此后,在吕尚的辅佐下,昌表面上耽于游乐,对殷纣十分驯,实际上却更为积善修德,和悦百姓,大力发展生产,使更多的诸侯前来归附,进而征讨不驯的诸侯和商的盟国,自称王,即周文王,并将都城迁到丰邑(今陕西长安西南沣水西岸)。Nine years later, King Wen died, and his son came to the throne, Known as King Wu.9年后,周文王逝世,其子发继位,称武王。With Lu Shang as teacher, Duke Dan of Zhou, Zhao and Bi as assistants, King Wu continued his fathers unfinished cause.他继续以吕尚为师,周公旦为辅,召公、毕公等人为主要助手,继续文王未尽的事业。In 1048 , King Wu called in eight hundred vassals to have a meeting, making a pledge to conquer the Shang Dynasty at Mengjin.将都城扩至沣水以东的镐京(今陕西长安县境),积极作灭商的准备。公元前1048年,武王在孟津召集八百诸侯会师盟誓伐纣。Two years later, he led army to depart from Tongguan, allying various vassal states, and marching eastward. In the next February, King Wu defeated the Shang forces at the battle of Muye; then established the Zhou Dynasty.两年后,文王兵出潼关,联合各方诸侯,挥师东向,于次年2月在牧野打败商朝的军队,建立了周朝。King Cheng (1042 ~ 1006): King Cheng was succeeded to King Wu.周公辅成王:武王死后,其子成王继位。However, King Cheng was young, and the Zhou Dynasty had just brought order to the empire. Duke Dan of Zhou was afraid that the patrician lords would rebel against Zhou, so he assumed the powers of a regent to administer the state.成王年少,天下初定,周公旦恐怕诸侯不,以王叔摄政。Guan Shu and Cai Shu, dissatisfied, together with, under the standard of Wu-geng, the son of the last Shang king Zhou, rose up in rebellion against the Zhou Dynasty.管叔、蔡叔不,与殷纣之子武庚,发动叛乱。Duke Dan of Zhou resolutely commanded the troops to launch on eastern expedition, which led to the deaths of Wu-geng and Guan Shu, and to the banishment of Cai Shu. Subsequently, he pacified the orient states.周公毅然率兵东征,平定了叛乱,诛杀了武庚和管叔,放逐了蔡叔,再相继平定了东方诸国。The unification was finally completed through the war.经过这次战争,周的统一事业才告完成。In order or to enhance the control over the east, Duke Dan of Zhou acted under the order of King Cheng, taking charge of the task of building Luoyi.为了加强对东方的统治,周公奉成王之命负责营建洛邑的工作。After the completion of the city, Duke Dan of Zhou installed Wei-zi Kai, a prince of Yin, as the clan leader of the Yin lineage and gave him a patrimonial estate in Song, the former capital of the Shang Dynasty. Then he rounded up many of the remnant people of Yin and presented them to his youngest brother Feng,who became the ruler of the land of Wei under the title Kang Shu.洛邑建成后,周公封降周的商贵族微子凯于商朝故都宋地;封武王少弟康叔于纣都,成立卫国,赐以殷国,赐以殷民六族。Thus, the remnants of the Yin had been split, who came to submit to the Zhou Dynasty gradually.这样,殷商余民已被分割,逐渐从于周朝的统治。Duke Dan of Zhou occupied the office of regent for seven years. When King Cheng came to age, Duke Dan of Zhou returned to him the reigns of government and faced north at court in the position of a minister.周公执政7年,成王成年后他就把政权交给成王管理,自己则面北称臣。Duke Dan of Zhou established the Rites of Zhou and created the Classic of Music, setting up various institutions and systems, which led to the establishment of the patriarch system.周公还制礼作乐,建立了周朝的各项典章制度,确立了以宗法制度为中心的政治体制。King Cheng had headed the troops to launch a punitive expedition on Dongyi tribes and ensured the stability of the eastern regions.成王曾亲自讨伐东夷,使东部得以安定。After the death of King Cheng, his son King Kang succeeded him to the throne. He carried on the cause of his farther, being diligent in the governmental affairs, amiable to the people. The penal punishment had never been used over the period of several decades, and the society was more stable.成王死后,继位的康王继承先王的事业,勤于政事,平易近民,刑罚几十年不用,社会更加安定。Guoren^ Uprising and the Period of Gonghe : In the later period of the Western Zhou, the social economy got a rapid development with mountains, forests, land and swamps exploited in certain degree.国人暴动与共和行政:西周后期,社会经济发展较快,山林川泽有所开发。When King Li was on the throne,he took over all of these natural resources in the vicinity of the capital and had them under the control of royal house. Therefore, the nobles of lower ranks were excluded from using them, and the common people were not allowed to enter these areas to cut wood, pick, go hunting and fishing.至厉王时,他把王畿以内的山林川泽收归王室控制,不许中小贵族利用,亦不准劳动 人民进人樵采捕捞。The measure led to a wide discon-tentment In response, King Li employed a shaman to watch over the public, and anyone who spoke against him was executed, which intensified the contradiction.厉王的这一措施引起人们的不满。他就派巫师监视,杀掉议论的人,使矛盾更为尖锐。In 841 , Guoren (also interpreted as freeman referring the common people living in the capital cities with a relatively high social status) could no longer tolerate his tyranny, and rose in armed revolt.至公元前841年,国人(居住在国都内的人的统称,多是平民,身份较高)发动暴动,反对周厉王。They attacked the royal palace and forced the king to flee.他们进攻王宫,厉王出逃。Then they surrounded the residence of Duke Zhao, where they got the news that Prince Jing, heir to the throne, was hidden. They compelled the Duke to hand over the prince.这时,有人听说太子静躲在大臣召公家里,他们又立即包围了召公的府邸,逼召公交出太子。At this critical moment, the Duke made his own son take the place of the prince, thus saving the heir who later became King Xuan.情急之下,召公只得将自己的儿子顶替太子交了出去,这才保住了太子的性命。太子静就是后来的宣王。Since King Li had run away, there was no monarch in the imperial court.厉王逃走后,朝廷里没有国王。After the discussion of ministers, a decision was made that the Duke of Zhao and the Duke of the Zhou took charge of the government temporarily. This period was called the gonghe,known as;Gong-He;.经大臣们商议,由召公和周公暂时代替厉王执掌朝政,史上称之为“共和执政”。The first year of the gonghe was 841 B.C. From that year on, we have accurate dates of recorded Chinese History.从共和元年,也就是公元前841年,中国历史上才有了确切的纪年。The uprising of guoren shook the foundation of the Zhou Dynasty. The contradiction between the royal the common began to surface, and the prestige of the dynasty declined gradually.“国人暴动”大大动摇了周王朝的统治基础,贵族与平民的矛盾浮出水面,周朝日趋没落。Teasing the Dukes with Beacon: The period of Gong-He lasted for 14 years when the despot King Li died in Zhi,where he lived after the flight.烽火戏诸侯:“共和执政”维持了 14年之久,暴虐的周厉王终于在逃亡地彘死去。The Dukes of Zhou and Zhao enthroned Prince Jing as King Xuan.周公和召公立太子静为王,即周宣王。In the first years of his rule, severe droughts occurred,but didn’t develop into a serious situation.周宣王统治前期曾发生严重的旱灾,所幸并未酿成大祸。Later King Xuan carried out wars against some neighboring tribes and states and won some battles, but was defeated eventually.宣王统治后期不断对周边国家和部落用兵。虽然打了几场胜仗,但还是已失败而告终。For a time during the reign of King Xuan, there were signs of revival for a time.宣王统治时期,周朝曾一度有所复兴。But the conflicts between the Zhou State and the neighboring people, the social contradiction in the Zhou-controlled areas were not resolved.但是周与周边国家的矛盾以及国家的内部矛盾并没有得到解决。Moreover, continuous wars consumed much of the dynasty^ manpower and material resources.此外,长期的战争更是消耗掉了国家大量的人力和物力。King You, who succeeded King Xuan, was a stupid, self-indulgent and cruel ruler.继宣王之后的幽王是个愚蠢、任性妄为的暴君。The existing contradictions grew worse.这时,王朝的危机更为严重。The struggle between big and small slave owners became sharper.Severe natural disasters like earthquake, landslide and drying up of rivers occurred one after another in Guanzhong, which compelled people to leave their homes and wander about.关中地区发生地震、山崩和河水枯竭等严重自然灾害,人民流离失所。Without comforting and compensating the bereaved people, King You became more extravagant, corruptive and insatiably avaricious.周幽王不仅不抚恤灾民,反而更加奢侈腐化,贪得无厌。In order to gain a smile of his favorite concubine Bao Si, he even had the signal fire lighted, deceiving vassals into rescuing the king.为了得宠妃褒姒一笑,幽王举 烽火欺骗诸侯前来勤王。The most serious issue was that he dismissed Queen Shen and the crown prince Yi Jiu; and made Bao Si queen and her son to the throne.最严重的问题是,幽王废了王后申氏和太子宜臼,另立褒姒为王后,立褒姒的儿子为太子。Marquise Shen,#39; father of Queen Shen, attacked the king in collaboration with the Quanrong tribe and other states.申后的父亲申侯于是联合西方部族犬戎以及其它国家,举兵攻打周幽王。As the vassals refused to send him reinforcements, King You was killed at the foot of Mount Li.由于各路诸侯不去救援,幽王被杀死在彌山脚下。Under the threat of Quanrong and their allies, the Zhou ruler had lost control over the old capital by 771 B.C.在犬戎和联军的威胁之 下,公元前771年,周王已无法控制旧都。In the following year, King You’s successor, King Ping, moved the capital to Luoyi with the support of some of the nobles and vassal.次年,在一些贵族和诸侯的持下,平王迁都洛邑。From this year, the dynasty is known as the Eastern Zhou.从这一年起,东周开始。The dynasty’power and prestige had declined sharply, and the history entered a new stage.东周的实力和影响力急剧下降,历史又步入了一个崭新的阶段。 /201511/407428五家渠做隆胸多少钱 Only about 8 percent of Americans doze off in their birthday suits, but many more should consider going to bed in the buff. In addition to not having to launder any jammies or crank up the A/C, there are some major, healthy benefits to snoozing au naturel:仅有约8%的美国人光溜溜地睡觉,但更多人应该考虑裸睡。裸睡除了让人们睡觉不用再穿睡衣或是开空调,还对身体健康有以下几大好处:1.You#39;ll sleep better.1.你的睡眠质量会更好。The body is wired to drop its temperature during shut-eye, and the process is necessary for quality sleep. Fuzzy pajamas can keep the body too warm, preventing you from achieving an optimal temperature. This can lead to tossing, turning and restlessness. Your skin works naturally with the rest of the body to cool down so you can drift off.闭眼时人的身体会运作,使得机体温度下降。而这一必要过程保了睡眠质量。穿有绒的睡衣睡觉,身体会太热,从而难以达到最佳温度。因此,你会不断地辗转反侧。(裸睡的话)你的皮肤会自然降低身体其他部位的温度,使你与周公相会。2.The skin-to-skin contact will relax you.2.亲昵的接触将放松你的身心。If you share a bed with your partner, the two of you can benefit from resting unrobed. Skin-to-skin contact can lower your blood pressure, decrease stress levels and really just make you happier.如果你和伴侣同床共枕,你俩皆能得益于裸睡。肌肤间亲昵的触碰会降低你们的血压,缓解紧张情绪,使两人世界更为甜蜜。3.You might even fall harder for your partner.3.你也许会更爱你的伴侣。A 2014 poll that surveyed about 1,000 married British people found that naked sleepers were most content in their relationships. Fifty-seven percent of people who sleep naked reported feeling happy in their relationships, while only 48 percent who sleep in standard PJs reported the same. Just 15 percent of those who sleep in onesies said they were satisfied with their partner. Moral of this story? Burn your onesies.2014年一项关于1000名英国已婚人士的调查发现,裸睡者对夫妻之间关系的满意度最高。而其中有57%称他们与配偶相处时感到幸福,而穿标准睡衣睡觉的人中仅有48%的人有这种幸福感。穿连体衣睡觉的人只有15%表示他们满意自己的伴侣。从中获得怎样的教训呢?烧了你的连体衣吧。4.You#39;ll get the chance to air out.4.你将让你的皮肤自由呼吸。Sleeping in underpants creates a warm, moist environment for bacteria and yeast to thrive. Snoozing in your birthday suit reduces the risk for yeast infections, among other ailments.穿内裤睡觉会营造温暖潮湿的环境,滋生细菌和酵母菌。裸睡能减少你于其他疾病中感染细菌的风险。 /201510/405144The Civil Aviation Administration of China has pledged to gradually loosen control over air carriers#39; ticket prices and administrative charges.中国民用航空总局近日表示,将逐步放开机票价格及行政性收费。The administration recently published a set of guidelines that aim to deepen the reform of China#39;s civil aviation industry. The guidelines vow to let the market, rather than the government, play a decisive role in the sector.总局最近公布了一系列指导方针,旨在深化中国民航业的改革。这些指导方针将会推行市场而不是政府决定价格的机制。Enterprises in the industry will have more freedom to determine charges for their services or products, and consumers will enjoy more options when they use air transportation, the administration said.航空总局表示,该行业中的部分企业将获得更多的自由,以规定他们的务或产品费用。消费者在利用航空运输时也会有更多的选择。Beginning next year, airlines will be allowed to determine the ticket prices for routes that the government defines as having competition among carriers. Starting in 2020, they will be allowed to decide the prices for all routes.2017年起,政府定义的已经形成竞争的国内航线将会允许航空公司自主定价。2020年起,国内所有航线客运票价将由航空公司自主制定。Currently, carriers can only determine the lowest price for their domestic flights. The highest price for such flights and prices for international services are controlled by the government.目前,航空公司仅有权决定其国内航线的最低票价,国内航线的最高票价以及国际航线票价需执行政府指导价。The move is the latest step taken by the CAAC as part of its efforts to ;marketize; the civil aviation sector.这项举措是由民航总局努力实现民航部门“市场化”的最新动作。 /201601/422340库尔勒做眼角除皱手术多少钱

乌市水磨沟区隆鼻手术多少钱The Republic of China中华民国Anti-Japanese War抗日战争Hungry for raw materials and pressed by a growing population, Japan initiated the seizure of Manchuria in September 1931 and established ex- Qing emperor Puyi as head of the puppet regime of Manchukuo in 1932.迫于人口增长的压力和对原材料的需求,日本在1931年9月夺取了东北三省,并胁迫前清末代皇帝溥仪建立了满洲国傀儡政府。The loss of Manchuria, and its vast potential for industrial development and war industries, was a blow to the Nationalist economy.东北三省沦陷,失去了其巨大的工业和军工发展潜力,极大打击了国民经济。The League of Nations, established at the end of World War I, was unable to act in the face of the Japanese defiance.The Japanese began to push from south of the Great Wail into northern China and into the coastal provinces.一战结束后建立的国际联盟,在面对日本的挑衅时无所作为,日本便开始从长城以南向中国北部和沿海省份推进。Chinese fury against Japan was predictable, but anger was also directed against the Guomindang government, which at the time was more preoccupied with anti-Communist extermination campaigns than with resisting the Japanese invaders.中国人对于日本的愤恨是可以理解的,但愤怒一样针对国民党政府,后者在当时更专注于反共运动而非抗击日本侵略者。The importance of “internal unity before external danger” was forcefully brought home in December 1936, when Nationalist troops (who had been ousted from Manchuria by the Japanese) mutinied at Xi’an.直到1936年12月,被日本从东北驱逐的国军在西安发动兵变,使国民党确立了“停止内战,一致抗日”的重要思想。The mutineers forcibly detained Chiang Kai-shek for several days until he agreed to cease hostilities against the Communist forces in northwest China and to assign Communist units combat duties in designated anti-Japanese front areas.叛变者强行扣留了蒋介石好几天,直到他答应停止对中国西北共产党军队的敌对行为,并在抗日前线地区给共党部队分配作战任务。The Chinese resistance stiffened after July 7, 1937, when a clash occurred between Chinese and Japanese troops outside Beijing (then renamed Beiping ) near the Marco Polo Bridge.1937年7月7日,中日军队在北京(当时叫做北平)外的卢沟桥发生冲突,中国开始全面抗日。This skirmish not only marked the beginning of open, though undeclared, war between China and Japan but also hastened the formal announcement of the second Guomindang-CCP united front against Japan.卢沟桥事变不仅标志着日本侵华战争的开始,还加速了国共第二次合作关于建立统一战线的正式声明。The collaboration took place with salutary effects for the beleaguered CCP.合作给身处合围中的共产党带来了好处。The distrust between the two parties, however, was scarcely veiled.然而双方却毫不掩饰对对方的不信任。The uneasy alliance began to break down after late 1938, despite Japan’s steady territorial gains in northern China, the coastal regions, and the rich Chang Jiang Valley in central China.1938年底,尽管日本不断占领中国北部、沿海区域和中部富饶的长江流域,两党不稳定的联盟最终还是土崩瓦解。After 1940, conflicts between the Nationalists and Communists became more frequent in the areas not under Japanese control.1940年以后,在非沦陷区国共军队的冲突更为频繁。The Communists expanded their influence wherever opportunities presented themselves through mass organizations, administrative reforms, and the land- and tax-reform measures favoring the peasants while the Nationalists attempted to neutralize the sp of Communist influence.共产党抓住一切机会通过群众组织、行政改革和土地税收改革帮助农民,扩大其自身的影响力,国民党则试图消除共产主义思想的传播。At Yan’an and elsewhere in the “liberated areas”, Mao was able to adapt Marxism-Leninism to Chinese conditions.在延安和其他“解放区”,毛泽东找到了一条适合中国现状的马克思列宁主义。He taught party cadres to lead the masses by living and working with them, eating their food, and thinking their thoughts.他教育党员干部们想要领导人民,必须和他们生活工作在一起,食其所食,想其所想。The Red Army fostered an image of conducting guerrilla warfare in defense of the people.红军因此被树立成打游击战,保卫人民的形象。Communist troops adapted to changing wartime conditions and became a seasoned fighting force.他们适应战时环境变化,成为了一经验丰富的军队。Mao also began preparing for the establishment of a new China.毛泽东也着手构建新中国的蓝图。In 1940 he outlined the program of the Chinese Communists for an eventual seizure of power.His teachings became the central tenets of the CCP doctrine that came to be formalized as Mao Zedong Thought.1940年,他规划了一条帮助共产党获得政权的路线,他的学说也被编入了中国共产党党章,并被归纳为毛泽东思想。With skillful organizational and propaganda work, the Communists increased party membership from 100 000 in 1937 to 1.2 million by 1945.由于卓有成效的宣传和组织工作,共产党党员数量从1937年的10万人增加到1945年的120万人。In 1945 China emerged from the war nominally a great military power but actually a nation economically prostrate and on the verge of all-out civil war.1945年,中国名义上通过战争展现出强大的军事力量,然而事实上,国家经济萎靡,全国处在内战的边缘。The economy deteriorated, sapped by the military demands of foreign war and internal strife, by spiraling inflation, and by Nationalist profiteering, speculation, and hoarding.因为外部战争和内乱,通货膨胀和国民党政府内部提高物价,囤积居奇,经济情况持续恶化。Starvation came in the wake of the war, and millions were rendered homeless by floods and the unsettled conditions in many parts of the country.国家有数百万人因为洪灾和不稳定局势无家可归,饿殍遍野。The situation was further complicated by an Allied agreement at the Yalta Conference in February 1945 that brought Soviet troops into Manchuria to hasten the termination of war against Japan.1945年2月雅尔塔会议使局势愈加复杂,苏联军队进驻满洲国,加速了抗战结束的脚步。Although the Chinese had not been present at Yalta, they had been consulted; they had agreed to have the Soviets enter the war in the belief that the Soviet Union would deal only with the Nationalist government.尽管中国无人出席该会议,但是他们的意见被转达,同意苏军介入战争,因为国民党坚信苏联只会和他们合作。After the war, the Soviet Union, as part of the Yalta agreements allowing a Soviet sphere of influence in Manchuria, dismantled and removed more than half the industrial equipment left there by the Japanese.战争结束后,作为雅尔塔协定的一部分,苏联拆除转移了日本留在满洲的超半数工业设备,并获准保留对于满洲国的部分控制。The Soviet presence in northeast China enabled the Communists to move in long enough to arm themselves with the equipment surrendered by the withdrawing Japanese army.由于苏军驻扎在东北,共产党军队有足够时间装备投降日军的武器。The problems of rehabilitating the formerly Japanese-occupied areas and of reconstructing the nation from the ravages of a protracted war were staggering, to say the least.可以这么说,恢复沦陷区和重建受旷日持久战争影响的国家困难重重。 /201601/412298乌鲁木齐隆下巴的价格 Being “fat” is the most common reason children are bullied, and something needs to be done about it.“胖”是致使孩子受欺负的最常见原因,对此,我们亟需做些什么。That is the predominant view of thousands of adults from four different countries who, when asked why children are bullied, said the most common reason was not race, religion, physical disability or sexual orientation, but weight. Nearly three-quarters of respondents said that schools and anti-bullying policies need to address the issue, with many calling it a “serious” or “very serious” problem.研究人员调查了来自四个不同国家的上千名成年人后发现,受访者中的主流观点是:最容易害得孩子被欺负的原因不是种族、宗教、身体残疾或者性取向,而是体重。近四分之三的受访者认为,学校和反欺凌政策应解决这一问题;很多人都称它已达到“严重”或“非常严重”的程度。Yet most state anti-bullying laws don’t protect overweight children, said Rebecca Puhl, deputy director of the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity at the University of Connecticut in Hartford and the lead author of the report, the first cross-national study investigating weight-based bullying, published in Pediatric Obesity.该论文发表在《小儿肥胖症》杂志(Pediatric Obesity)上,它是首个调查因体重引起的欺凌案件的跨州研究。其主要作者,康涅狄格大学哈特福德校区(University of Connecticut in Hartford)的路德食品政策与肥胖中心(Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity)的副主任丽贝卡·普尔(Rebecca Puhl)指出,可惜,大多数州的反欺凌法案并没有对超重儿童作出保护。There are no federal laws that guarantee equal treatment of people who are overweight or obese.目前尚无任何联邦法律可保障超重或肥胖者的平等待遇。“It is actually legal to discriminate on the basis of weight, and that sends a message that bias, unfair treatment or bullying of overweight children is tolerable,” Dr. Puhl, a professor of human development and family studies at UConn, said.康涅狄格大学人类发展和家庭研究教授普尔士指出,“这实际上等于承认体重歧视合法,它传达出这样一条讯息:心存偏见,不公平地对待甚至欺凌超重儿童都是可以被容忍的。”As obesity rates have risen, she said, so much emphasis has been placed on taking personal responsibility for body weight and changing behaviors “that there is a perception that these youth are somehow to blame for their weight and in some way deserve this treatment.”她还说,随着肥胖率的上升,人们太过于强调体重问题应归咎于个人原因,以及肥胖者需要改变自己的行为,“以致形成了这么一种看法,认为在某种程度上,是这些年轻人自己造成了自己的体重问题,他们受到这样的待遇也算‘罪有应得’。”“There’s also a widesp misperception that stigma may not be such a bad thing, and that maybe criticism will get people motivated to lose weight,” Dr. Puhl said. In fact, she said, the opposite is true: People who are picked on because of their weight often engage in unhealthy behaviors. Students who are teased for being fat in gym class, for example, often start skipping P.E. to avoid being bullied.“还有一个普遍的误解是觉得羞辱肥胖者可能并不算什么坏事,批评或许还能刺激他们积极减肥呢。”普尔士说,但事实正好相反,对某人的体重指指点点反而往往会加剧他的不健康行为。例如,在体育课上受到嘲笑的胖学生通常会开始逃课,以避免被人欺负。For the new study, researchers surveyed the views of 2,866 adults in the ed States, Canada, Iceland and Australia. These four countries have similar rates of childhood and adult obesity, as well as similar cultural attitudes that laud thinness and being physically active, Dr. Puhl said.在上面介绍的这项新研究中,研究人员调查了美国、加拿大、冰岛和澳大利亚的2866名成年人的观点。普尔士称,这四个国家的儿童和成年人肥胖率相似,赞赏苗条身材和积极运动的文化心态也相似。At least 70 percent of participants in all of the countries perceived weight-based bullying to be a common problem, with 69 percent characterizing it as a “serious” or even “very serious” problem. While about half of respondents listed “being fat” as the most common reason children are picked on, fewer than 21 percent in any country listed race, ethnicity or nationality as the most common reason. Fewer than 15 percent listed sexual orientation, fewer than 12 percent listed physical disability and fewer than 6 percent listed religion or academic ability.在所有这些国家的参与者中,至少有70%认为体重欺侮是个普遍问题,69%认为它达到了“严重”甚至“非常严重”的程度。当被问及在他们看来导致儿童被欺负的最常见原因为何时,约一半的受访者回答“肥胖”,只有不到21%的受访者认为是种族、民族或国籍,不到15%的受访者回答性取向,不到12%的受访者回答身体残疾,不到6%的受访者回答宗教或学习成绩。About three-quarters of participants across countries said schools should make efforts to raise awareness about weight-based bullying and implement policies that protect overweight kids, and supported bolstering anti-bullying laws to address weight-based bullying.各国参与者中有约四分之三表示,学校应该努力提高对体重歧视和欺凌的重视,实施保护超重孩子的政策,并持建立相关的反欺凌法来解决体重欺侮的问题。Support for a more active government role was weaker among Americans, however, with only half saying the government should play a more active role and only 47 percent supporting a federal law to prohibit weight-related bullying.然而,美国人中呼吁政府采取更积极态度的呼声较弱,只有一半的受访者觉得政府应发挥更积极的作用,只有47%的受访者持通过联邦立法来防止因体重带来的欺侮。The new survey is not the first to report such findings: A 2011 National Education Association study found that 23 percent of teachers reported weight-based bullying to be a concern in their schools, with lower percentages reporting discrimination based on gender, physical disability or perceived sexual orientation.这项新调查并非是对此类发现的首次报道:早在2011年,美国全国教育协会(National Education Association )的一项研究就发现,有23%的教师报告他们学校中的体重欺侮现象令人担忧,较少有教师报告性别、身体残疾或被认定的性取向造成的歧视。“The politically correct movement doesn’t seem to have touched body weight,” said Deborah Carr, chair of the sociology department at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, N.J. “Weight stigma is the most acute among upper middle class educated people, which is the population that cherishes the lean physique the most.”“政治正确运动似乎从未触及过体重问题,”新泽西州新布朗斯维克市罗格斯大学(Rutgers University)的社会学系主席德拉·卡尔( Deborah Carr)说道。“体重欺侮在中产阶级上层受过教育的人群中最为严重,他们最为崇尚体型纤瘦。”Indeed, as obesity rates have increased in recent years, perceived weight and height discrimination have also risen, research shows.事实上,研究显示,随着近年来肥胖率的上升,针对认定的体重和身高歧视也有所增加。With about one third of American children and adolescents weighing in at levels considered to be overweight or obese, public health officials are concerned about discrimination they will face in the workplace, in education and in health care settings, as well as among peers and by their own family members.在美国,约有三分之一的少年儿童体重超重或肥胖,公共卫生官员担心他们将来在工作场所、教育机构和卫生保健机构、以及同伴和他们自己的家庭成员中都可能受到歧视。Obese teenage girls get less financial support for college from their parents than girls who aren’t obese, and obese workers earn less than non-obese workers, according to a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report on weight bias authored by Dr. Reginald L. Washington, the chief medical officer of Rocky Mountain Hospital for Children in Denver.落基山儿童医院(Rocky Mountain Hospital for Children,位于丹佛市)的首席医务官雷金纳德·L·华盛顿(Reginald L. Washington)士在美国疾病控制和预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, C.D.C.)的一项关于体重偏见的报告中写道:肥胖少女从父母那里得到的念大学资助要少于普通身材的女孩,肥胖员工的薪资也低于普通身材的员工。The C.D.C. report reviewed current research and found bias among physicians, educators, family members and peers. A study of more than 400 doctors, for example, found that one in three listed obesity as a condition they responded negatively to, ranking it just behind drug addiction, mental illness and alcoholism. The C.D.C. also cited research showing that families often pick on overweight family members; nearly half of overweight girls report being teased about their weight by family members.该C.D.C.报告在回顾了现有的研究后发现,在医生、教育工作者、家庭成员和同伴之中都存在着偏见。例如,一项涉及400多名医生的研究发现,三分之一的医生指出肥胖是令他们对患者持负面态度的疾病之一,仅次于药物成瘾、精神疾病和酗酒。C.D.C.援引的另一项研究显示,人们常会刁难超重的家庭成员;近一半的超重女孩报告称自己因为体重而被家人戏弄。While some health experts acknowledge that individual genetic and metabolic differences mean that some people are more prone to gaining weight than others, the most widely disseminated public health message is that anyone can achieve a desirable weight by eating less and exercising regularly.虽然有部分健康专家承认人与人之间存在着遗传和代谢水平的差异,致使某些人比其他人更容易长胖,但最广为传播的公共卫生信息却是:任何人都可以通过节食和经常运动来达到理想体重。Dr. Carr said public health experts walk a fine line “between wanting someone to have a healthy body image and feel good about themselves at any size — and wanting them to watch their weight.”卡尔士说,公共卫生专家需要把握好分寸,表达清楚他们是“希望人们拥有健康体型,并对任何体型的自己都感觉良好”还是“希望人们注意体重”。 /201510/404650博乐市去红血丝价格

伊宁去雀斑多少钱A new UK passport design was launched Tuesday with tougher security measures - but immediately sparked a sexism row.英国新版护照的设计图周二(11月3日)发布,安全措施更严格,却立刻引发了一场性别歧视“口水战”。Officials say it will be the #39;most secure passport ever issued in the UK#39; and contains innovative features to make it more difficult for fraudsters to forge copies.政府官员说这将是“英国发行的史上最安全护照”,其应用的创新特性将使造假者更难以伪造护照。These include printing using UV and infrared light, inks and watermarks and using a single sheet of paper for the personal details and a page adjoined to the back cover to prevent it being tampered with.这些创新特性包括在印刷过程中使用紫外线、红外线、墨水和水印,个人详细信息页与护照封底相连的那页共用一张纸,以防篡改。But the Passport Office was hit by accusations of sexism as the passport features SEVEN men and only TWO women.但是英国护照办公室(Passport Office)却受到性别歧视的指控,原因是护照上体现了七名男性,而女性只有两名。The seven men featured are:登上护照的七个男性人物分别是:- John Constable, the painter of the Hay Wain画家约翰·康斯特布尔(John Constable),作品《干草车》(Hay Wain)- John Harrison, the inventor of the marine timekeeper航海计时器的发明者约翰·哈里森(John Harrison)- Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, the architect建筑师贾尔斯·吉尔伯特·斯科特爵士(Sir Giles Gilbert Scott)- Charles Babbage, the inventor of the computer计算机的发明者查尔斯·巴贝奇(Charles Babbage)- William Shakespeare, the playwright, who appears in a new high-security watermark剧作家威廉·莎士比亚(William Shakespeare),他的形象以更安全的新型水印制作- Antony Gormley and Anish Kapoor, the sculptors雕塑家安东尼·葛姆雷(Antony Gormley)和安尼施·卡普尔(Anish Kapoor)The two women featured are:两个女性人物是:- Elisabeth Scott, the architect建筑师伊丽莎白·斯科特(Elisabeth Scott)- Ada Lovelace, the early computer programmer计算机程序员先驱阿达·洛夫莱斯(Ada Lovelace)Labour MP Emily Thornberry tweeted: ;Here we go again - new UK #passport has 7 men featured and just 2 women. #weexist;工党议员埃米利·索恩伯里(Emily Thornberry)发推文道:“又来了——英国新版护照上印有七个男性,但只有两个女性。#我们存在”But Mark Thomson, director general of the Passport Office, defended the design.但是护照办公室主任马克·汤姆森(Mark Thomson)发声为这一设计辩护。He said: ;It wasn#39;t something where we said let#39;s set out to only have two women.他说:“护照上只放两名女性并非我们一开始就决定好的事情。”;In trying to celebrate the UK#39;s creativity we tried to get a range of locations and things around the country to celebrate our triumphs over the years, so there we are.;“为了展现英国的创造力,我们在全国范围内寻找一系列地点和事物来庆祝过往的成就,这就是我们得出的结果。”Asked about the omission of female icons such as Jane Austen and the Bronte sisters, he said: ;Whenever we do these things there is always someone who wants their favourite rock band or icon in the book.被问及为何女性偶像简·奥斯汀和勃朗特等人没有入选,他说:“每当我们做这类事情的时候,总有人希望将他们最爱的摇滚乐队或偶像列入其中。”;We#39;ve got 16 pages, a very finite space. We like to feel we#39;ve got a good representative view celebrating some real icons of the UK- Shakespeare, Constable and of course Elisabeth Scott herself.;“护照一共16页,空间非常有限。我们觉得我们的选择已经很有代表性了,莎士比亚、康斯特布尔、当然还有伊丽莎白·斯科特,这些人都是英国真正的标志性人物。”The new passport also depicts scenes from famous landmarks including the London Underground, the Angel of the North, the Titanic Belfast and the Globe Theatre.新版护照还描绘了英国的著名地标景观,包括伦敦地铁(London Underground)、北方天使雕塑(Angel of the North)、贝尔法斯特泰坦尼克物馆(Titanic Belfast)和莎士比亚环球剧院(Globe Theatre)。It will be rolled out in a phased approach with the first due to be in circulation from December 2015.新版护照将分阶段进行推广,第一批新护照将从2015年12月起开始流通。Commercial passport producer and designer De La Rue says it has aly made 28 million of the new documents.商业护照生产设计商德纳罗公司(De La Rue)表示该公司已经制造了2800万本新护照。A new passport is released every five years to keep security features up to date and the theme for the latest version is #39;Creative ed Kingdom#39;.英国每五年发布一次新护照,以保安全性能与时俱进,最新版护照的主题是“创意英国”。Representing all four countries in the UK, the new designs also incorporate the latest in printing technology to ensure the security of the document remains the top priority.新的设计体现了联合王国的四个成员国,同时结合了时下最新的印刷技术,确保将护照的安全性能放在第一位。 /201511/408141 新疆维吾尔自治区中医医院激光去掉雀斑多少钱乌市第一人民医院割双眼皮多少钱



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