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2019年10月19日 14:46:36来源:乐视解答

  • France#39;s government on Wednesday asked a health watchdog to carry out a probe, possibly leading to EU suspension of a genetically-modified corn, after a study in rats linked the grain to cancer.法国政府本周三要求健康监管机构开展针对转基因玉米的一项调查,这有可能导致欧盟暂停进口这种转基因玉米。此前一项研究表明,转基因玉米会使实验鼠患上肿瘤。Agriculture Minister Stephane Le Foll, Ecology Minister Delphine Batho and Health and Social Affairs Minister Marisol Touraine said they had asked the National Agency for Health Safety (ANSES) to investigate the finding.法国农业部长史蒂芬-勒弗尔、环境部长黛尔菲那-巴多,以及社会事务部部长玛利索尔-图雷纳均表示,已要求法国健康安全局对这项研究成果进行调查。;Depending on ANSES#39; opinion, the government will urge the European authorities to take all necessary measures to protect human and animal health,; they said in a joint statement.他们在一份联合声明中说,“根据法国健康安全局的意见,政府将敦促欧盟采取一切必要措施,保护人类和动物健康。Earlier, French scientists led by Gilles-Eric Seralini at the University of Caen in Normandy unveiled a study that said rats fed with NK603 corn or exposed to the weedkiller used with it developed tumours.不久前,法国诺曼底凯恩大学以吉勒斯-埃瑞克#8226;瑟兰尼为首的科学家公布的研究结果称,用转基因玉米NK603喂养、或者接触了用于该谷物的除草剂的实验鼠患上了肿瘤。NK603 is a corn, also called maize, made by US agribusiness giant Monsanto. It has been engineered to make it resistant to Monsanto#39;s herbicide Roundup.NK603是一种转基因玉米,也称为玉蜀黍,是由美国农业巨头孟山都公司生产的,对该公司出品的草甘膦除草剂具有抗药性。This enables farmers to douse fields with the weedkiller in a single go, thus offering substantial savings.这使得农民可以放心使用这种除草剂,节省了大量费用。The study, published in the peer-reviewed journal Food and Chemical Toxicology, says it is the first to look at rats over their normal lifespan of two years.这一研究成果已刊发在行业期刊《食品化学毒物学》上。研究称,这是首次用长达两年的时间在实验鼠身上开展这一研究,而两年也是实验鼠的自然寿命。Two hundred male and female rats were split into 10 groups of 10 animals. One was a ;control; group which was given ordinary rat food that contained 33 percent non-GM corn, and plain water.在实验中,200只雄性和雌性实验鼠各自被分成十组,每组十只。其中一组被作为“对比组”,喂食含有33%非转基因谷物的普通饲料和白水。Three groups were given ordinary rat food and water with increasing doses of Roundup, reflecting various concentrations of the herbicide in the food chain.另外三组被喂食含有较大剂量草甘膦除草剂的饲料和水,反映出食物链中除草剂的不同浓度。The other six were fed rat food of which 11, 22 or 33 percent comprised NK603 corn, either treated or not with Roundup when the corn was grown.而另外六组则被喂食含有不同比例NK603的饲料,分别为11%、22%和33%。在谷物生长过程中有些接触过除草剂,有些则没有。The researchers found that NK603 and Roundup both caused similar damage to the rats#39; health, whether they were consumed together or on their own.研究人员发现,不管是同时食用还是单独食用,NK603和草甘膦除草剂都对实验鼠的健康造成了相似的危害。Premature deaths and sickness were concentrated especially among females. Males which fell sick suffered liver damage, developed kidney and skin tumours and digestive problems.尤其在雌性实验鼠中,幼鼠夭折和患病的比例特别高。患病的雄性鼠一般是患上肝损害,或肾肿瘤、皮肤肿瘤以及消化系统疾病。At the 14-month stage of experiment, no animals in the control groups showed any signs of cancer, but among females in the ;treated; groups, tumours affected between 10 and 30 percent of the rodents.在为期14个月的试验中,对照组的实验鼠没有一例发现患癌,而在被喂食含有NK603和草甘膦除草剂饲料的组别中,有10%到30%的实验鼠患上了肿瘤。 /201209/201162。
  • Amassing wealth is terrific─as long as you can tap into it when you need to.积累财富是件绝妙的事情──因为当你需要的时候就能够利用它们。But what if many of your assets are illiquid?但是如果你的财产很多都是非现金性质的,那该怎么办呢?That is a common problem among some wealthier investors. When the perfect investment opportunity comes along─say, a real-estate project or private-equity fund─these investors are unable to redeploy funds quickly.在一些比较富裕的投资者中,这是一个普遍的问题。当绝好的投资机会到来时──比如,一个房地产项目或者私募基金──这些投资者无法迅速调动资金。To combat the problem, investors increasingly are turning to low-interest-rate loans from private banks or wealth-management firms to tap anywhere from ,000 to hundreds of millions of dollars. They use a pool of their own securities, artwork or even aircraft as collateral.为了应对这个问题,越来越多的投资者从私人或财富管理公司申请低息贷款,借取75,000至数以百万计美元不等的资金。他们使用自己持有的有价券、艺术品甚至飞机作为抵押。Corporate executives have borrowed against their stock holdings for years using such loans. Known as #39;structured lending#39; or #39;borrowing against holdings,#39; the practice grew more popular among smaller investors in 2012, say executives at wealth-management firms and private banks.公司高管们通过这类贷款用所持股票作抵押借取资金已经有好些年了。财富管理公司和私人的高管们说,这种操作行为人称“结构性贷款”或“股份抵押借贷”,2012年在小投资者中越来越流行了。At Raymond James Bank, a subsidiary of Raymond James Financial, a St. Petersburg, Fla.-based financial-services company, securities-based loans outstanding rose to 4 million at the end of 2012 from million in March.瑞杰(Raymond James Bank)是总部位于佛罗里达州圣皮特斯堡(St. Petersburg)的金融务公司瑞杰金融集团(Raymond James Financial)下属的子公司。该以有价券作抵押的未偿贷款从2012年3月的4,100万美元上升到了年底的4.14亿美元。#39;People are feeling a lot more comfortable and want to re-enter business transactions,#39; says Anne McCosker, co-head of credit products at the Wealth and Investment Management division of Barclays . #39;At the same time, banks are generally increasing their appetite for credit again.#39;巴克莱(Barclays)财富和投资管理部负责信贷产品的联合主管安妮#8226;麦科斯克(Anne McCosker)说,“人们现在感觉轻松多了,想要重新进入商业交易领域。与此同时,也普遍重新增加了放贷量。”Securities-based loans, or loans made against pools of securities, are increasingly attractive to clients because of their low interest rates and flexibility, says Jordan Waxman, a managing director and partner at HighTower#39;s HSW Advisors, which has about billion under management. Currently, annual interest rates fluctuate between 1% and 2%. He says loan liabilities comprise million of assets under management at his practice.HighTower公司所属HSW Advisors的常务董事及合伙人乔丹#8226;韦克斯曼(Jordan Waxman)说,有价券类贷款,也就是以有价券为抵押获取的贷款,因其低利率和灵活性的特点对客户越来越有吸引力。HSW Advisors管理的财富达10亿美元左右。目前此类贷款的年利率在1%和2%之间波动。韦克斯曼说他管理的资产中60%是贷款负债。Clients have been using the loans for opportunistic investments that should return more than the cost of borrowing the capital to invest, Mr. Waxman says. Depending on the loan, there might also be no set #39;due date#39; for when clients have to repay the loans.韦克斯曼说,客户使用这种贷款进行机会性投资,这些投资的回报高于借贷的成本。根据具体情况,有的贷款可能没有设定客户必须偿还贷款的“到期日”。The loans carry advantages and drawbacks.这类贷款有利有弊。On the positive side, the loans let people keep their portfolios intact, without having to forsake future profits in the market and having to incur capital gains, says Andrew Kaiser, chief operating officer of Goldman Sachs Bank USA, a unit of Goldman Sachs Group.高盛集团(Goldman Sachs Group)下属美国高盛(Goldman Sachs Bank USA)的首席执行长安德鲁#8226;凯泽(Andrew Kaiser)说,从有利的方面来看,这类贷款可以让人保持投资组合的完整性,无须放弃未来的市场利润,也无须交纳资本利得税。Borrowers should remember they must pay back the loan with interest─and might end up having to sell of a portion of their securities to do so if the value of the securities declines, warns Bill Geis, executive vice president of retail lending at Raymond James Bank. Typically, clients use the income generated by the investments made possible by the loan to pay it back. But if those investments sour, the borrower still is on the hook.瑞杰负责零售贷款的执行副总裁比尔#8226;盖斯(Bill Geis)警告说,借款者应该记住,他们偿还贷款时必须付利息──如果券的价值下跌,他们可能最终不得不卖掉部分券来还贷。一般来说,客户使用成就他们投资的贷款所产生的收益来偿还贷款,但是如果那些投资失败,借款者便会陷入困境。The interest rate on the loans tends to be floating, says Mike McPartland, head of investment finance for North America at Citi Private Bank, a unit of Citigroup. The rate is typically tied to the 30-day London interbank offered rate. If the interest rate is Libor plus one percentage point and the 30 day-Libor is 0.25%, then the interest rate on the loan would be 1.25%. Some firms offer fixed rates as well, says Ms. McCosker of Barclays.花旗集团(Citigroup)下属北美花旗私人(North America at Citi Private Bank)的投资财务负责人迈克#8226;麦帕特兰德(Mike McPartland)说,这类贷款的利率往往是浮动的。它的利率一般是和30天的伦敦同业拆借利率(London interbank offered rate,简称Libor)相关联的。如果这种贷款的利率是Libor+1%,而30天的Libor是0.25%,那么它的利率就是1.25%。巴克莱的麦科斯克说,有些贷款也提供固定利率。Loans differ depending on the nature of the collateral, Mr. McPartland says. For example, securities that are less volatile, like municipal bonds and Treasurys, will on average command an #39;advance rate#39; of 85%. So, if you put up million worth of securities, you would receive a loan worth million. The advance rate would be lower if the securities were noninvestment grade.麦帕特兰德说,贷款因抵押品性质的不同而有差异。比如,像市政债券和国库券这些稳定性较好的券平均会获得85%的“放款率”。因此,如果你的抵押债券价值5,000万美元,你会得到4,300万美元的贷款。如果债券属于非投资级债券,放款率就会低一些。Banks are more likely to lend against more liquid offerings, like securities, than against assets like interests in a hedge fund or private-equity fund that are harder to value, says Mindy Rosenthal, executive director of the Institute for Private Investors, a New York group for high-net-worth families.纽约为高净值家庭务的私人投资者学院(Institute for Private Investors)的执行董事明迪#8226;罗森塔尔(Mindy Rosenthal)说,相对对冲基金投资和私募基金投资这些比较难以估价的资产,更愿意以券等流动性更强的资产为抵押发放贷款。Still, Stephen Brodie, a partner at law firm Herrick, Feinstein in New York who represents six different private banks in lending to high-net-worth individuals, says art loans are #39;far more common#39; today than they were three or four years ago.六家向高净值个人提供贷款的私人的法律代表、纽约Herrick, Feinstein律师事务所的合伙人斯蒂芬#8226;布罗迪(Stephen Brodie)说,如今艺术品抵押贷款比三、四年前“常见多了”。Works of art can be tough to sell quickly, and usually have advance rates from 40% to 50% of a conservative value estimate, Mr. Brodie says. Interest rates on those loans might be Libor plus two or three percentage points, says Scott Milleisen, a capital adviser at J.P. Morgan Private Bank, a unit of J.P. Morgan Chase.布罗迪说,艺术品很难快速出售,通常其放款率只有其保守估价的40%-50%。根大通(J.P. Morgan Chase)下属根大通私人(J.P. Morgan Private Bank)的资本顾问斯科特#8226;米莱森(Scott Milleisen)说,这类贷款的利率可能是Libor加2-3个百分点。To use art as collateral, clients also must pay appraisal fees to the bank─but they usually get to keep the art on their walls.要使用艺术品作抵押,客户也必须向付估价费──但是他们通常能把艺术品继续挂在自家的墙上。 /201304/232940。
  • Air pollution prematurely killed 1,600 people in Hong Kong during the first half of this year, according to a new study out by the Clean Air Network, which blames such deaths on surging levels of local pollution.香港非营利环保组织“健康空气行动”(Clean Air Network)发布的新研究显示,今年上半年,香港空气污染导致1,600人过早死亡。报告将这些死亡案例归咎于当地污染水平飙升。Many in Hong Kong have long liked to blame the city#39;s poor air quality on noxious fumes wafting from the maze of factories across the border in mainland China. However, air quality data for the first-half of this year show that not only have Hong Kong#39;s smog levels worsened, but the fault largely lies with local pollution sources such as the city#39;s ageing vehicles.香港很多人长期以来都爱将这座城市糟糕的空气质量归咎于从毗邻香港的大批中国内地工厂飘过来的有毒烟尘。然而今年上半年的空气质量数据不仅显示香港雾霾程度加剧,而且罪魁祸首主要是本地污染源,比如该市老旧的车辆。Clean Air Network, a Hong Kong-based environmental non-profit organization, says the city#39;s old, dirty vehicles are causing its residents to choke. In the crowded commercial districts of Central and Western, which include the city#39;s financial center as well as some of its most congested streets, levels of nitrogen dioxide, a key air pollutant, jumped 22%, according to their review (in Chinese) of the city#39;s air quality. Their analysis found that such levels of pollution exceed World Health Organization-recommended safe limits by more than 60%.健康空气行动说,香港老旧车辆污染环境,令居民窒息。香港中西区等拥挤的商业区既是该市金融中心,又有一些最为拥堵的街道。健康空气行动对香港空气质量的检测显示,这些地方的主要空气污染物二氧化氮的浓度上升22%。他们的分析发现,这样的污染水平比世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)推荐的安全上限高出60%以上。Clean Air Network Chief Executive Officer Sum Kwong says pollution levels in Tung Chung--an outlying area that she says is influenced more by the overall regional air quality in the Pearl River Delta--have actually improved across the board, dropping by as much as 13% for certain types of pollutants.健康空气行动行政总裁邝芯妍说,东涌的污染情况事实上出现了整体改善,某些污染物浓度至多下降了13%。东涌是香港较为偏远的地区,邝芯妍说,这里更多地受到珠江三角洲地区整体空气质量的影响。#39;Basically this shows that the pollution nowadays in Hong Kong is definitely roadside and definitely from local sources, and so the Hong Kong government has to do something,#39; said Ms. Kwong.邝芯妍说,基本上这种情况显示出当前香港的污染肯定是路边污染,肯定是来自本地污染源,港府应该有所行动。Earlier this month, a study in mainland China found that poor air quality cut lifespans by more than five years. Even short-term exposure to high levels of air pollution can help trigger heart failure, arrhythmias and stroke.本月早些时候,中国内地一项研究发现,恶劣的空气质量导致人们减寿五年多。即使是短期置身于高度污染的空气中也可能引发心力衰竭、心律失常和中风。Old, diesel-fueled lorries spew out some of the city#39;s most toxic air, and Hong Kong#39;s government last year proposed a .3 billion scheme to help truck drivers buy new ones. But such a proposal doesn#39;t address the city#39;s aging taxi fleet, which has also fueled the problem. While Hong Kong recently introduced a dozen electric cabs, much of the city#39;s iconic red taxis are in dire need of an upgrade, Ms. Kwong says.老旧的柴油动力卡车喷出的尾气是香港最大的毒害物来源之一,香港政府去年提出了一个耗资13亿美元的项目,帮助卡车司机购买新车。但这个项目没有针对该市的老旧出租车,后者也加剧了污染问题。邝芯妍说,虽然香港近期推出了十几辆电动出租车,但该市标志性的红色出租车有很大一部分亟需升级。A decade ago, Hong Kong#39;s old diesel cabs were scrapped in favor of those using cleaner-burning LPG fuel, a move widely praised at the time. #39;Today they#39;re a lot better, more environmentally friendly,#39; says Wong Cheung Keung, president of the Hong Kong Taxi and Public Light Bus Association.10年前,香港的老式柴油动力出租车被废弃,代之以使用更清洁的液化石油气燃料的出租车,这一举措当时受到广泛称赞。香港的士小巴商总会(Hong Kong Taxi and Public Light Bus Association)会长王仲强说,现在的出租车好多了,更为环保。However, Ms. Kwong says many of the catalytic converters attached to such vehicles have been in use for years and need to be replaced, says. Otherwise, such devices--which filter pollutants from vehicle exhaust and typically last only a handful of years--will #39;just have no function, #39; she says.然而邝芯妍说,这些车辆上安装的许多催化转换器都已经使用多年,需要更换。她说,否则的话,这些装置就毫无用处。催化转换器的作用是过滤汽车尾气中的污染物,通常只能用几年。The government agrees. Last month, it said it plans to subsidize taxi and bus owners in a one-off scheme to replace such converters starting later this year.香港政府同意这一看法。上个月,政府表示计划从今年晚些时候开始向出租车和巴士车主提供一次性补贴,更换这种转换器。In the meantime, both Ms. Kwong and Mr. Wong say the government should do still more to clean up the city#39;s air. #39;The government should provide us with more incentives to support taxi drivers to change,#39; said Mr. Wong, adding that the government should offer subsidies to encourage taxi drivers--and not just truck drivers--to purchase newer vehicles to help keep the city#39;s air clean.与此同时,邝芯妍说王仲强都说,政府应当加大力度净化空气。王仲强说,政府应当为我们提供更多的刺激政策,鼓励出租车司机改变,还说政府应当提供补贴,鼓励出租车司机──而不仅仅是卡车司机──购买新车,以保持香港的空气清洁。 /201307/248195。
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