时间:2017年12月11日 23:29:17

To Pauline D. Loh, nothing spells festive like the spicy scent of gingerb baking. She shares the recipe and some decorating ideas.对于Pauline D. Loh而言,没有什么比烤姜饼飘出的辛香味道更有节日氛围了。她给大家分享了做姜饼的菜谱和一些装饰姜饼的创意。This is the second year I am writing about gingerb, breaking my own unwritten rule about not repeating recipes. But I have had too many questions about making gingerb to ignore the requests. Personally, I love gingerb. Characters from fairytales around the world peopled my own childhood, including a cheeky runaway gingerb boy who got eaten by a fox before he got too far away. It saddened me, that story, so I started baking gingerb boys and girls and decorated them in pants, skirts, pinafores and elaborate sweaters in a strangely compensatory way.这是我第二次写有关做姜饼的菜谱了,打破了自己不重复推荐菜谱这一不成文的规定。但是,我有太多做姜饼的疑问,不能忽视自身的内心需求。我本人喜欢姜饼。童话世界里的人物充斥着我的童年,有一个故事中,一个莽撞的姜饼小男孩从房子里逃跑出去,还没有跑得很远就被一只狐狸吃掉了。这个故事让我很难过,所以,我开始烘烤小男孩形状和小女孩形状的姜饼,给做好的姜饼小人装饰上裤子、短裙、连胸围裙和精致的毛衣。我用这种奇怪的方式寻求精神上的安慰。It was a lot more fun than Barbie-doll paper cutouts.这比做芭比娃娃的剪纸有趣多了。I have since taught many children the joys of making gingerb, including my vast menagerie of godchildren. Some of them are almost grown now, and I hope they will keep the tradition going for their own kids as a heartwarming bonding experience.我教许多孩子做姜饼,让他们体会做姜饼的乐趣,我的一群教子也是跟我学做的姜饼。现在,有些孩子已经长大了,我希望他们保留做姜饼的传统,将来和他们自己的孩子一起做这项亲子活动。A cold winter day spent baking and decorating will chase the indoor fidgets and chills away, and they get to eat their own creations. It#39;s also healthy (think ginger, honey and whole wheat flour) and better than fast food snacks full of preservatives and additives. The kitchen may need a good scrub later, but you can always make that fun as well. The secret is to delegate, delegate, delegate.烘烤和装饰姜饼能驱走冬日的严寒,安抚人们焦躁的情绪,孩子们做完姜饼还可以吃。姜饼是健康食品,想想姜饼的配料吧(姜、蜂蜜和全麦面粉),它比里面全是食品防腐剂和添加剂的快餐和小吃要好很多。做好姜饼后,厨房需要好好地擦洗一下。但是,你也可以让擦洗活动变得很有意思。秘诀就是,放手、放手、再放手,派孩子们去做。Entertain the children with some history as you bake. Apparently, an Armenian monk brought gingerb to France more than a thousand years ago and it sp to Germany and then Scandinavia. The spicy b used a lot of ginger, which was believed to aid digestion. I guess they needed it, for history indicated that medieval recipes were heavy and stodgy. We can only imagine.烤姜饼的时候给孩子们讲讲姜饼的历史。一千多年前,一位亚美尼亚僧侣把姜饼的制作技艺从法国传到德国,再传到斯堪的纳维亚半岛。辛香的姜饼里面放了许多姜,人们相信姜有助于消化。我猜想,当时的人们需要吃姜来帮助消化。因为史料记载,中世纪人们的食谱口味重、油腻。至于食谱到底是怎样的,我们只能想象了。When the gingerb finally migrated to the ed Kingdom via various Teutonic ancestors, it was embraced with great enthusiasm, and there is, according to Wikipedia, even a town that uses a gingerb sign to welcome visitors.日耳曼人的祖先把姜饼的制作技艺传到了英国,受到了英国人的热烈欢迎。维基百科上说,有一个英国小镇甚至用姜饼做的标识来欢迎客人。These days, gingerb seems to hibernate in various recipe folders until the year-end festivities come around. And then you see elaborate gingerb structures in hotel lobbies, and prettily packaged ginger cookies in the bakeries.最近,姜饼悄无声息地淹没在各色的菜谱中,像是在冬眠。直到年末的时候,这种有节日气息的甜品才会露面:酒店大堂里是制作精致的姜饼,面包店里是打包精美的姜饼。It seems a rather bewildering choice, since the gingerb house always triggers memories of the horrific tale of Hansel and Gretel, who were lured into a witch#39;s den precisely because it was a gingerb cottage decorated with candies. The thought-association boggles the mind.姜饼屋总使人想起童话故事《汉塞尔和格丽塔尔》(Hansel and Gretel)中的恐怖情节,弟俩就是因为看到了装饰糖果的姜饼小屋而被引诱到了女巫的小屋。要不要吃姜饼屋成了一个令人困惑的抉择,故事中和姜饼屋相关的情结萦绕在脑海里,挥之不去。Better to use gingerb as Christmas tree decorations. The gingerb smells delicious, and when it is warmed by the Christmas lights, it#39;s natural aromatherapy. Choose a theme for your tree and decide if you want stars, flowers, snowflakes or even bones.最好还是用姜饼来装饰圣诞树吧。圣诞灯通电后,被灯光照得暖暖的姜饼闻起来很美味。选择一个主题来装饰圣诞树,看看你想要什么形状的姜饼,是星星的、花朵的、雪花的还是骨头的。Just get the appropriate cookie cutters from specialist bakery suppliers in your area, or as I do, from the online shops.你可以从居住区里专门卖西饼店用具的商店里买点合适的饼干模具,或者,你也可以像我一样在网上购买。I always have a few gingerb bones decorated for my French bulldogs every year, too. It#39;s their treat, but I don#39;t hang it on the Christmas tree because they are very weak-willed puppies.我每年也会给我的法国斗牛犬做点骨头形状的姜饼。骨头形状的姜饼是慰劳的,我不会把它挂在圣诞树上,因为我的们意志力薄弱。And of course, there must always be a generous batch of gingerb boys and girls to distribute with care packages during Christmas.当然,圣诞节期间必须做一批装有小男孩和小女孩形状的姜饼爱心包裹来分发。Recipe: Gingerb cookies菜谱:姜饼Ingredients (makes plenty):配料(若干):Dry ingredients:干货食材:2 cups all-purpose flour2杯通用面粉1 cup whole wheat flour1杯全麦面粉1/2 tsp salt1/2茶匙盐1 tsp baking soda1茶匙小苏打粉1 tbsp ground ginger1汤匙生姜粉1 tsp fresh grated ginger1茶匙新鲜的生姜末1 tsp 5-spice powder1茶匙五香粉120 g butter, room temperature120克黄油,室温软化100 g soft brown sugar100克棕色绵糖1 large egg; 160 ml dark honey1大枚鸡蛋;160毫升深色蜂蜜Icing:糖霜:Lemon juice; Icing sugar; Silver or gold dragees柠檬汁;糖粉;银色或者金色的糖果Food coloring食物上色Method:方法:1. Sift dry ingredients together.1.把干货食料过筛后混合在一起。2. Cream the butter and sugar until light and fluffy. Add the egg and honey and beat until well combined. Gradually beat in dry ingredients.2.把黄油和糖混在一起搅拌至松软起沫。加入鸡蛋和蜂蜜一起搅拌,直到混合均匀。然后,慢慢把干货食料加进去。3. Divide dough into two batches. Wrap in plastic and chill. (Cold dough is easier to work with.)3.把面团分成2部分。用塑料包好冷却。(凉面团更适合做姜饼。)4. Preheat oven to 175 C. Line baking sheets.4.把烤箱预热到175摄氏度,把烤盘摆好。5. Roll out dough between two large sheets of parchment paper. The dough becomes tacky quickly if you roll on it directly.5.在2大张烤盘纸上铺好面团,如果你直接在烤盘纸上铺开,面团很快就会变黏。6. Shape cookies and transfer to lined baking sheets.6.把在模具中成型的饼干排放在烤盘上。7. If you are using the gingerb as decor for the Christmas tree, you need to make a little hole in the cookies so you can hang them up. I find the best way is to use a drinking straw to poke a hole at the top of the cooking. It#39;s neat and quick.7.如果你要用姜饼装饰圣诞树,你需要在饼干上穿一个小洞,这样一来就可以往圣诞树上挂了。最好的办法就是,在用吸管在面饼顶部上戳一个小洞。这样做干脆利落。8. Bake cookies for about 12 to 15 minutes, depending on how large or small you have cut them. Watch the first batch to better estimate your timing. Cool cookies completely before icing.8.饼干大约烘烤12到15分钟,烘烤的具体时间根据饼干块的大小来把握。注意烘烤的第一批饼干,这能够帮助你估计烘烤的时间。给饼干上糖霜前要使饼干完全冷却。To make icing:上糖霜:1. Sift icing sugar into bowl and add just enough lemon juice to form a spable icing.1.把过筛的糖粉放入碗里,加入足量的柠檬汁,以便形成一层容易涂开的糖霜。Add less rather than more juice and adjust the consistency till you get it right.加入少量柠檬汁,调整稠度,直到你感觉刚刚好为止。2. To color the icing, use a toothpick to add drops of color to the icing. I know it#39;s Christmas, but please use less rather than more color, or it will all look like an Austin Powers Shagadelic party gone wrong.2.用牙签给糖霜滴上颜色。我知道这是圣诞节,但是请少用点颜色。否则,它看起来就会像影片《王牌大贱碟》(Austin Powers)里性感派对上的混乱状况了。3. Ice the gingerb cookies and decorate as you will.3.给姜饼上糖霜,想画什么装饰都行。 /201402/274816

My 11-year-old grandsons, Stefan and Tomas, weigh about 80 pounds each. On the 20-minute walk to their middle school and the uphill walk home, they carry backpacks that weigh about 12 pounds each, or 15 percent of their body weight.我的两个孙子斯蒂芬(Stefan)和托马斯(Tomas)现年11岁,体重都是80来磅(合36公斤)。他们每天要步行去初中上学,回家时还得走一段上坡路,在这段20分钟的路程里,他俩要各自背着12磅(合5.4公斤)的书包,也就是说,书包的重量达到他们体重的15%。When extra books or clothing, a musical instrument or other equipment are added, the weight they carry can reach 20 pounds. But whatever the figure, those packs are simply too heavy for their still-forming bones and muscles.如果加上额外的书本、衣、一件乐器或别的用品,他们要背的书包很可能达到20磅重(合9公斤)。但不管究竟有多重,他们的书包对于仍在发育中的骨骼和肌肉来说,未免过于沉重了。Heavy backpacks don#39;t just sap children of energy that might be better used doing schoolwork or playing sports. Lugging them can also lead to chronic back pain, accidents and possibly lifelong orthopedic damage.沉重的书包不仅会消耗孩子们本可以用来更好地做功课或参加体育活动的精力。负担过重,可会导致慢性背痛、发生意外,甚至有可能带来终生的骨骼伤害。Among the risks described by Dr. Pierre D#39;Hemecourt, a sports medicine specialist at Children#39;s Hospital Boston, are stress fractures in the back, inflammation of growth cartilage, back and neck strain, and nerve damage in the neck and shoulders.波士顿儿童医院(Children#39;s Hospital Boston)的运动医学专家皮埃尔·戴米库(Pierre D#39;Hemecourt)描述了一系列危害,包括背部应力性骨折、生长板软骨发炎、后背和颈部压力、以及背部和肩膀的神经损害。The federal Consumer Product Safety Commission calculated that carrying a 12-pound backpack to and from school and lifting it 10 times a day for an entire school year puts a cumulative load on youngsters#39; bodies of 21,600 pounds — the equivalent of six mid-sized cars.联邦消费者产品安全委员会(Consumer Product Safety Commission )计算得出:假设一个学生每天背着12磅的书包往返,每天抬起书包的次数以10次计,一学年下来,这个孩子的身体总共要承担21600磅(约合9800公斤)的负担——相当于6台中型小汽车。The issue has been raised repeatedly in countries all over the world for more than a decade. In December 1999, doctors in Milan reported in The Lancet that 34.8 percent of Italian schoolchildren carried more than 30 percent of their body weight at least once a week, ;exceeding limits proposed for adults.;在过去这十几年来,世界各国都在反复探讨这个问题。1999年12月,米兰的医生们在《柳叶刀》(The Lancet)上发表报告称,每周至少有一次,34.8%的意大利学童要背负超过自身体重30%的书包,“这超出了向成年人推荐的负重上限。”The load carried by these sixth-graders was equivalent to a 176-pound man hauling around a 39-pound backpack each day.而这些六年级学生所扛的书包重量,相当于一个176磅(合80公斤)的男性每天扛着39磅(合17.8公斤)的背包四处走。But even in this digital era, when at least some schoolwork can be done online, there has been no apparent decrease in the burdens we ask the younger generation to tote around all day.可是就算身处这个数字时代,当至少部分作业可以在线完成时,我们让孩子们每天背负的书包重量却并没有显著的减轻。Pack Animals小小蜗牛背着壳In the newest study, published in March in the Archives of Disease in Childhood, researchers in Spain assessed the backpacks and back health of 1,403 pupils ages 12 to 17. More than 60 percent were carrying packs weighing more than 10 percent of their body weight, and nearly one in five had schoolbags that weighed more than 15 percent of their own weight.在3月发表在《儿童疾病档案》(Archives of Disease in Childhood)最新研究中,西班牙的研究人员评估了1403名12-17岁儿童的书包重量和背部健康。超过60%的学生所背的书包重量超过其体重的10%,近五分之一书包重量超过体重的15%。Not surprisingly, one in four students said they had suffered back pain for more than 15 days during the previous year; scoliosis — curvature of the spine — accounted for 70 percent of those with pain. The remaining 30 percent had either low back pain or contractures — continuous, involuntary muscle contractions. Girls faced a greater risk of back pain than boys, and their risk increased with age (and, presumably, years of lugging around their heavy packs).这个结果也不出所料:在以上学生中,每四人中就有一人说,自己在前一年感到背痛的天数超过了15天;脊椎侧弯——脊椎出现弯曲)——在出现背痛孩子中的比例达70%。剩下的这30%学生,要么有腰痛,要么有挛缩——肌肉持续的、非随意的紧缩。比起男孩,女孩出现背痛的风险更大,而且风险随年纪增长而上升(可以推想,这跟年复一年背着重重的书包有关)。Pain often results when the weight of the pack pulls children backward, prompting them to bend forward or to arch their backs to keep the pack centered. This position can compress the spine, pressing the vertebrae on the discs between them.沉重的书包会压得孩子往后仰,为了保持后背的中立位置,他们得往前弓背或者猫起腰来,疼痛往往因此发生。这种姿势可以挤压脊柱,压迫腰椎间盘。If the child has to lean forward when walking with a loaded pack, it is too heavy. At the very least, it is a recipe for poor posture and chronically rounded shoulders. And if these forward-bending children must raise their heads to see where they are going, neck pain and pinched nerves can be the result.如果孩子在背着书包走路时身体前倾,就说明书包太重了。这样至少会导致孩子姿势不佳,长此以往会出现圆肩(即肩胛骨向前挤——译注)。如果这些身体前倾的孩子还得抬起头来看看自己走到哪里去了,则会导致颈部疼痛和神经病变。Children also accidentally whack schoolmates with heavy backpacks while walking in crowded hallways. Sometimes the pack falls from a shelf or desk, or trips someone while resting on the floor. A too-heavy pack can throw the wearer off-balance on a staircase.在背着重重的书包走过拥挤的走廊时,孩子们可能不小心抡到别的同学。有时书包会从架子或课桌上坠落,搁在地上时则会绊倒别人。背着过重的书包,孩子甚至有可能在上下楼梯时失去平衡。Reducing the Load减轻负累In the interest of sanity and safety, my son (the twins#39; father) purchased used instruments for them to keep at home so they would not have to lug a trombone or clarinet back and forth to school along with their other paraphernalia.考虑到卫生和安全因素,我的儿子(也就是这对双胞胎的父亲)为他们购买了二手乐器,供他们在家中使用,这样孩子们就不会在带着其他学习用品的同时,还得拖着长号或单簧管往返于学校和家了。Then he conducted an inventory of their packs and sent it by e-mail to their teachers to find out just how many of the items had to be carried to and from school each day.然后他对孩子们书包里装的东西列了份目录,通过邮件发给老师们,好确认每天有哪些东西必须背到学校再背回家。One teacher responded with some helpful suggestions, including having the boys take a few minutes at the end of the school day to determine what they really needed to take home with them.一位老师提供了一些有益的建议,包括两个孩子每天放学时,先花几分钟考虑下,有哪些东西他们觉得非得带回家不可。;They don#39;t have to bring everything home every night,; Aimee Fournier, their English teacher, wrote. ;But a lot of kids don#39;t take much time at their lockers to sort out what they do need.;英语老师艾米·弗涅尔(Aimee Fournier)在信中写道:“他们没必要每晚把所有东西都背回家,但很多孩子不会在储物柜前驻足停留,考虑自己的真实需要。”Rather than lug around the entire load all day, most books can be left in the child#39;s locker, if there is enough time between classes. Only those needed for the next class or two need be taken along.大部分书并不需要整天背来背去,如果课间休息的时间够用,可以把书放在孩子的储物柜里,只带下面一两节课要用的教材即可。In schools facing less of a financial pinch than New York City#39;s, teachers might be able to provide duplicates of at least some of the often-used heavy textbooks to keep at home.在那些经费不像纽约市这么捉襟见肘的校区,老师们也许可以给学生提供至少部分备用书,好让家里也存一套常用的厚重教材。Dr. Bryan Lane, an osteopath in Temple, Tex., urges parents to peek inside their children#39;s backpacks and suggest items that could be left at home or at school. He studied 188 children in kindergarten through fifth grade and found that on average the children toted packs equaling 14 percent of their body weight. A third of the parents had never checked the contents of the packs, and 96 percent had never weighed them.德克萨斯州坦普尔市的整骨医师布莱恩·兰(Bryan Lane)提醒家长们,他们应当了解孩子们书包中放了哪些物品,同时对孩子该把哪些留在家里,哪些带去学校提出建议。他研究了从幼儿园到小学五年级的188名儿童,发现平均来说,孩子们所背的书包重量达到其体重的14%。三分之一的家长从来没有查看孩子的书包,96%的家长从未称过重量。Also helpful is selecting a well-designed backpack and adjusting it to sit properly on the child#39;s back. Although for the last 15 years I have used a rolling backpack to go to and from work, I know that teens and preteens today consider them unfashionable. Plus, they can be a trip hazard in hallways and difficult to carry up and down stairs.挑选设计上佳、可以调适到完全适合孩子背部的书包也有用。过去这15年来,我上下班一直使用的是一个拉杆包,不过我知道对于青春期和青春期前的孩子来说,这种包不那么时髦。此外,它可能会在过道里绊倒人,也很难提起来上下楼梯。Select a backpack that is no bigger than absolutely necessary — the more room in the pack, the more the child is likely to carry. The pack should have wide, padded, adjustable shoulder straps (narrow ones can cause nerve damage), a padded back, and compartments within so that the heaviest items can rest against the child#39;s back.选择一个不超出所需大小的书包——背包的空间越宽裕,孩子就越有可能往里面装更多东西。书包应该有宽大的肩带、有衬垫并且可调(窄窄的肩带可能会引起神经病变),书包背部应有软垫,里面也要有隔层,这样最重的物品可以贴在孩子的后背上。A waist strap would be ideal, but I doubt many children would use it. Adjust the shoulder straps so that the bottom of the pack when filled lands no lower than four inches below the waist.如果书包有腰带,这自然最好不过,但我怀疑有多少孩子愿意系腰带。调整好腰带,要确保在装好物品后,书包底端距离腰部不低于4英寸。Children should be cautioned never to carry the pack on one shoulder. Decades of carrying nearly everything heavy on my right shoulder has left me with significant scoliosis that I#39;m now trying to minimize with a yoga exercise.人们应提醒孩子,千万不要单肩背书包。几十年来,我一直用右肩背重重的包,导致出现了严重的脊椎侧弯,现在只好通过瑜伽练习尽量减轻症状。Digital Textbooks May Help Ease Backpack Burden数字教材可能有助于为书包减负The issue of overloaded backpacks could well become moot if President Obama and his education gurus have their way. The president wants every student to be using e-textbooks by 2017.如果奥巴马和他的教育高参们能够一路凯歌,过重的书包有可能将成为过去式。总统希望在2017年前,所有学生都能使用数字教材。In January, Education Secretary Arne Duncan and Julius Genachowski, the chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, recommended that states redirect budgets for printed books to the purchase of iPads, Kindles and the like and the software needed to foster modern education.1月份,教育部长阿恩·邓肯(Arne Duncan)和联邦通信委员会主度朱利斯·格纳科斯其(Julius Genachowski)建议政府将原用于纸质教材的预算划拨用于购买iPad、Kindle和其他类似电子产品,以及用于健全现代化教育的各类软件。Publishers and tablet makers will be urged to work together, and to lower costs, in order to supply the nation#39;s 50 million schoolchildren with electronic products for educational use.当局将敦促出版商和平板电脑厂商合作,同时降低产品费用,以向全美5000万在校学生提供电教产品。Although not everyone endorses the idea of moving from words printed on paper to those delivered electronically, there are certain undeniable advantages.尽管对于将注意力从白纸黑字转移到电子书上的想法,并非所有人都持,但它确实拥有一些不可辩驳的优势。For one, updates to e-textbooks are relatively easy to make, which means schools with limited finances would not have to replace outdated texts every five or six years. Learning would be more efficient and interactive, and materials supplied by teachers could be tailored to better meet individual student needs.其中一项是,更新电子书相对更易行,这就意味着经费有限的学校不必面对每隔五六年就要换过时教材的问题。学习将更有效,互动性更强,而且由老师挑选的教材将能更好地满足学生的个体化需求。In addressing a summit of industry and education officials in January, Mr. Genachowski said that billion a year is now being spent on textbooks that often are out-of-date. He predicted that in five years, ;we could be spending less as a society on textbooks and getting more for it.;在1月份一个面向产业界和教育官员的峰会上,格纳科斯基先生说,现在每年要在教材上花费70亿美元,而这些教材的内容往往已经落伍。他预言,在五年内,“作为一个社会,我们在教材上花的钱将更少,而所得的回报将更多。”He acknowledged the greater up-front costs of moving from paper to digital books and other materials but insisted that in the long run the switch would bring huge savings to the country#39;s educational system.他承认,将教材和其他教辅材料从纸质换成数字版本,先期投入会更高,但坚信长远来看,这种转变将为美国的教育体系节省巨大开。The first challenge will probably be finding the money with which schools could buy devices like the iPad, which runs about 0 at retail. In school districts that cannot afford such purchases, strategies will be needed to help low-income students get their own.首当其冲的挑战是寻找资金,用于学校购买电子设备,像iPad这样的设备零售价可达500美元左右。在一些买不起这类硬件的校区,还需要想办法帮助低收入家庭学生购买自己的器材。Then there is the issue of safekeeping (although if every child has one, the risk of theft is somewhat diminished).其次是安全保管问题(不过如果孩子们人手一台,失窃的危险将会减少些)。Costs aside, the educational advantages are perhaps limitless on devices that allow students to do research, check their work and get feedback from teachers without leaving their classrooms or homes. Digital books can also provide interactive diagrams, audio and that are not possible with traditional texts.花费姑且不论,这类器材带来的教育优势将可能是无穷无尽的,学生们无需离开教室或走出家门,就可以进行研究、检查功课并得到老师的反馈。电子教材同时还可以提供交互式图表、音频和视频,这是传统课本无法企及的。Apple has aly introduced three types of educational software intended to make the iPad a fixture in the classroom: an updated electronic bookstore called iBooks 2 that allows students to download more interactive textbooks; iBooks Author, a program for creating books; and iTunes U, an app that instructors can use to produce digital curricula and share course materials with students.苹果公司已经引入了三种教育软件,好让iPad适应课堂环境:一种是称为iBook 2的更新版在线书店,学生可在这里下载更多的互动教材;iBood Author,这是一个自成生成图书的应用程序;以及iTunes U,老师们可以使用这个应用来制作数字课程,并与学生们分享教学课件。Protections are needed to prevent students from cheating — say, by e-mailing test answers to their pals or submitting work that someone else has created. And much to the distress of one of my digitally oriented grandsons, whose penmanship is atrocious, students still must learn how to write with a pen or pencil.还需要提防学生作弊——比方说,用email将考试发给同学,或者提交别的同学已经完成的作业。此外,学生们仍然应当学习用钢笔或铅笔写字,这个要求肯定会让我的那个字写得特别烂、对数码产品十分痴迷的小孙子感到悲愤不已。A remaining impediment: Will e-textbooks permit students who once complained that ;the dog ate my homework; to find a new ream of excuses?还有一个障碍:有了电子教材,原先抱怨“我的作业被吃了”的同学们,还能想到什么新的借口吗?;The battery died, and I couldn#39;t charge it.; ;My iPad got wet in the rain/a puddle/the bathtub.;“没电了,我没法充电。”“我的iPad被雨/水坑/浴缸给泡湿了。”Or even: ;My little brother hammered it to death.;甚至是:“我的弟弟把它摔坏了。” /201410/331704

A Youtube diet #39;guru#39; from Australia puts her ultra-slim body down to an extreme diet, which can see her eat nothing but bananas for an entire day.Youtube视频网站上一位来自澳大利亚的节食达人公布了锻造自己纤细身材的极端节食法——一天之内只吃香蕉。Known as #39;Freelee the Banana Girl#39; she advocates an extreme, low processed, low-fat, high-carb raw vegan diet— sometimes consisting of eating up to 51 bananas a day.大家都叫她“香蕉姑娘Freelee”,她倡导食用加工程序少、脂肪含量低、高碳水化合物含量的生素食。有时候她一天会吃多达51根香蕉。It#39;s a regime that recently came under fire when fellow Australian Loni Jane Anthony announced she had kept up the diet throughout her pregnancy, insisting that both she and her baby suffered no ill-effects.这种节食法由名叫洛尼·安东尼的澳大利亚女士提出,不过她因怀期间全程节食而受到网友谴责,不过她坚持说自己和孩子没有受到任何不良影响。Consuming between 2000 and 5000 calories a day, Freelee remains ‘raw until four’ - meaning she eats no cooked or heated food whatsoever until 4pm.香蕉姑娘每天消耗2000-5000卡,坚持每天下午四点之前不吃任何烧熟或加热过的食物。She usually eats #39;mono meals#39; consisting of a huge amount of a single fruit, such as two entire pinapples, five mangoes, two litres of orange juice, 1.4kg of apricots, or 20 bananas.她经常一天一餐,每餐大量食用同种水果,要么是两个菠萝、要么五个芒果、或者两升橙汁、或者1.4公斤杏子或是二十根香蕉。After 4pm she will often eat a cooked meal, again, usually a single ingredient in large qualities, such as 3.5kgs of potato baked in the oven, or another meal of fruit.下午四点过后她一般会吃一些煮熟的食物,但仍然限于一种食材,比如3.5公斤烤土豆,或者是再吃一顿水果。Having suffered from both anorexia and bulimia in the past, Freelee claims that adopting her low fat, high carbohydrate, raw, vegan diet saw her shed 40lb or 2st 12lb as well as clearing up her acne, chronic fatigue syndrome, low thyroid function and terrible digestion.以前香蕉姑娘既有厌食症又会暴饮暴食,但是通过这种低油高碳水化合物的素食节食法后,她成功甩掉了40磅(18.14公斤),不但如此,她脸上的痤疮也不见了, 以前的慢性疲劳综合症、甲状腺低能症和严重的消化问题全部消失了。 /201404/289218

We’ve all heard the saying, “there’s a sucker born every minute.”我们都听说过“每分钟都有笨蛋呱呱落地”这句话。Well, what if I were to tell you that this is a gross underestimate? According to the Department of Human Health and Services, there are about 7.6 Americans born every minute, and there’s good evidence that about five of them will grow up to be “suckers” when it comes to financial literacy.那么,如果我说这句话显然低估了实际情况,大家会怎么想呢?美国卫生和公众务部(Department of Human Health and Services)的数据显示,每分钟有7.6个美国人出生,而确凿据表明其中有5个会成为理财方面的“笨蛋”。The University of Michigan’s Health and Retirement Study found that only about one third of Americans ages 50 and older were able to correctly answer three simple questions about how compound interest works, what inflation means for one’s savings and investment gains, and the basic differences between a single stock and a mutual fund.密歇根大学(University of Michigan)健康和退休研究项目发现,在50岁及以上的美国人中,只有约三分之一的人能正确回答三个简单的问题:复利是怎么回事?通胀对个人储蓄和投资收益意味着什么?一只股票和一只共同基金有哪些基本差异?In the latest addition to a body of economic research that shows Americans’ striking financial illiteracy, a study by economists Benjamin Keys, Devin Pope, and Jaren Pope examined Americans’ refinancing habits during the worst of the financial crisis, when the Treasury Department and Federal Reserve were doing their utmost to get people to refinance their mortgages and take advantage of low interest rates. According to the paper:一系列经济领域研究已经表明,美国人的理财知识欠缺程度令人震惊。其中最新一项研究来自经济学家本杰明o基斯、德温o波普和贾伦o波普,他们的课题是美国人在金融危机达到高峰时的再融资习惯。当时,美国财政部和美联储正在竭尽全力帮助按揭者进行再融资并利用低利率环境。这篇研究报告称:“We estimate that approximately 20% of households for whom refinancing would be optimal and who appeared unconstrained to do so, had not taken advantage of the lower rates. We estimate the present-discounted cost to the household who fails to refinance to be approximately ,500, making this a particularly large consumer financial mistake.”“对有些家庭来说,再融资是最佳方案,而且这方面也不存在障碍。但据我们估算,在这些家庭中,约有20%并未对低利率加以利用。据我们计算,对未能再融资的家庭来说,其当前贴现损失约为1.15万美元,这在消费金融领域算是个特别大的失算。”Altogether, this failure to refinance cost these consumers, and presumably the economy at large, .4 billion. And this estimate is actually on the conservative side of the spectrum.由于没有进行再融资,这些消费者的整体损失为54亿美元,想必整个美国经济也蒙受了同等金额的损失。而且这个数字实际上偏向保守。A 2008 study by Dartmouth finance professor Kenneth French estimated that investors in the U.S. pay roughly 0 billion per year in fees and other expenses in an attempt to “beat the market” rather than investing in low-fee index funds that track the broader performance of the stock market. And a 2006 study from Harvard economist John Campbell estimated that poor decisions concerning mortgage financing costs homeowners more than billion annually. The list goes on, from payday loans to credit cards to retirement products: Americans spend billions more because of their lack of financial knowledge.2008年,达特茅斯学院(Dartmouth College)金融学教授肯尼思o弗兰奇在他的研究中估算,为了“跑赢大市”,美国投资者每年都要付约1000亿美元的手续费和其他费用,却不愿用这笔钱投资手续费较低,专门跟踪大盘的指数基金。2006年,哈佛大学(Harvard University)经济学家约翰o坎贝尔估算,由于在按揭融资方面决策欠妥,住房业主每年都要损失500亿美元以上。类似的研究层出不穷,从发薪日贷款到信用卡再到退休金融产品,它们的结论都是:财务知识匮乏让美国人多花了数十亿美元。Cass Sunstein, former Obama Administration official and promoter of government policies that “nudge” people into avoiding making such predictable and costly mistakes, suggests that we should institute rules that force banks to make it very easy to refinance loans when interest rates fall. While this approach won’t be very popular with banks or mortgage investors, there’s plenty of research that shows that creating systems where it’s easier to make the right choice about your finances will lead to more people making those choices.曾在奥巴马政府中任职的凯斯o桑斯坦认为,政府政策应提醒人们避免这种可预知的高成本错误。在桑斯坦看来,美国应该制定法规,迫使在利率下降时让贷款再融资变得简单易行。虽然和按揭投资者不会非常喜欢这种做法,但有足够的研究明,如果我们建立的机制能让人们更容易地在财务方面做出正确选择,就会有更多的人进行这样的选择。This is also good way to approach the problem of the American retirement system, in which average citizens waste billions of dollars every year without making their futures more secure. Private companies have basically abandoned defined-benefit retirement programs, but that doesn’t mean they should abandon the idea that they are partly responsible for making their employees’ retirements as comfortable as possible. That means setting up automatic enrollment, automatic escalation of their contributions, and, most importantly, not giving the option to invest in high-fee funds. It also means that employers need to make sure that their employees have the knowledge to make the right choices.对美国的退休制度来说,这也是解决问题的好办法。普通美国民众每年在退休方面要浪费数十亿美元资金,却不能让自己未来的生活更有保障。私营公司基本上都已经放弃了养老金固定收益计划,但这并不是说这些公司不再承担责任了,企业还是应该设法让员工的退休生活变得尽可能舒适。这就意味着要建立自动注册和自动提高缴纳金额的机制,而且最重要的是,不要涉及高手续费基金投资。这也意味着企业需要确保员工可以凭借自己掌握的知识做出正确的选择。At the end of the day, there also must be a greater emphasis placed on financial education in public school systems so that, at the very least, the vast majority of consumers can understand a concept like compound interest. There may very well be five suckers born every minute in this country, but there’s no reason they have to remain suckers for the rest of their lives.总之,还要更重视公共教育体系中的金融课程,以便让绝大多数消费者最起码能够理解复利这样的概念。也许,美国每分钟确实有5个笨蛋出生,但绝对没有理由让他们在接下来的人生中一直当笨蛋。 /201409/329598

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