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来源:搜索常识    发布时间:2019年08月25日 14:47:20    编辑:admin         

Kim Jong Un LINKED TO FRIDAY ADVANCE PE aly rules North Korea like a medieval despot, but his latest eccentricity is actually trying to turn back time. To mark the 70th anniversary of victory over the “wicked Japanese imperialists the poobah of Pyongyang has decreed that his country will set its clocks half an hour later to reject the timezone Japan imposed during its occupation of the Korean peninsula.金正Kim Jong Un)已经像个中世纪专制君主那样统治朝鲜了,但他最近的怪异法令事实上是试图改变时间。为纪念战胜“邪恶的日本帝国主义0周年,这位朝鲜普巴(poobah,意为至高无上的君主——译者注)颁布法令,规定他的国家将把时区推后半小时,以抵制日本在占领朝鲜半岛时强加于朝鲜的时区。Eccentric it may be, but there is a history of rulers changing time zones to assert their power. When such decisions institutionalise real authority, they look masterful; when they substitute for it, they range from in to absurd.这一法令或许怪异,但历史上不乏统治者更改时区以彰显自己权力的先例。当这类决定将真正的权威制度化时,它们显得专横;而当这类决定只不过是假装权威时,它们呈现出从不安到荒谬的各种面貌。Time zones were forced by new technology but shaped by political whim. They emerged as the agricultural pulse set by the sun was replaced by the grinding rhythm of industry. In the agrarian mid-19th century the US had more than 300 time zones. As railways took over, a private sector solution emerged: in 1883 railroad companies imposed the four time zones that still exist.推进时区的是新科技,但时区的面貌则是由政治上的心血来潮决定的。当工业的刺耳节奏取代了太阳设定的农业节拍时,时区就诞生了。在农业社会时期9世纪中叶,美国有300多个时区。随着铁路的发展,一个私营部门解决方案诞生了:几家铁路公司在1883年强制分出四个时区,一直沿用至今。The world soon organised itself into longitudinal zones anchored on Greenwich Mean Time in London. But symbolic quirks and anomalies persist.全世界很快理顺了时间——基于伦敦格林尼治标准时GMT)划分成数个纵向时区,但具有象征意义的古怪、异常安排依然存在。Imposing a single timezone on a recalcitrant populace, as did the Japanese in Korea, is a show of power as well as of administrative efficiency. No one can control the sun but rulers can change how much of it their subjects see. Nazi Germany enforced uniform time on its conquered countries in western Europe. Russian President Vladimir Putin imposed Moscow time on Crimea after seizing the province last year.对不顺从的民众强行施加单一时区,就如日本曾经对朝鲜做过的那样,除了可以展示力量,还能提高行政效率。没人能控制太阳,但统治者可以控制臣民能看到多少阳光。纳粹德国在它占领的西欧国家实施统一时间。俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔渠Vladimir Putin)去年侵占克里米亚后,在该省强行实行了莫斯科时间。However, adopting inconvenient time zones for symbolic reasons begins to look like insecurity. After the Communist takeover in China in 1949, Mao Zedong imposed Beijing time nationwide. China now has one timezone covering latitudes where Russia has five. Inhabitants of western China have to get up in darkness for winter months on end. But introducing a new zone might look like a concession to the repressed discontents in the western region of Xinjiang, some of whom have informally adopted their own local time.但是,出于象征原因而采用不方便时区,就显得缺乏安全感了949年共产党接管中国后,毛泽东在全国推行了北京时间。中国现在只有一个时区,而横跨同样纬度范围的俄罗斯有五个时区。每年冬天,中国西部地区居民都有好几个月得在黑暗中起床。但实行新的时区,看起来可能像对新疆西部地区受压抑的不满分子作出让步,其中一些人已经非正式地用起了当地时间。Similarly, India combined several imperial time zones into one after independence from Britain in 1947, and then underlined the point by setting it an awkward five and a half hours ahead of London time. This wastes electricity, and farmers in Assam in India’s far east have to use an informal “tea garden timeto align the sun and the clock.同样地,1947年印度脱离英国独立后,也将英帝国统治时期的几个时区合并成一个,然后刻意将这个统一时间奇怪地设定为比伦敦时间早五个半小时。统一时区浪费电力,而且为了让太阳和时间相一致,印度最东边的省份阿萨姆邦的农民不得不使用非正式的“茶园时间”。And when a timezone is purely symbolic, it really can begin to look odd. President Hugo Chávez set Venezuela’s clocks back half an hour in 2007, putting them out of kilter with its neighbours, for no apparent reason but cussedness.而当一个时区的设定纯粹出于象征意义,它真的会显得奇怪007年委内瑞拉总统乌戈查韦Hugo Chávez)将本国时区调后半小时,让委内瑞拉的钟表与邻国对不上时间,这么做唯一明显的理由就是因为固执。The most entertaining example is Spain. It should really observe the same time as the UK and Portugal since the vast bulk of it is west of the Greenwich meridian. Instead it keeps central European Time, putting it in the same zone as Poland. A parliamentary commission has concluded that using the wrong clock keeps Spaniards up too late and makes them tired and unproductive.最有趣的例子莫过于西班牙。西班牙大部分国土都位于格林尼治子午线的西边,其实本应该与英国和葡萄牙遵循同样的时间。可是西班牙全国使用的是欧洲中部时间,与波兰位于同一个时区。西班牙的一个国会委员会已经得出结论,使用错误的时区导致西班牙人起得太晚,容易疲倦,且生产效率低下。The timezone is the legacy of the deep cunning of Francisco Franco. Knowing a terrible idea when he saw one, the dictator resisted pressure from Adolf Hitler to abandon neutrality and enter the second world war. But, realising the symbolic importance to fascism of uniformity in everything, he made the magnificently pointless gesture of adopting Berlin time. (A reminder: Hitler committed suicide as his Reich imploded in 1945; Franco died peacefully in office 30 years later.)西班牙现行时区是朗西斯科嬠朗Francisco Franco)留下的一个老谋深算的遗产。当年阿道夫希特Adolf Hitler)要求佛朗哥放弃中立、加入第二次世界大战,因为佛朗哥这个人对坏主意有敏锐的判断力,他抵挡住了希特勒的压力。但他知道一切保持一致对法西斯具有重要的象征意义,于是他作出了一个了不起的、毫无意义的姿态,改用了柏林时间。(提醒一下,1945年希特勒在德意志Reich)崩溃后自杀,而佛朗哥则是0年后安详地死于位上。)It is not hard to see where on the spectrum of absurdity North Korea’s action lies. Given its shambolic economy, it scarcely matters what timezone Pyong adopts. Japan may have lost the war, but its economic miracle won the peace. Mr Kim may change the clocks, but he cannot put history into reverse.不难看出朝鲜此次更改时区在“荒谬光谱”上处于何种位置。考虑到朝鲜一团糟的经济情况,平壤方面采取何种时区其实没多大重要性。日本当年输掉了战争,但日本的经济奇迹赢得了和平。金正恩能改变时区,但他无法逆转历史。来 /201508/394361。

The Sandy Bay area of Gibraltar, where the incursion is said to have occurred据称发生入侵行为的直布罗陀沙湾(Sandy Bay)地区The British Foreign Office has accused Spain of “a clear violation of UK sovereigntyfor sending ships into territorial waters off the coast of Gibraltar.英国外交British Foreign Office)谴责西班牙派遣船只进入直布罗陀沿岸领海的行为“明显侵犯了英国主权”。Officials in London raised the alarm after the Royal Navy escorted the Servicio de Vigilancia Aduanera the Spanish police’s drugs and money-laundering squad out of what the Foreign Office said were British waters over the weekend.伦敦的多名官员都发出了这一警告。此前,在上周末,英国皇家海Royal Navy)监视伴航西班牙海关监察队(Servicio de Vigilancia Aduanera,简称SVA,西班牙警方的反毒和反洗钱队伍)驶离英国外交部称为英国领海的水域。The row marks an escalation in the long-running dispute between the two countries over Gibraltar, which was ceded to Britain three centuries ago but which Spanish authorities want to reclaim.这一争执标志着英西两国围绕直布罗陀的长期争议出现升级。直布罗陀是三个世纪前割让给英国的,但西班牙当局希望收回直布罗陀的主权。Hugo Swire, Foreign Office minister, said on Sunday that he understood that the Spanish were pursuing vessels which may have been committing crimes.英国外交部国务大臣雨果斯怀Hugo Swire)上周日表示,他了解到西班牙方面当时在追逐可能在从事犯罪活动的船只。“However, it is completely unacceptable and unlawful under the international law of the sea to enter our waters without notifying us,he said.“然而,依据国际海洋法,在未通知我们的情况下进入我们的水域,是完全不可接受的和非法的行为,”斯怀尔表示。“These repeated incursions into British Gibraltar territorial waters are a clear violation of UK sovereignty by another EU country and we will be raising this as a matter of urgency with the Spanish authorities.”“对英国直布罗陀领海的多次入侵,是另一个欧EU)国家对英国主权的明显侵犯。我们将把这个问题作为紧急事项与西班牙当局展开磋商。”Last October, the British government expressed “grave concernover manoeuvres carried out by a Spanish research vessel off Gibraltar, and summoned the Spanish ambassador to discuss the issue.去年10月,英国政府对一艘西班牙科考船在直布罗陀沿海展开的机动表示“严重关切”,并曾召见西班牙大使讨论这一问题。In the most recent incident, the Spanish police pursued smugglers by boat and are also thought to have flown a helicopter over the Sandy Bay beach area on the east coast of the territory.在最近这起事件中,西班牙警方曾派遣舰艇追逐走私船,并被认为曾派一架直升机驶入直布罗陀东岸的沙湾海滩上空。Responding to reports of these activities, the Gibraltarian authorities said that they should have been asked to assist in catching the criminals once the chase looked like it would go into UK-controlled waters. Fabian Picardo, the chief minister, argued that the incursions had been dangerous.作为对有关上述活动报道的回应,直布罗陀当局表示,当这种追逐看起来有可能进入英国控制的水域时,本应立刻请求他们协助抓捕罪犯。直布罗陀总督费边皮卡尔多(Fabian Picardo)称,这种入侵行为很危险。“I am sure I am speaking for the whole of Gibraltar when I say that we consider this has been a serious and unnecessary failure on the part of the Spanish SVA [money-laundering squad] which has had outrageous consequences in respect of the violation of our sovereignty,he said.他说:“我确信我是在代表整个直布罗陀作如下表示:我们认为,这是西班牙SVA方面严重而毫无必要的失误,它在侵犯我们主权方面已造成了严重后果。”He added that the lack of co-operation had resulted in the escape of a criminal who should have faced justice for drug trafficking.皮卡尔多补充说,由于双方缺乏合作,已导致原本应因贩毒而面临审判的罪犯得以逃脱。“We all want to stop the drug smugglers,he said. “It beggars belief that the SVA have acted in this way that, in effect, has allowed a criminal who should be behind bars to get away.”他说:“我们都希望阻止贩毒。难以相信SVA会以这种方式行事,这种行事方式在实质上令本应被绳之以法的犯罪分子得以逃脱。”But the Spanish authorities denied any wrongdoing.不过,西班牙当局否认有过任何不当行为。An official from the foreign ministry said: “The waters are Spanish西班牙外交部一名官员称:“这片水域是西班牙的。”“It was Spanish boats patrolling in Spanish waters to control illegal activities such as tobacco smuggling or illegal fishing,the official added.这名官员补充说:“这次行动的性质是,西班牙舰艇为遏制烟草走私或非法等违法活动,在西班牙水域展开巡逻。”来 /201508/391726。

North Korea has declared a no-sail zone off its eastern coast, raising concerns about another missile test, according to South Korean military officials.据韩国军方官员称,朝鲜在其东海岸划定了一个禁航区,引发了对朝鲜再次进行导弹测试的担忧。The no-sail zone, which covers an area near the eastern coastal city of Wonsan, is effective from November 11 to December 7, the officials said this week. Reports say the order was first circulated through North Koreas internal communication channels.韩国官员本周表示,禁航区在朝鲜东部港口城市元山附近,禁航期为111日至12日。有关报道说,这一指令首先是通过朝鲜内部交流通道传出来的。North Korea does not appear to have notified international organizations of the move. In an email to VOA on Monday, the U.N.’s International Maritime Organization said it has not received any notification from North Korea regarding a no sail declaration.朝鲜似乎并没有就这一举动知会国际组织。周一,联合国国际海事组织在发给美国之音的邮件中说,还没有收到来自朝鲜的关于宣告禁航的任何通知。Analysts in Seoul say Pyongyang could launch a mid-range missile or a new type of ballistic missile considering the extent of coverage.首尔的分析人士称,考虑到这次禁航区的范围之广,平壤可能会发射一枚中程导弹,或是一种新型弹道导弹。But a South Korean official who asked to remain anonymous told VOA the communist country declared no sail zones multiple times over the past few months, but did not follow with a missile launch.但是一名不愿透露姓名的韩国官员告诉美国之音,过去几个月间,这个共产主义国家划设了几次禁航区,但是并没有发射导弹。The North Korean move comes amid news reports that U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon plans to travel to Pyongyang this week. Citing a high-level U.N. source, South Korea’s Yonhap news agency said Ban is likely to meet with Kim Jong Un. But the report has not yet been confirmed by the U.N..就在朝鲜作出这一举动的同时,有报道称联合国秘书长潘基文计划本周前往平壤。一位联合国高级别的消息人士表示,韩国联合通讯社称潘基文很可能与金正恩会面。不过这份报道还没有得到联合国的实。来 /201511/410697。

An air-conditioner? A child’s Spider-Man costume? Chinese-made plastic flowers? A bag of dried fish or a bottle of French champagne? On a typical weekday morning scores of Indian shoppers are hunting for bargains just over the border in the Myanmar town of Namphalong. They can even pay in Indian rupees.空调机?蜘蛛Spider-Man)童装?中国制造的塑料花?还是一袋干鱼或一瓶法国香槟?在一个典型的周末上午,大量印度顾客都会越过边境,到缅甸的南帕隆镇(Namphalong)去买便宜货。他们甚至可以付印度卢比。Dozens of porters, pushing handcarts or balancing cardboard boxes on their heads, walk steadily into Moreh on the Indian side of the frontier in the north-eastern state of Manipur, laden with mangos, onions and coconuts.数十名行李搬运工,推着手推车或头顶纸箱(里面都装满了芒果、洋葱和椰子),稳步走进边境线印度一侧的莫雷(Moreh)。莫雷位于印度东北部的曼尼普尔区(Manipur)。The retail trade on foot is vigorous enough, but it is all a long way from the Indian vision of turning Moreh into a modern commercial road and rail gateway to east Asia.这种依靠步行的零售贸易很有活力,但它距离印度的目标——把莫雷打造成东亚现代化商业的公路铁路门户——还有很大差距。Narendra Modi, India’s prime minister, has tried to inject new vigour into the plan by rebranding New Delhi’s old “Look Eastpolicy as “Act East The winding, potholed road uphill from the Manipuri capital Imphal to the border with Myanmar has been labelled hopefully with green and white AH1 signs, denoting the theoretical Asian Highway One linking Istanbul to Tokyo via Kolkata and Bangkok.印度总理纳伦德拉莫迪(Narendra Modi)曾尝试为该方案注入新的活力,把新德里方面旧有的“向东看Look East)政策重新定位为“向东行动Act East)政策。这条由曼尼普尔区首府英帕尔(Imphal)通向印缅边境、蜿蜒曲折、崎岖不同的上坡道路,已被满怀希望地挂上了绿白相间的“AH1”标志。AH1是指理论上的从伊斯坦布尔经由加尔各答和曼谷通往东京的亚洲公号线。Yet the slow pace of road and railway building, the prohibition of cross-border truck traffic, rebel insurgencies, the obstacle course of intrusive military checkpoints in India and the reluctance of the governments on either side of the frontier to embrace free trade has left locals sceptical about the future.不过,公路铁路建设的步伐缓慢、跨境卡车交通被禁、叛乱迭起、印度境内突兀的军事检查点构成的交通障碍路段,以及两国政府不愿接受自由贸易,都令当地人对未来贸易增长感到怀疑。“Act East or Look East it’s a bluff,says Amar Yumnam, economics professor at Manipur University, who compares India unfavourably with China when it comes to the building of roads and railways for trading with its neighbours. He gives credit to Mr Modi for talking to India’s neighbours about investment and development, but says the message has yet to percolate down to the relevant bureaucrats.“不管向东看还是向东行动,那都是虚张声势,”曼尼普尔大Manipur University)经济学教授阿马尔鄠纳Amar Yumnam)说。谈到建设公路铁路、促进与邻国贸易问题上,云纳姆认为印度比不上中国。他称赞莫迪与邻国进行投资与开发谈判,但表示,这一信息还没有向下传递到相关官员那里。“In 1994, a [Myanmar-India] border trade agreement was signed. The same day they signed a security agreement, and that agreement has been more prominent. In Moreh there’s no visibility of any kind of infrastructure...戠甀琀 you’ll face all the inconveniences related to security.”994年签署了(缅印)边境贸易协议。同一天,他们还签署了一项安全协议,安全协议一直更重要。在莫雷,我们根本看不到任何种类的基础设施……但你将承受跟安全相关的所有不便利之处。”Like Bangladesh, which now separates India’s north-eastern states from the rest of the subcontinent, India and Myanmar (then Burma) were both part of the British Raj. But mountainous terrain and half a century of military dictatorship in Myanmar from 1962 left the country largely cut off from its Indian neighbour to the west. Bilateral trade has recently increased to reach more than bn a year, but only about 1 per cent of that is by land.就像把印度东北部各邦跟南亚次大陆分隔开来的孟加拉国一样,印度与缅甸也都曾是英属印度的组成部分。但多山地形,加上缅甸从1962年以来半个世纪的军事独裁,使得缅甸基本上跟西面的邻国印度断绝了来往。近来缅印双边贸易有所增加,年贸易额突破了20亿美元,但其中仅有约1%是通过陆路实现的。“Indo-Myanmar trade is not up to the mark,says Mahesh Singh, an Indian customs inspector at the Moreh border. “Only betel nut is imported, and in exchange wheat flour and bleach are exported mainly these three items.”“目前印缅贸易达不到标准,”莫雷边境的印度海关检查员马赫什鬠格(Mahesh Singh)说。“印度只进口槟榔果,出口小麦面和漂白剂——主要就这三种物品。”With border trade restricted to a barter system rather than money for just 62 approved items, and exclusively for domestic products made either in Myanmar or India, it is no surprise that only about 30 truckloads of goods a month are officially crossing the frontier.由于边境贸易仅限于易货贸易——而不使用货币——仅针对62种获批物品,并且仅限于缅甸或印度境内生产的物品,所以每个月只有0辆卡车的货物跨过边境,也就不足为怪了。Asked whether Mr Modi’s “Act Eastdrive has galvanised trade, one surprised customs officer responds as he stamps more papers: “But that’s just government policy. We just do our work.”在被问及莫迪的“向东行动”计划是否促进了贸易时,一名吃惊的海关官员一边在更多文件上盖章,一边回答:“但那只是政府的政策。我们只做我们的事。 /201507/387800。