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Harper Lee, whose first novel, “To Kill a Mockingbird,” about racial injustice in a small Alabama town, sold more than 10 million copies and became one of the most beloved and most taught works of fiction ever written by an American, has died. She was 89.哈珀·李(Harper Lee)的第一本小说《杀死一只知更鸟》(To Kill a Mockingbird)讲述的是阿拉巴马州一座小城里的种族不公,共卖出1000多万册,成为最受喜爱、最多用作教材的美国小说之一。哈珀·李去世,享年89岁。Her death was confirmed by HarperCollins, her publisher.她的死讯得到了她的出版商哈珀柯林斯出版社(HarperCollins)的确认。The instant success of “To Kill a Mockingbird,” which was published in 1960 and won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction the next year, turned Lee into a literary celebrity, a role she found oppressive and never learned to accept. The enormous success of the film version of the novel, released in 1962 with Gregory Peck in the starring role of Atticus Finch, a small-town Southern lawyer who defends a black man falsely accused of raping a white woman, only added to Lee#39;s fame and fanned expectations for her next novel.《杀死一只知更鸟》1960年出版,很快获得成功,第二年获得普利策奖(Pulitzer Prize),哈珀·李因此成为文学名人,这个角色让她觉得很沉重,从未学会接受。1962年,根据这本小说改编的电影上映,由格利高里·派克(Gregory Peck) 饰演主角阿蒂克斯·芬奇(Atticus Finch)——他是南方小城里的一名律师,为一个遭到诬告强奸白人妇女的黑人辩护。电影的巨大成功增长了李的名声,人们更加期待她的下一部小说。For more than half a century, it failed to appear. Then, in 2015, long after the ing public had given up on seeing anything more from Lee, a sequel appeared under mysterious circumstances.在之后的半个多世纪里,她没有再出版小说。2015年,在广大读者不再指望看到李的任何新书很久之后,一部续集在神秘的情况下出现了。“I never expected any sort of success with `Mockingbird,”#39; Lee told a radio interviewer in 1964. “I was hoping for a quick and merciful death at the hands of the reviewers, but, at the same time I sort of hoped someone would like it well enough to give me encouragement.” Instead, she said, “I got rather a whole lot, and in some ways this was just about as frightening as the quick, merciful death I#39;d expected.”1964年,李在接受电台采访时说:“我从没想过《知更鸟》能取得任何成功。我以为家们会很快仁慈地判它死刑,但是与此同时,我有点希望有人会喜欢它,给我一点鼓励。”她说,但是实际上“我得到了太多赞美,从某种程度上讲,这和我本来期望的快速仁慈的死亡一样可怕”。Lee gained a reputation as a literary Garbo, a recluse whose public appearances to accept an award or an honorary degree counted as important news simply because of their rarity. On such occasions she did not speak, other than to say a brief thank you.李被誉为文学界的嘉宝(Garbo),过着隐居生活,极少公开露面,偶尔接受奖项或荣誉学位都会成为重要新闻。在这些场合,她从不演讲,只是简短地说“谢谢”。In Feb. 2015, her publisher, Harper, an imprint of HarperCollins, dropped a bombshell. It announced plans to publish a manuscript, long thought to be lost, that Lee submitted to her editors in 1957 under the title “Go Set a Watchman.” Lee#39;s lawyer, Tonja B. Carter, had chanced upon it, attached to an original typescript of “To Kill a Mockingbird,” while looking through Lee#39;s papers, the publishers explained. It told the story of Atticus and Scout 20 years later, when Scout is a young woman living in New York, and included several scenes in which Atticus expresses conservative views on race relations seemingly at odds with his liberal stance in the earlier novel.2015年2月,她的出版商、哈珀柯林斯出版社旗下的哈珀宣布了一个令人震惊的消息。它计划出版一份被认为早已遗失的手稿,那是李1957年提交给编辑们的手稿,标题是《设立守望者》(Go Set a Watchman)。出版社解释说,李的律师托尼娅·B·卡特(Tonja B. Carter)在浏览李的文件时偶然发现它附在《杀死一只知更鸟》原始打字稿后面。它讲述的是20年后阿蒂克斯和斯考特(Scout)的故事,那时年轻的斯考特生活在纽约,在某些场景中,阿蒂克斯表达了一些关于种族关系的保守观点,似乎与之前小说中他的自由主义立场不太一致。The book was published in July with an initial printing of 2 million and, with enormous advance sales, immediately leapt to the top of the fiction best-seller lists, despite tepid reviews.这本小说于2015年7月出版,初印200万册,由于预售量巨大,它很快跃升至虚构类畅销书榜首,尽管它并未受到热烈好评。The book soared miles above such criticisms. By the late 1970s “To Kill a Mockingbird” had sold nearly 10 million copies, and in 1988 the National Council of Teachers of English reported that it was being taught in 74 percent of the nation#39;s secondary schools. A decade later Library Journal declared it the best novel of the 20th century.这些批评并未阻挡这本小说的人气。到20世纪70年代末,《杀死一只知更鸟》已售出近1000万册,1988年,美国英语教师全国委员会(National Council of Teachers of English)报告称,这本小说被美国74%的中学用作教材。十年后,《图书馆杂志》(Library Journal)宣布,它是20世纪最好的小说。Nelle Harper Lee was born in the poky little town of Monroeville, in southern Alabama, the youngest of four children. “Nelle” was a backward spelling of her maternal grandmother#39;s first name, and Lee dropped it when “To Kill a Mockingbird” was published, out of fear that ers would pronounce it Nellie, which she hated.内尔·哈珀·李(Nelle Harper Lee)出生在阿拉巴马州南部小城门罗维尔(Monroeville),是四个孩子中最小的一个。内尔是她外祖母名字的反向拼写,李在出版《杀死一只知更鸟》时去掉了这个名字,因为担心读者会把它念成Nellie,她很讨厌这种念法。Her father, Asa Coleman Lee, was a prominent lawyer and the model for Atticus Finch, who shared his stilted diction and lofty sense of civic duty. Her mother, Frances Finch Lee, also known as Miss Fanny, was overweight and emotionally fragile. Truman Capote, a friend of Lee#39;s from childhood, later said that Nelle#39;s mother had tried to drown her in the bathtub on two occasions, an assertion that Lee indignantly denied.她的父亲亚萨·科尔曼·李(Asa Coleman Lee)是著名律师,是阿蒂克斯·芬奇的原型。芬奇生硬的措辞和崇高的公民责任感来源于他。她的妈妈弗朗西丝·芬奇·李(Frances Finch Lee)又称范妮(Miss Fanny),她体胖,感情脆弱。李从儿时起的朋友杜鲁门·卡波特(Truman Capote)后来说,内尔的妈妈曾两次想把她溺死在浴缸里。李愤怒地否定了这一说法。Lee was a tough little tomboy who enjoyed beating up the local boys, climbing trees and rolling in the dirt. “A dress on the young Nelle would have been as out of place as a silk hat on a hog,” recalled Marie Rudisill, Capote#39;s aunt, in her book “Truman Capote: The Story of His Bizarre and Exotic Boyhood by an Aunt Who Helped Raise Him.”李小时候是个固执的假小子,喜欢跟当地的男孩子打架,爬树,在泥地上打滚。卡波特的姨妈玛丽·鲁迪西尔(Marie Rudisill)在自己的书《杜鲁门·卡波特:帮助养育他的姨妈讲述他奇特的童年》(Truman Capote: The Story of His Bizarre and Exotic Boyhood by an Aunt Who Helped Raise Him)中回忆说:“小内尔穿上连衣裙就像猪戴上大礼帽一样格格不入。”One boy on the receiving end of Nelle#39;s thrashings was Truman Persons (later Capote), who spent several summers next door to Nelle with relatives. The two became fast friends, acting out adventures from “The Rover Boys” and, after Nelle#39;s father gave the two children an old Underwood typewriter, making up their own stories to dictate to each other.喜欢跟内尔打闹的其中一个男孩就是杜鲁门·珀森斯(后来改姓卡波特),有几个夏天,他住在内尔隔壁的姨妈家。他们俩很快成为朋友,进行《罗弗男孩》(The Rover Boys)中的探险,内尔的父亲送给这俩孩子一台旧Underwood打字机,他俩自己编故事,让对方打字。Capote later wrote Nelle into his first book, “Other Voices, Other Rooms,” where she appears as the tomboy Idabel Tompkins. She made a repeat appearance as Ann Finchburg, nicknamed Jumbo, in his story “The Thanksgiving Visitor.” Lee returned the favor, casting Capote in the role of the little blond tale-spinner Dill in “To Kill a Mockingbird.”后来,卡波特把内尔写进自己的第一本书《其他声音,其他房间》(Other Voices, Other Rooms)里,成为书中假小子埃达贝尔·汤普金斯(Idabel Tompkins)的原型。在他的小说《感恩节来客》(The Thanksgiving Visitor)中,她再次以安妮·芬奇伯格(Ann Finchburg)的身份出现,昵称江波(Jumbo)。作为回报,李在《杀死一只知更鸟》中把卡波特写成很会编故事的白人小男孩迪尔(Dill)。Lee attended Huntingdon College, a local Methodist school for women, where she contributed occasional articles to the campus newspaper and two fictional vignettes to the college#39;s literary magazine. After a year at Huntingdon, Lee transferred to the University of Alabama to study law, primarily to please her father. Her own interests, and perhaps her disposition, led her elsewhere. After her senior year, she spent a summer at Oxford University as part of a student-exchange program. On her return from England, she decided to go to New York and become a writer.李后来上了当地女子循道公会学校亨廷登学院(Huntingdon College),她偶尔给学校报纸投稿,还在学校的文学杂志上发表过两篇虚构短文。在亨廷登上了一年之后,她转去阿拉巴马大学(University of Alabama)学习法律,主要是为了讨父亲欢心。她自己的兴趣和性情则把她带到了别的领域。大四之后,作为交换生,她在牛津大学(Oxford University)呆了一个夏天。从英国回来之后,她决定去纽约当作家。Lee arrived in Manhattan in 1949 and settled into a cold-water apartment in the East 80s. After working briefly at a bookstore, she found work as a reservations agent, first for Eastern Airlines and later for BOAC. At night she wrote on a desk made from a door. The local colony of displaced Southerners regarded her askance. “We didn#39;t think she was up to much,” recalled Louise Sims, the wife of the saxophonist Zoot Sims. “She said she was writing a book, and that was that.”1949年,李来到曼哈顿,住在East 80s一个只提供冷水的公寓里。她在一家书店短暂工作了一段时间,之后开始做预订员,先是为东方航空公司(Eastern Airlines),后来是为英国海外航空公司(BOAC)。晚上,她在一个用门改成的书桌上写作。周围的南方人对她不以为然。萨克斯管演奏家祖特·西姆斯(Zoot Sims)的妻子露易丝·西姆斯(Louise Sims)回忆说:“当时我们觉得她不会有什么成就。她说她在写书,就这样。”Editors at Lippincott told Lee that her manuscript like a string of anecdotes, not a novel, but encouraged her to revise. Eventually they paid a small advance and assigned her to work with Tay Hohoff, an experienced editor with whom she developed a close working and personal relationship.利平科特出版社(Lippincott)的编辑们对李说,她的书稿读起来像一连串轶事,不像小说,但是鼓励她重写。最后,他们付给她一小笔定金,安排她和资深编辑泰·霍霍夫(Tay Hohoff)合作,她和霍霍夫建立起亲密的工作和私人关系。Signs of its success were visible almost immediately after it was published in July 1960. Both Book-of-the-Month Club and the Literary Guild made the novel one of their selections, and Reader#39;s Digest selected it for publication in condensed form. A week after its publication, it jumped to the top of the best-seller lists; it remained there for 88 weeks.1960年7月,这本小说几乎一出版就显现出成功的迹象。每月一书俱乐部(Book-of-the-Month Club)和文学行会(Literary Guild)都选中了它,《读者文摘》(Reader#39;s Digest)出版了它的缩略版。出版一周后,它跃升至畅销书榜首,占据榜首之位88周。In one of her last interviews, with a Chicago radio show in 1964, Lee talked in some detail about her literary ambition: to describe, in a series of novels, the world she grew up in and now saw disappearing. “This is small-town middle-class Southern life as opposed to the Gothic, as opposed to `Tobacco Road,#39; as opposed to plantation life,” she told her interviewer, adding that she was fascinated by the “rich social pattern” in such places. “I would simply like to put down all I know about this because I believe that there is something universal in this little world, something decent to be said for it, and something to lament in its passing,” she continued. “In other words, all I want to be is the Jane Austen of South Alabama.”1964年,李在接受芝加哥一家电台采访(那时她最后几次接受采访)时较为详细地讲述了自己的文学志向:用一系列小说讲述她成长过程中经历的如今正在消失的那个世界。“我想讲述南方小城中产阶级的生活,不是哥特式的,不是《烟草路》里的那种生活,也不是种植园的生活,”她对采访者说。她说自己痴迷于这些地方“丰富的社会模式”。她接着说:“我只是想把自己知道的关于这里的一切写下来,因为我相信这个小世界里有某种共通的东西,有值得讲述的高尚事物,它的逝去值得哀悼。换句话说,我唯一想要的就是做阿拉巴马南部的简·奥斯汀(Jane Austen)。”News of the rediscovery of “Go Set a Watchman” threw the literary world into turmoil. Many critics, as well as friends of Lee, found the timing and the rediscovery story suspicious, and openly questioned whether Lee, who was shielded from the press by Carter, was mentally competent to approve its publication. It remained an open question, for many critics, whether “Go Set a Watchman” was anything more than the initial draft of “To Kill a Mockingbird.”重新发现《设立守望者》的消息在文学界引起轩然。很多家以及李的很多朋友觉得重新发现书稿的时机和故事很可疑,公开质疑李是否精神健全,能否同意出版。卡特不让李接受媒体采访。对很多者来说,《设立守望者》是否就是《杀死一只知更鸟》的初稿仍是一个悬而未决的问题。In a statement, Lee, who said that she had assumed the manuscript was lost, wrote, “After much thought and hesitation, I shared it with a handful of people I trust and was pleased to hear that they considered it worthy of publication.”李在声明中说,她以为那部手稿已经遗失,“经过再三思考,我给少数几个我信任的人看了这部手稿,他们认为它值得出版,我听了很高兴。” /201602/4275061.The Origins of Halloween万圣节的起源Halloween is thought to have originated around 4000 B.C., which means Halloween has been around for over 6,000 years as we know it today, borrow traditions from different festivals namely: the Roman feralia festival commemorating for dead, the roman Pomona festival honoring the goddess of fruit and trees, the Celtic festival Samuin, meaning ;summer#39;s end;, which comprise the bulk of origins of Halloween traditions, the Catholic Hallowmas period of ;All soul#39;s Day; and All Saint#39;s Day which was instigated around 800 by a church to try to replace Samuin.万圣节起源于公元前4000年,迄今为止已经延续六千年了。万圣节汲取了几种不同节日的传统:纪念死者的Feralia节、纪念果树女神的Pomona节、凯尔特Samuin节(万圣节的主要传统习俗均源于此)、万灵节,以及圣人节(公元800年时由一家教堂发起,替代之前的凯尔特Samuin节)。2.Color颜色Black and orange are the international colors of Halloween. Black, of course, is a sign of death, gloom and the foreboding night, which are all associated with Halloween. Orange is a traditional emblem of fortitude, survival and power, which signify the harvest, and the colors of fall. Halloween is where death (winter) takes over from the life-giving fall harvest, hence the mixtures of black and orange come festival time.黑色和橘红色是万圣节的标配。黑色,意味着死亡、忧郁,预示着夜色到来。橘红色代表着不屈不挠、重生、力量,标志着秋收累累。万圣节过后,死亡(冬季)取代硕果累累的秋季。因此,万圣节的颜色是黑色和橘红色。3.Costumes装The custom of wearing costumes or masks comes from Celtic tradition of young men impersonating evil spirits, by dressing up in white costumes with blackened faces or masks in an attempt to placate these spirit.万圣节的装扮源自凯尔特年轻人模仿幽灵的传统,年轻人穿着白色衣,把脸涂黑,或者带上面具,以安抚幽灵。4.Trick or Treat不给糖,就捣蛋Trick or Treating has a short history. In 19th century Scotland and Ireland, there is some records of children travelling door-to-door praying for souls or performing for money or cakes on All Hallows Eve. However, the tradition is a short step from the medieval practice of souling, in which beggars went door to door on October 31 to pray for souls in return for food. The food given was often a Soul Cake, which was a small round cake which represented a soul being freed from Purgatory when the cake was eaten. Today Trick or Treat means ;gives us a treat or we#39;ll pull a prank on you;.;不给糖,就捣蛋;历史较短。十九世纪,一些苏格兰和爱尔兰儿童在万圣节前夕,挨家挨户为灵魂祈祷,或进行表演,索要饼干或小费。然而,相比于中世纪时期乞丐们在10月31日挨家挨户地为灵魂祈祷以换取食物,这已经迈出了一小步。那时,给乞丐们的食物被称作灵魂饼,一种小圆饼。当饼干被吃掉的时候,一个灵魂就会从炼狱中释放出来。如今,不给糖就捣蛋的意思是;给我们糖果,不然我们就会给你来场恶作剧;。5.Jack O#39;Lanterns南瓜灯According to Irish legend, Jack O#39;Lanterns are named after a man named Jack. This crafty fellow fooled the devil on numerous occasions and, as a result, his soul was condemned to hang about Earth for all eternity. Jack, barred from both heaven and hell, put the burning ember given to him by Beelzebub into the very first ;jack-o-lantern;, in order to ward off any more encounters with the Evil one.爱尔兰传说中,南瓜灯以一个男人的名字Jack命名。Jack愚弄恶魔很多次,最终,他死后,灵魂被罚永世在天地间游荡。他的亡灵既不能上天堂,也不能入地狱,只好把Beelzebub给他的蜡烛放在第一个南瓜灯内,以免自己遇到恶魔。6.Turnips Instead of Pumpkins萝卜还是南瓜The first Jack O#39;Lanterns were actually made from turnips by the Celts to ward off evil spirits during Samuin, The Celts would hollow out turnips then carve faces in them and place candles inside. The turnips were then either placed in the windows to keep evil spirits from encountering a home or carried around as lanterns. The tradition eventually melded with the North American tradition of carving pumpkins.事实上,第一个南瓜灯是由白萝卜做的。凯尔特人挖空白萝卜,在表面雕上人脸的形状,再把蜡烛放在里面。然后把它放在窗户上,以免幽灵进入房间,或者随身携带。后来,这一习俗和北美人民雕刻南瓜的习俗融合在一起,形成了现在的南瓜灯。 /201510/406909Mao Dun(1896~1981), originally named Shen Dehong, styled Yanbing, was born in Tongxiang County, Zhejiang Province.茅盾( 1896~1981),原名沈德鸿,字雁冰,浙江桐乡人。He was concerned, heart and soul, with the social reality.他全身心关注社会现实生活。He felt the pulse of the times by presenting the panorama with strong sense of responsibility and mission, and deep and whole-hearted political enthusiasm. He thought in a rational way through the meticulous observation.以高度的责任感和使命感、深沉饱满的政治热情,全景式地把握时代历史脉搏,在精细观察中进行理性思考和社会思考。He initiated the new paradigm of ;social anatomy novel; since the May Fourth Movement.由此开创了五四以来文学创作“社会剖析小说”的新范式。The millions of words of short stories, novelle and full-length novels created by Mao Dun truthfully revealed the political fluctuations and vicissitudes of the times in almost half of the century. They not only reflected the various social problems people were concerned about and the contradictions and conflicts that caused them, but also exposed the social roots of these problems. 创作了数百万言的短、中、长篇小说,真实展示了近半个世纪中国社会政治变幻的风云和时势变迁。Mao Dun wrote The Canker, including three loosely related novelle: Disillusion, Wavering and Search. The three short stories, Spring Silkworms, Autumn Harrest and The Last Days of Winter, were called Trilogy of the Villages. His celebrated full-length novels included Rainbow, Midnight and Corrosion. These works manifested Mao Dun#39;s artistic talent for depicting the complexities of society and historical trends. Thus Mao Dun established his position in modern Chinese literature as an outstanding writer of revolutionary realism.他的代表作有以《幻灭》、《动摇》、《追求》三个中篇构成的《蚀》三部曲,农村三部曲《春蚕》、《秋收》和《残冬》,长篇小说《虹》、《子夜》、《腐蚀》等。Midnight, a milestone in Mao Dun#39;s writing career, was the product of Mao Dun#39;s profound understanding of life and artistic ability.其中《子夜》是茅盾运用社会分析进行创作的典范之作。By making a cogent and penetrating analysis of the misshapen politics, economy and society of the modern city, Mao Dun drew a grandiose scene of the intricate class contradiction of the early 1930#39;s.小说对现代都市畸形的政治、经济、社会作了全面剖析,绘制了一幅30年代初中国社会错综复杂的阶级矛盾的宏大图景。In modern Chinese literary history it became the first epic writing, with the demeanor of modern urban literature, to reflect directly the fundamental conflict in the process of modernization in Chinese history.成为中国现代文学史上第一部正面反映中国历史现代化进程基本矛盾,并具有现代都市文学风采的史诗性作品。Corrosion was written in the form of a diary, a convenient medium for revealing the private thoughts of the heroine, a secret agent. The complexities of her inner world were meticulously described: her pangs of conscience after she had been deceived, her self-confession, self-derision and self-defense, and her painful struggle as she decided to break away with the evil way of life that had ruined her ideals.日记体长篇小说《腐蚀》,通过描写一个女特务由堕落到悔过自新的心理过程,挖掘了这个被污染的灵魂未曾泯灭的人性,更多地转向了人物内心世界的展露。In literary theory, Mao Dun adhered all the time to the stand that revolutionary realism should be in step with Chinese revolution and opposed the trend of formalism and conceptualization. He laid stress on the probe into artistic form and technique.在文艺理论方面,茅盾始终坚持革命现实主义的文艺应与中国的革命取得统一步调,反对公式化、概念化的倾向,注重艺术形式与技巧的探索。He was also one of the pioneers of modern iterary criticism in China. Mao Dun was a literary theorist and critic of sweeping significance after Lu Xun.他还是中国现代文学批评的开创者之一,是继鲁迅之后具有广泛影响的文艺理论家与批评家。 /201602/427864A true sign of great style is the ability to “shop smart” and find the staple items you need for each season. For winter, knitwear is one such necessity.超级潮人都拥有“只买对的”的能力,他们总能找到每个季节的不可缺少的基本款。在冬天,针织衫就是这种必备单品。Knitwear is both comfortable and affordable. But if you style it incorrectly, it could easily make you look like a tubby teddy bear.针织衫既舒适又实惠。不过如果你选错了款式,它可能轻而易举地把你变成臃肿的泰迪熊。Want to keep warm in a stylish way? Here are some knitwear tips to help you look hot even on the coldest days.想要保暖又时髦?下面这些小贴士或能帮你在寒冷的时候保持热辣美丽~ /201512/413733

Tang Dynasty唐朝Prosperity of Zhenguan贞观之治The Tang Dynasty (618—907) witnessed the first period of florescence in the reign (627—649) of Emperor Taizong,唐朝(618——907)在太宗在位期间达到了第一次全盛时期,which was called the Prosperity of Zhenguan, an era of peace and prosperity.这个时期被称为“贞观之治”喻意和平与繁荣。During his 23 years of reign, Taizong did more for the empire than any emperor before him.在唐太宗执政的23年间,他比之前的帝王为这个国家付出了更多。Through firm leadership and a positive example, the new emperor set about reforming agriculture, manufacturing and commerce.通过严格的领导和正面的榜样,这位新皇帝开始改革农业、制造业和商业。In his words: the waters can both float and capsize a vessel.用他的话来说“水能载舟亦能覆舟”。This view led to humane policies, a strong economy and the commercial enterprise,这样的看法带来了“仁政爱民”的政策、强大的经济与商业,which became second to none throughout the known world.使它们都成为了全世界首屈一指的事业。Political progress was achieved by the overhaul of the examination system first introduced by the Sui Dynasty (581 —618) for the appointment of officials.政治上的进步来源于科举制度的修订,这个制度在隋朝(581——618)时期被首次提出用来选拔官员。This system ensured only the best men regardless of their class or background could be appointed to vital posts within the government of the country.这种制度保了只有最优秀的人,无论他们来自什么阶级或背景,才能够出任国家政府中的重要岗位。Political corruption was virtually unknown as a result of these sound administrative structures.正是由于这种可靠的行政结构,政治腐败几乎不曾出现。He adopted favorable policies for agriculture to reduced taxes and reward farming.唐太宗针对农业采取了优惠政策,减免了税收、实行了耕种奖励制。Taizong endeavored to promote exchanges between nations.太宗致力于加强各国之间的交流。Princess Wencheng left Chang#39;an (present-day Xi#39;an in Shaanxi Province) to marry Songtsan Gambo,king of the Tubo kingdom, which was located about 3 000 kilometers to the west.文成公主离开长安(今陕西省西安市)嫁给了远在3000公里之外的吐蕃国王松赞干布。This pioneered amicable relations between the Tang and the Tubo and contributed to the development of China as a multinational country.这不仅开辟了大唐和吐蕃间的友好关系还为中国作为一个多民族的国家的发展做出了贡献。 /201511/405196

Colder weather is setting in and with the change of seasons you might also notice more people coughing, sneezing and calling in sick. It#39;s a harsh reality that these chilly months are strongly associated with the cold and flu.天气慢慢地越变越冷了,随着季节的更迭你也许会发现越来越多的人在咳嗽、打喷嚏、生病啥的。寒冬腊月离不开感冒、流感的,这是亘古不变的事实。If your current plan to stay healthy this winter begins and ends at drinking extra orange juice, you might want to rethink that strategy. From getting outside to eating right, there a lot of surprising things you can do to minimize your chances of coming down with the cold or flu. Doctors and health experts shared their lesser-known tips for staying healthy this winter.今年冬天,如果你目前的保持健康计划从头到尾都是多喝果汁的话,那你可能就要重新考虑一下你的策略了。从去户外到合理饮食,你可以做很多新奇的事情减小因感冒或流感使你病倒的几率。今年冬天,医生和健康专家们分享了他们鲜为人知的健康小贴士。Drink Tea喝茶;Even if you are not a regular tea drinker, try sipping on a cup or two daily during cold and flu season,; said Jenna Gagnon, the communications specialist for Aidance Skincare. ;Steam from tea stimulates cilia, which are those little hairs inside your nose. Think about cilia as the air filter of nose; keep the cilia healthy and abundant to keep germs from making you sick.;协助护肤品(Aidance Skincare)沟通专家珍娜·盖格农称:;就算你不经常喝茶,尽量试着在流感季节每天小饮一两杯;。;茶里面的蒸汽促进纤毛生长,就是你鼻子里面的细毛。;纤毛就好比鼻子的空气过滤器,保持纤毛的健康和繁盛,防止细菌滋生让你病倒。Soak Up Sun沐浴阳光;We all think of vitamin C as the immune booster, but recent research has shown that vitamin D greatly effects the immune system,; said Dr. Scott M. Schreiber, a chiropractic physician, certified nutrition specialist and Delaware’s only board certified rehabilitation specialist. ;[Vitamin D] has been shown to elevate that activity of immune cells.;脊骨神经医学、持营养专家、特拉华州唯一资格认的康复专家斯考特·M·施赖伯士称:;我们都认为维他命C能够增强抵抗力,但近来一项研究显示维他命D也有助于增强免疫系统。;;研究显示,维他命D能够提升免疫因子的运动。;Get Dirty变脏;Exposing yourself to dirt (and microorganisms) can have a long-lasting impact on your immune system,; Schreiber said. ;As a society, we fear getting dirty, when in fact, (studies have shown) it is extremely beneficial.;施赖伯说:;多接触尘土(和微生物)对你的免疫系统有着长久的影响。;;在社会中,我们害怕变得很脏,但实际上,(研究显示)尘土极其有益。;Stay Hydrated多喝水;As part of overall good health habits, it#39;s important to maintain good hydration, regardless of the season,; said Medical Director at Cassena Care Dr. Joel Blass. ;In colder weather, the body#39;s metabolismrevs up and you tend to exhale more moisture than usual—it’s important to replenish those fluids.卡塞纳护理的医学主任乔尔·布拉斯士称:;不管哪个季节,作为全面的、好的健康习惯的一部分,保持体内良好的水合作用很重要。;;在冰冷的天气中,体内的新陈代谢运动加速,你就会比平常呼出更多的水分。所以补充水分就变得很重要了。;Bundle Up把自己裹起来;It is always a good idea to dress appropriately for the seasons. Fashion aside, there is a health benefit to keeping warm in cold weather,; Blass said. ;Cold weather stresses the immune system, and so, while the term ‘catching a cold’ may be a misnomer…a weakened immune system can make you more susceptible to those viruses.;布拉斯说:;穿应季的衣总是好的主意。我们应该要温度不要风度,在寒冷的天气中保持身体暖和对健康那是极有益的。;;寒冷的天气会压迫免疫系统,所以‘患感冒’这个词可以说是用词不当……免疫系统被削弱了,这使你更容易受病毒的影响。; /201511/412873

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